Officers advanced training school - field hygiene, sanatory and cooking demonstration site



Officers advanced training school - field hygiene, sanatory and cooking demonstration site


Covers description and participants, field disinfectors, field incinerators, Urine disposal pits, disposal of latrine bucket contents, shallow trench latrines, trough urinal an sump, bucket latrines, deep trench latrines, ablution bench and sump, washing up bench and grease trap sump, emergency shower bath. Carries on with emergency and improved meat safe, emergency field cookhouse, oil and water field cooker, Aldershot oven, improved water heater and lazy man's boiler, Appendixes on sanitation in the field and how to make a smokeless fire for cooking



Temporal Coverage




Six page typewritten documents

Conforms To


No 1 Officers Advanced Training School


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[date stamp of No 1 Officers Advanced Training School JUN 1945]
[underlined] OFFICERS ADVANCED TRAINING SCHOOL [/underlined]
[underlined] DEMONSTRATION SITE. [/underlined]
References: R.A.F. Pocket Book, A.P. 1081.
Army Manual of Hygiene & Sanitation, 1943.
Handbook of Military Hygiene 1943.
Appendices: “A” – Sanitation in the Field
“B” – How to make a smokeless fire for cooking.
[underlined] Model Description and Particulars [/underlined]
1 [underlined] Field Disinfectors [/underlined]
(a) [underlined] The SERBIAN BARREL [/underlined] improvised from a barrel or similar receptacle, a 5 gallon oil or Cresol drum for a boiler and some short lengths of piping. Barrel should be sunk into ground or heaped around with earth to consume heat from steam – care must be taken to allow for free escape of steam by opening in bottom of barrel or by means of a pipe through lid. Used for disinfecting or delousing clothing.
Refer pages 170/1, A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
(b) [underlined] Barrel – Steam Delouser & Disinfector [/underlined]
Particulars similar to (a) above – easy to improvise and very effective for disinfection and disinfestation.
2 [underlined] Field Incinerators [/underlined]
(a) Open corrugated iron incinerator
(b) Open circular turf incinerator
(c) Open corrugated iron “V” shaped portable incinerator.
All these types of incinerators are easily constructed from waste or acquired material and are most effective for burning wet as well as dry refuse and can be adapted to burn faeces.
Refer pages 120/125 A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
3 [underlined] Urine Disposal Pits [/underlined]
Urine should always be disposed of directly into the ground unless digging is impossible or there is danger of contaminating water supply – when removal to a distance or burial may have to be adopted.
Where digging is possible it is advisable to construct one disposal pit for each day of the week as shown on the Demonstration Site. Note the construction and oiled hessian under turf. When camp or site is moved, place light coloured stones or some other sign to indicate that the ground has been used for urine disposal.
Refer Chapters VII and VIII A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
4 [underlined] Otway’s Pit [/underlined]
Used for disposal of contents of latrine buckets and bedpans used in Hospitals – also an anti-fly measure. Most effective if ground is suitable – not waterlogged or clay.
Note oiled hessian preventing entry of flies and fly trap to
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[page break]
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[underlined] Models Description and Particulars [/underlined]
4 Contd. catch newly hatched flies from excreta. (See para. 143 A.M. of H.S. 1943). These pits act as a form of septic tank and if properly constructed last for long periods.
Refer pages 104/105 A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
[underlined] Shallow Trench Latrines [/underlined]
5 These should be used only for short halts, bivouacs and temporary camps of at the most 3 days duration. Trenches should be dug in rows, allowing 5 for the first 100 men and 3 for every additional 100 men. Trenches must be filled in when Camp is struck and vacated and stones placed on top of the replaced turf to indicate that the ground has been used for latrines. Excreta must be covered with earth [underlined] after each use. [/underlined]
Refer pages 99/100 A.M. of S. & H. 1943.
6 [underlined] Trough Urinal and Sump [/underlined]
Easily constructed from waste or acquired material. Should be flushed or disinfected daily in hot weather. Can be placed within or adjacent to compound containing deep trench latrine.
Refer Chapter VIII A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
7 [underlined] Bucket Latrines [/underlined]
Used in emergency and at night should be placed at convenient intervals in tented camps.
Refer Page 102 A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
8 [underlined] Deep Trench Latrines [/underlined]
The most practical and convenient form of latrine. Should be fly-proofed with oiled hessian. Dimensions 6’ to 8’ deep – 3’ wide – 10’ long. This provides seating accommodation for 5 men on scale of 5 seats for the first 100 men and 3 for every additional 100. If possible should have a shelter roof.
Refer pages 100/102 A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
9 [underlined] Ablution Bench and Sump [/underlined]
Easily constructed from waste material. Duck boards or gravel standing should always be provided. One double sided bench 9’ long is required for every 50 men.
Note: Sump and grease trap. Hay or bracken placed in trap. Should be placed at frequent intervals.
Refer page 119 A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
10 [underlined] Washing up Bench, Grease Trap Sump [/underlined]
Care should be taken to construct an efficient grease trap for disposal of liquid refuse also that this is cleaned out at frequent intervals. Hay or bracken can be utilised in sump and should be removed and replaced daily – soiled material to be burnt in incinerator.
Refer pages 113/114 A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
11 [underlined] Emergency Shower Bath [/underlined]
A good arrangement for a temporary camp. Easily constructed from rough timber and perforated petrol cans. Hot or cold water can be used. Note construction of pit and slope towards sump.
[page break]
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[underlined] Model Description and Particulars [/underlined]
12 [underlined] Emergency and Improvised Meat Safe [/underlined]
An easily constructed safe for storage of meat. Note use of old tea chests with muslin covers – fly proof. Note also proximity to field petrol cooker kitchen.
13 [underlined] Emergency Field Cookhouse [/underlined]
Constructed by digging a wide trench 3 to 4 feet deep and 6 feet long and wide, rough poles, petrol tins filled with earth or stones and a tarpaulin. Cooking for 100 men can be carried out by use of petrol stoves or the use of the smokeless fire – see appendix “B”.
Note:- hanging meat safe. Refer Chapter V. A.M. of H. & S. 1943.
14 [underlined] Oil and Water Field Cooker [/underlined]
A practical and useful field cooking range. Easily constructed from waste material and clay or earth. Ordinary sump oil and water only are needed to obtain the necessary heat for cooking.
15 [underlined] Aldershot Oven [/underlined]
An old and well-tried field oven for baking. Fire is placed in oven to obtain the necessary heat and is then raked out into the trench in front of oven and sufficient heat is obtained to bake bread, pies and other dishes.
Refer for 14 & 15 to Chapter XI, Section 58, R.A.F. Pocket Book.
16 [underlined] Improvised Water Heater [/underlined]
An original method of obtaining boiling and hot water in the field, easily constructed from half a metal barrel encased in turf, clay and earth. Heat is obtained from the oil and water process.
17 [underlined] Lazy Man’s Boiler [/underlined]
A practical and ingenious boiler for supplying hot water in the field. Easily constructed from a 40 gallon oil drum surrounded by sheet metal and jam or milk tins filled with earth to form flue around top of drum. Iron drum rests on earth filled petrol tins and is covered with earth or clay lagging to retain heat. Fire is contained in fire-box at base of barrel and is obtained by the oil and water drip process, causing fire in the flash pan. The barrel is filled approximately two-thirds full of cold water, which is easily and quickly heated. Hot water can [underlined] only [/underlined] be obtained from the boiler by pouring in sufficient cold water through the upright pipe to the bottom of the drum; the hot water is then lifted and flows through the horizontal pipe.
A design of the boiler can be inspected in the Demonstration Room.
[underlined] Amendments to this Precis: [/underlined]
[page break]
Appendix “A” to Precis Field Hygiene, Sanitation and Cooking Demonstration [underlined] Site. [/underlined]
[underlined] SANITATION IN THE FIELD [/underlined]
1. [underlined] Water Supply [/underlined]
(a) Untrustworthiness of local supplies – enemy action and local custom. Immunization.
(b) Use of Water trucks, (a) for carriage
(b) for filtration and sterilization.
(c) Water Storage – provision of tanks.
(d) Examination of wells and other sources.
[underlined] Sterilization of water [/underlined]
Small scale – Individual water sterilization outfits and water bottle method.
Large scale.
(e) Lemonade
2. [underlined] Food Supply [/underlined]
(a) Importance of storage and fly prevention.
(b) Cooking.
3. [underlined] Latrines and Urinals [/underlined]
(a) [underlined] Temporary provision. [/underlined] Line of march, convoys and short stays – shallow trench latrine.
(b) [underlined] Semi-permanent. [/underlined] Deep trench latrines.
Squat latrines.
Buckets and disposal by incineration.
Otway Pit or contract.
Petrol tin latrines.
(c) [underlined] Urinals. [/underlined] Temporary and semi-permanent.
(d) [underlined] Sullage Water [/underlined]
Grease traps and soakage pits.
4. [underlined] Personal Hygiene [/underlined]
(a) (i) Lice, Typhus and Trench Fever.
(ii) [underlined] Methods of combat [/underlined]
A.L. 63
Disinfestation laundry etc.
(b) Veneral Disease.
(c) Other pests and skin diseases.
Fleas, scabies, impetigo.
Regular Skin Inspections.
(d) [underlined] Accidental injuries – burns [/underlined] and cuts
[page break]
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[underlined] Personal Hygiene (Contd….)
(e) [underlined] Heat and Sun Effects [/underlined]
Heat Strokes
6. (a) [underlined] Reference Books [/underlined]
Army Manual of Hygiene & Sanitisation, 1943.
Handbook of Military Hygiene, 1943.
(b) Courses for Regimental Officers.
[header] [blank] – [underlined] Non-battle casualties – Battle casualties – Ratio [/underlined] [/header]
France and Flanders 1914-1918 – 647 – 364 – 2/1
Dardanelles 1915-1916 – 1756 – 574 – 3/1
Macedonia 1915-1918 – 1195 – 43 – 30/1
Mesopotamia 1914-1918 – 1164 – 89 – 12/1
E. Africa – 2244 – 52 – 40/1
[underlined] EIGHTH ARMY [/underlined]
[header] [underlined] 1942 – Sick – Battle Casualties [/underlined] [/header]
Sept. – 10,417 – 1,470
Oct. – 11,144 – 2,634
Novr. – 8,698 – 3,602
[page break]
Appendix “B” to Precis Field Hygiene, Sanitation and Cooking Demonstration [underlined] Site [/underlined]
[underlined] HOW TO MAKE A SMOKELESS FIRE FOR COOKING [/underlined]
1. This can be made in a tin with two rows of holes bored through the sides, close to the bottom, with the spike of a clasp knife. The holes should be nearly big enough to admit the end of the little finger, and it is important to bore them close together and right at the bottom of the tin as shown in the illustration. This forms a little blast furnace, the upper part of the tin acting as a chimney to creat [sic] a draught, which enters through the holes when the fire is lighted. The fuel consists of small dry twigs which can be collected from beneath hedges in wet weather. The ideal twigs are those from the dead branches of spruces or other conifers.
2. The fire is started with a small piece of paper, over which are sprinkled a few thin dry twigs. As soon as these have lighted more twigs are added and stoking with these continued as long as the fire is needed. If the twigs are quite dry there will be no smoke.
3. The great advantage of this fire is that the tin can be placed on wet ground in wet weather, and the fire will burn as well as in dry weather. A bundle of these twigs can be dried and kept dry if carried inside the breat [sic] of the battledress. This tin weighs scarcely anything and can normally be used for storing other articles in the pack, or ready filled with dry twigs collected as opportunity offers.


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