RAF Training Notes



RAF Training Notes


A book of lecture notes covering British, German, Italian and American fighter, Coastal, Army co-operation, bombers and dive bombers.
Notes on Hygiene, Water, Accommodation and conservancy in the field, Food, cookhouses and cooking, Law and administration.



IBCC Digital Archive


Steve Christian
David Bloomfield


This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.


78 pages of handwritten notes





[Front Cover – Blank]

[page break]

[underlined] AIRCRAFT RECOGNITION. [/underlined]

[cascade diagram denoting aircraft recognition points]

[page break]
[underlined] BRITISH FIGHTERS. [/underlined]

[underlined] SPITFIRE. [/underlined]

[list of Spitfire recognition features]

[underlined] HURRICANE [/underlined]

[list of Hurricane recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] DEFIANT. [/underlined]

[list of Defiant recognition features]

[underlined] BEAUFIGHTER. [/underlined]

[list of Beaufighter recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] WHIRLWIND. [/underlined]

[list of Whirlwind recognition features]

[underlined] ROC [/underlined]

[list of Roc recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] FULMAR. [/underlined]

[list of Fulmar recognition features]

[underlined] GERMAN FIGHTERS. [/underlined]

[underlined] ME 109E. [/underlined]

[list of ME 109E recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] ME 110 [/underlined]

[list of ME 110 recognition features]

[underlined] HE 113. [/underlined]

[list of HE 113 recognition features]
[page break]

[underlined] ITALIAN FIGHTERS. [/underlined]

[underlined] FIAT CR42. [/underlined]

[list of Fiat CR42 recognition features]

[underlined] FIAT G 50. [/underlined]

[list of Fiat G 50 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] MACCHI 200. [/underlined]

[list of Macchi 200 recognition features]

[underlined] BREDA 65. [/underlined]

[list of Breda 65 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] BREDA 88 [/underlined]

[list of Breda 88 recognition features]

[underlined] AMERICAN – BUILT FIGHTERS. [/underlined]

[underlined] MOHAWK [/underlined]

[list of Mohawk recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] TOMAHAWK. [/underlined]

[list of Tomahawk recognition features]

[underlined] AIRACOBRA. [/underlined]

[list of Airacobra recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] BUFFALO [/underlined]

[list of Buffalo recognition features]

[underlined] GERMAN FIGHTER. [/underlined]
[underlined] F.W. 187. [/underlined]

[list of FW 187 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] ENGLISH COASTAL COMMAND. [/underlined]

[underlined] WALRUS. [underlined]

[list of Walrus recognition features]

[underlined] LERWICK. [/underlined]

[list of Lerwick recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] SUNDERLAND. [/underlined]

[List of Sunderland recognition features]

[underlined] CATALINA. [/underlined]

[list of Catalina recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] GERMAN COASTAL AIRCRAFT. [/underlined]

[underlined] DO 18. [/underlined]

[list of DO 18 recognition features]

[underlined] DO 24 [/underlined]

[list of DO 24 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] ITALIAN COASTAL AIRCRAFT [/underlined]

[underlined] CANT Z 501. [/underlined]

[list of Cant Z 501 recognition features]

[underlined] ENGLISH ARMY CO-OPERATION. [/underlined]

[underlined] LYSANDER. [/underlined]

[list of Lysander recognition features]
[page break]

[underlined] GERMAN ARMY CO-OPERATION. [/underlined]

[underlined] HS 126 [/underlined]

[list of HS 126 recognition features]

[underlined] FIESLER 156 [/underlined]

[list of Fiesler 156 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] BRITISH BOMBERS. [/underlined]

[underlined] BLENHEIM IV MODIFIED. [/underlined]

[list of Blenheim IV recognition features]

[underlined] HAMPDEN [/underlined]

[list of Hampden recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] MARYLAND [/underlined]

[list of Maryland recognition features]

[underlined] MANCHESTER. [/underlined]

[list of Manchester recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] WELLINGTON. [/underlined]

[list of Wellington recognition features]

[underlined] WHITLEY. [/underlined]

[list of Whitley recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] FORTRESS 1. [/underlined]

[list of Fortress 1 recognition features]

[underlined] HALIFAX. [/underlined]
[list of Halifax recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] LIBERATOR. [/underlined]

[list of Liberator recognition features]

[underlined] STIRLING. [/underlined]

[list of Stirling recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] GERMAN BOMBERS. [/underlined]

[underlined] HE IIIK MK V [/underlined]

[list of HE IIIK Mk V recognition features]

[underlined] JU 88 [/underlined]

[list of JU 88 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] F.W. KURIER. [/underlined]

[list of FW Kurier recognition features]

[underlined] ITALIAN BOMBERS. [/underlined]

[underlined] FIAT BR20 [/underlined]

[list of Fiat BR20 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] CANT Z 1007 BIS. [/underlined]

[list of Cant Z 1007 BIS recognition features]

[underlined] CAPRONI 135 [/underlined]

[list of Caproni 135 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] CA 310 [/underlined]

[list of CA 310 recognition features]
[underlined] GHIBLI [/underlined]

[list of Ghibli recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] P 32. [/underlined]

[list of P32 recognition features]

[underlined] SM 79. [/underlined]

[list of SM 79 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] SM 81 [/underlined]

[list of SM 81 recognition features]

[underlined] DIVE BOMBERS [/underlined]

[underlined] CHESAPEAKE (AMERICAN BUILT) [/underlined]

[list of Chesapeake recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] SKUA. (BRITISH) [/underlined]

[list of Skua recognition features]

[underlined] Ju 87B. (GERMAN) [/underlined]

[list of Ju 87B recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] SM 85. [/underlined]

[list of SM 85 recognition features]

[underlined] RECONNAISSANCE [/underlined]

[underlined] HUDSON [/underlined]

[list of Hudson recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] TROOP CARRIERS [/underlined]
[underlined] BOMBAY (BRITISH) [/underlined]

[list of Bombay recognition features]

[underlined] Ju 52 (GERMAN) [/underlined]

[list of Ju 52 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] Ju 90 (GERMAN) [/underlined]

[list of Ju 90 recognition features]

[underlined] BRITISH TORPEDO-CARRYING AIRCRAFT [/underlined]

[underlined] BEAUFORT (COASTAL COMMAND) [/underlined]

[list of Beaufort recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] SWORDFISH (FLEET AIR ARM) [/underlined]

[list of Swordfish recognition features]

[underlined] ALBACORE (FLEET AIR ARM) [/underlined]

[list of Albacore recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] FLOAT PLANES. [/underlined]

[underlined] SEAFOX (BRITISH). [/underlined]

[list of Seafox recognition features]

[underlined] GERMAN FLOAT PLANES. [/underlined]

[underlined] HA 140. [/underlined]

[list of HA 140 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] HA 139. [/underlined]

[list of HA 139 recognition features]

[underlined] HE 115. [/underlined]
[list of HE 115 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] ITALIAN FLOAT PLANES. [/underlined]

[underlined] CANT Z 506B. [/underlined]

[list of Cant Z 506B recognition features]

[underlined] BRITISH AIRCRAFT. [/underlined]

[underlined] BLENHEIM 1 (FIGHTER) [/underlined]

[list of Blenheim 1 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] HAVOC (NIGHT FIGHTER) [/underlined]

[list of Havoc recognition features]

[underlined] FALCO 1 (RE2000) (ITALIAN FIGHTER). [/underlined]

[list of Falco 1 (RE2000) recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] RE 2001 (ITALIAN FIGHTER) [/underlined]

[list of RE 2001 recognition features]

[underlined] BALTIMORE 1 (AMERICAN BUILT BOMBER) [underlined]

[list of Baltimore 1 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] GERMAN BOMBERS. [/underlined]

[underlined] DO 172. [/underlined]

[list of Do 172 recognition features]

[underlined] Do 217. [/underlined]

[list of Do 217 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] ITALIAN BOMBERS [/underlined]
[underlined] CA 313. [/underlined]

[list of CA 313 recognition features]

[underlined] SM 82 [/underlined]

[list of SM 82 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] MOSQUITO (BRITISH GENERAL PURPOSE). [/underlined]

[list of Mosquito recognition features]

[underlined] HA 142 (GERMAN FIGHTER.) [/underlined]

[list of HA 142 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] ARADO 196 (ITALIAN FIGHTER) [/underlined]

[list of Arado 196 recognition features]

[underlined] DO 26 Bo (V or 5) [/underlined]

[list of Do 26 recognition features]

[page break]

[underlined] PECULIARITIES OF AIRCRAFT [/underlined]

Cockpits, Turrets, Radiator, Prominent External Fittings

[underlined] LIST OF TECHNICAL TERMS [/underlined]

Aspect Ratio
Dihedral Angle
Leading Edge.
Streamline Body.
Sweep Back.
Tail Unit
Tail Skid & Wheel.
Anhedral Angle

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[underlined] HYGIENE. [/underlined]

[underlined] LECTURE 1. [/underlined]

[underlined] PERSONAL HYGIENE AT HOME & ABROAD. [/underlined]

A daily wash is essential, as dirty skin encourages vermin & causes septic wounds, wash hands before each meal & after using latrine. Hot bath once a week, short hair, brushes & comb washed each month. Sweating of feet armpits etc. wash daily local bathing with water with few crystals of potassium permanganate. Prick blisters with cold needle, previously sterilised by heating, squeeze & paint with iodine.

Make uniform fit – no chafing, air uniform Blankets washed at least once a year, pillow slips & sheets every fortnight. Underclothes each week. Ensure adequate drying facilities, see boots fit, air socks.

[underlined] Effects of Heat [/underlined]
Heat stroke – hot moist atmosphere & tight heavy clothing – so keep fit wear suitable clothing, plenty of drinking water available.

Sunstroke is heat stroke caused by direct rays

[page break]

of sun on head or back of neck, wear suitable [inserted] clothing [/inserted] & anti-glare glasses & same as for heat-stroke.
[underlined] Effects of Cold. [/underlined]
Frostbite, - loss of circulation & feeling in fingers, toes, ears, & nose, spread up hands & feet if severe. Symptoms – dead feeling & appearance of affected parts, may later blister. Exposure to cold & unsuitable or tight clothing, damp underclothes, lack of body movement. Lack of oxygen at high altitude, lack of food & drink. Well rub affected part to restore circulation, don’t warm at a fire.

Trenchfeet [sic] – type of frostbite, pain swelling, blistering of feet through standing in cold or wet & tight clothing round legs. Wash & dry feet & legs before going in wet trench, then warm whale oil rubbed until skin dry, dry socks.

Airsickness – dose of calomel at night 24 hours before.

March in line & step between 80 & 140, halt each hour, loosen equipment, drinking water available

[page break]

every 7 1/2 miles, wash inspect & treat blisters on feet at end of a march.

[underlined] Personal Hygiene in Hot Countries [/underlined]

Flying in open machines wear flying topee [sic] & tinted goggles, in closed machines carry them in case of forced landing.

All wounds & scratches tend to become sceptic, treat with iodine. Most tropical diseases are conveyed either by insect bites (tics sandfly [sic] mosquito) food & drink, organisms getting under skin (guinea worm) or heat.

[underlined] Mosquitos (Malaria & other diseases) [/underlined]

At sun down mosquito comes up, so then keep arms & legs covered, see mosquito net secured & none inside it. Paraffin, Bomber Oil, Clymax, Sketofax, on exposed skin keep away mosquitos. Drain stagnant water or cover with oil, avoid swamps & valleys, cut or burn undergrowth. Spray living quarters with FLIT three times a day. 5 grains quinine a day – keeps malaria away. Never walk in bare feet, wellingtons or 2 pair socks – shake bedclothes before getting in bed, shake

[page break]

boots & clothes before dressing – for insects, snakes & scorpions. Wash & boil underclothes frequently. Don’t eat rindless [sic] fruit or uncooked vegetables. Regard all water & minerals as unsafe unless from authorised source. Dont [sic] leave food & drink without adequate covering

[underlined] Snake bites & Scorpion Stings. [/underlined]

If on limb immediately apply tourniquet on heart side of bite, with clean knife make cross shaped incision 1/2 inch deep & 1 inch long. Rub in crystals permanganate of potash. Seconds count. Stimulants [indecipherable word] volatile, hot tea or coffee, encourage patient to suck & spit out poison. If hypodermic syringe inject above, below, each side solution water & permanganate. If venene – antidote available inject half contents of an ampoule into bite after injection then rest outside. If neither permanganate or venene available, wound must be deeply cauterised. Remove tourniquet after 1/2 hour if breathing fails administer artificial respiration

[underlined] 3 Rules for Tropics [/underlined] [underlined] 1 [/underlined] Never lie down with your abdomen uncovered [underlined] 2 [/underlined] Avoid constipation [underlined] 3 [/underlined] Never take alcohol until after sundown.

[page break]

[underlined] LECTURE 2. [/underlined]

[underlined] WATER [/underlined]

Over half body weight is water, 3 – 5 pints lost daily, sweat, urine, breath & [inserted] faeces. [/inserted] Minimum water requirements in permanent stations 20 gallons per man per day, in temporary camps 5 gallons per man per day. Increase these quantities in hot countries & on march 2 pints – 7 1/2 miles.

[underlined] Source of Water. [/underlined]

Sources of water in order of purity :- [underlined] 1 [/underlined] Deep Wells (artesian or otherwise) [underlined] 2 [/underlined] Springs, [underlined] 3 [/underlined] Rain Water, [underlined] 4 [/underlined] Centre of large lakes [underlined] 5. [/underlined] Midstream in rivers [underlined] 6. [/underlined] Small streams [underlined] 7 [/underlined] Near Banks of large lakes [underlined] 9 [/underlined] Near banks of rivers [author indicates this should be preceded by No 8] [underlined] 8 [/underlined] Shallow Wells [underlined] 10 [/underlined] Ponds.

Water derives impurities through minerals it flows through & suspended matter. Clarification of water is by sedimentation, filtration. Purify by Boiling, purification by filter, slow & unsatisfactory for field purpose. Chemicals – chlorine most used. Mixture chlorine & ammonia – make chloramines, chloramination [sic] used in R.A.F. water trailer.

[page break]

In field small quantity chloramine placed in airman’s water bottle after hour safe to drink One 15 grain tablet – 1 pint of water, also 2 drops iodine If poison chemicals in water must be certified by M.D. Water sources in the field must be policed to prevent pollution & drinking from unauthorised sources. Separate supplies for, drinking, cooking & ablution must all be labelled. Clean water bottles & don’t have ice cream unless sanctioned.

Catchment or water source should be fenced in & bathing prohibited. Line wells & keep covered. Springs fenced in, water from streams & lakes should be collected as far out as possible. Areas on bank should be marked White – drinking & cooking, Blue – animals & Red ablution – in that order upstream downwards

[underlined] LECTURE 3 [/underlined]


Man requires 1000cu ft fresh air per hour. Air can be changed 3 times an hour without a draught. Standard bed spacing 60sq. ft per man with 6ft

[page break]

horizontal wall space. Minimum of 45sq ft in war-time. Beds – head to foot, infection extends 12ft with loud speaking & 24ft on coughing, sneezing or shouting. Ventilation may be natural or artificial. Ventilation inlets should be 5ft from floor, remove black-out screens at day-time. Keep windows open, & see black-out doesn’t interfere with getting fresh air at night.

Wash basins – 14% Baths – 1% slipper, & 4% foot & shower baths. Ablution benches 9ft long 1 – 50 men. Heated drying rooms for wet clothing should be available. 9sq ft of floor & 20 inches run of table per man is laid down. Washing up facilities provided. Conservancy 6 seats – 100 men in permanent station latrines. Tented camps if in circular tents not more than 15 in a tent Flaps face away from prevailing wind, brailing looped each morning, & on leeward side in bad weather. Floor boards raised each week, ground cleaned and aired for at least an hour.

[underlined] Sanitation in the Field. [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Adequate supply of safe drinking water.

[page break]

[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Protection of food from contamination.

[underlined] 3. [/underlined] Ventilation of hutments, tents or other quarters.

[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Ample arrangements for washing & disinfectation [sic] of airmen and their clothing.

[underlined] 5. [/underlined] The disposal of excreta, refuse & waste products.

[underlined] Selection of Camp Site. [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Keep away from towns, villages, in hot countries. Swamps marshy ground & banks of streams.

[underlined] 2. [/underlined] A good water supply near at hand is desirable.

[underlined] 3. [/underlined] High ground is essential for drainage, steep slopes are difficult for transport, very high ground is too exposed, sites occupied by other troops within two months should be avoided.

[underlined] Camp Layout. [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Front of camp should face prevailing wind.

[underlined] 2.[/underlined] Sleeping accommodation should be in front.

[underlined] 3. [/underlined] Kitchens and messing accomodations [sic] to one side.

[underlined] 4. [/underlined] Ablution area to the other side.

[underlined] 5. [/underlined] Conservancy area should be situated to leeward i.e. behind.

[page break]

[underlined] Field Conservancy. [/underlined]

Daily production faeces per man is 58 ounces, urine [ditto mark] [ditto mark] is 50 ounces. Three types of latrines in common use :-

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Shallow trenches for camps not more than 3 days duration. 5 for first hundred men, 3each additional 100. Measurements 3ft long 1ft wide & 2ft deep. Sides slightly undercut – 2ft between trenches. When trench finished cover with oiled sacking or oiled paper, turf replaced, & L in white stones.

[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Deep trenches for 3 weeks. Measurements 10ft long 3ft wide 6-8ft per 100 men as in shallow trenches Soil removed 6” deep over area 4ft front, back & sides of trench. Sacking soaked in crude oil, loose earth mixed with crude oil & beaten down. 2 wooden battens placed front & back edge of trench & a front 18” high erected, top with 5 seats, back 5ft high. Screen in front of latrine, & roofing, duck-boards [indecipherable word] wood must be tongued & grooved to make fly proof. Disinfecting should not be used on this type.

[page break]

[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Bucket latrines in billeting areas, railway stations & in rock where impossible to dig latrines. Buckets smeared inside & out with crude oil & lids. Shallow trench – urinals, less than 3 days 10’ – 3’ wide 6” 1 – 250 men Trough – any period High backed galvanised trough 8ft long raised 2’ 3’’ – sloping to drainage pipe 1 – 100 men Funnel – pit 4ft square funnel each corner – 2’ 3” 12” wide & covered with guaze [sic] 1 – 100 men. Buckets placed near barracks at night, emptied & cleaned each morning

[underlined] LECTURE 4 [/underlined]

[underlined] FOOD, COOKHOUSES AND COOKING. [/underlined]

Essentials, Fats, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Mineral Salts and Vitamins. – Unit M.O. sees diet each week. Sweetened tea good restorative. Food should not be kept where live or sleep, near latrines, or exposed to flies. Must be kept in flyproof [sic], ratproof [sic] stores & not touch sides. Don’t eat tin foods that are blown, rusted or dented, & dont [sic] have fresh milk in hot countries liable to disease. Avoid alcohol & tobacco if possible. Nicotine depresses the heart & interferes with its efficient

[page break]

action thus leading to palpitations on exertion & shortness of breath. Nicotine aggravates tendency to gastric and duodenal ulcers. Aggravates nasal catarrh and heavy smoking over prolonged periods may cause deterioration in vision, also reduces ones ceiling several thousand feet.

[underlined] Cookhouses. [/underlined]

On one or other side of camp & away from latrines. Camp cookhouses should be shelters of timber and corrugated iron or asbestos sheeting one side open, & face away from prevailing wind. Should be a closed building when fly-proof, floors drained & impermeable to water to allow for scrubbing. Cookhouse drains supplied with grease traps, tables etc. cleaned. Swill & refuse must be kept covered & arrangements made for prompt removal. No one must be employed who has had typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, or dysentery or who is suffering from V.D. Before airmen are employed in handling of food, they must be interrogated & examined by the M.O.

[page break]

[underlined] ATMOSPHERIC AIR. [/underlined]

Oxygen comprises 20.9% and Nitrogen 78% of air, this is the same at all altitudes. At 18,000ft the pressure is half of that at sea level, and at 25,000ft it is a quarter. (Sea level pressure 760mm of mercury, 18,000’ 380mm & at 25,000’ 190mm) Oxygen exerts 1/5 of pressure at all heights (Sea level 160mm) etc. The pressure of air cannot be greater in the lungs than outside, yet space must be allowed for Carbon Dioxide. So make up of air in lung root is 100mm Oxygen 580mm Nitrogen 38mm Carbon Dioxide 42mm water The amount of oxygen must remain constant in order to saturate the blood at all altitudes. Mental efficiency, accuracy, & freedom of movement, are considerably reduced, at heights without oxygen, about 20,000ft in rarified [sic] atmosphere. Nitrogen is apt to change into a gaseous state & form gas bubbles in the tissues which attack the joints, first generally the right shoulder.

Number of cylinders at pressure of 100lbs per sq inch which supply gas sockets. If cylinder hit by a

[page break]

bullet will explode & splinters do damage. If let 7/8 out of everyone, wont explode, only break when hit. If doing lot of work adjust oxygen supply at about 5000ft more e.g. 90000’ instead of 15,000’. Plug the mask into nearest sockets. If baling out disconnect oxygen last of all, take good breaths, & pull rip-cords [underlined] immediately [/underlined]. If use oxygen, less liable to frostbite, for keeps up circulation to more, ears etc. If flying in bomber at 10,000’ft or over for an hour or over must use oxygen, if fighter pilot & climbing at a rate of 1500’ per minute must use oxygen.

[underlined] Blacking Out. [/underlined]

Occurs mainly in diving & tight turns, Human can stand 4.5 to 5 times the normal gravity. When pulling out of steep dive, centrifugal force increases, & gravity increases to that ratio as well. Weight of body, I.e. blood, muscles, etc all become 5 times their normal weight. The blood pumping organism has to pump to eyes & brain & fluid 5 times the weight, with no increase in its strength, so blood tends to flow back

[page break]

to heart & lungs. At a certain time, blood is unable to reach the eyes, & blackout occurs, but as the brain is above, it still functions, but if dive is continued, unconsciousness occurs. If in tight turns should lean forward, & bring up legs so shortening length blood has to flow, in this way some people can stand 10 & 11G. When straighten aircraft out, sight generally returns. In a climb to height pressure on middle era is greater [inserted] than [/inserted] that of external ear & drum forced outwards. In a dive drum is forced in by greater pressure outside, if dive too much ear drum is torn & deafness results. If sudden pain in eras diving, & can’t rid it by blowing, must descend at 7,000ft stages.

[underlined] First Aid Satchel. [/underlined]

Fighter plane – 1, twin engine have 2, in big planes may have 6, crew have to know where they are kept. Pair of scissors, First Field Dressing (guaze [sic] pad, sterilised, & length of bandage) St. John’s tourniquet, (block of wood, string & bandage) use it when other methods failed.

[page break]

Packets of lint, 2 Bandages 4 yards long. Packets of cotton wool, safety pins, adhesive tape, 2 triangular bandages, & 2packets of gauze, 2 tubes of burn jelly, 3 tubes of iodine.

In fire in an aircraft keep on helmet, goggles, gloves etc & as much clothing as possible to protect you from flames. Also in F.A. packet – tube of quinine. Tube of aromatic chalk & opium. Tube of aspirins. Tube of No. 9. Tin of Fulmonic Ampoules. This does away with all pain.

[diagram of Fulmonic Ampoule]

For fracture immobilise joint beneath & above fracture.

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[underlined] LAW AND ADMINISTRATION. [/underlined]

The Army, Navy and Airforce [sic] Act.

The Airforce [sic] Constitution (1917).

The Manual of Airforce [sic] Law and Kings Regulations.

[underlined] AIRMENS PRIVELEDGES [sic]. [/underlined]

[underlined] WILLS [/underlined]

An airmans [sic] will may consist of a document not attested (as a civilian’s will must be) e.g. a private letter to the person intended to benefit under it, or to someone else stating his wishes. Also a mere verbal statement of his wishes is sufficient if such a statement can be proved to the satisfaction of the court. To establish the validity of such a will it is not necessary to prove that he was aware he was making a will or had power to make one in that manner, but it must be shown that he intended to express deliberately his wishes as to the disposal

[page break]

of his property in the event of his death. Such a will is revoked (like any other will) by his subsequent marriage. It continues in force until revoked or superceeded [sic] unless its language shows an intention that it should take effect only for a limited period and in the event of the testators death during a warlike engagement

There is a special R.A.F form of will (Form F276) and there is also a space for a will on Page 8 of the airman’s pay book Form 64. Officers have no personal exemption.

[underlined] DISCIPLINE. [/underlined]

[underlined] Relations with the Press. [/underlined]

Any statements regarding general matters are made through Air Ministry. Statements regarding Wings and Units are made through Wing. H.Q, Squadron H.Q. etc. An airman must always be on his guard when conversing with a representative of the press.

[page break]

[underlined] Responsibility of Officers in General (1077). [/underlined]

Any officer has at all times to be obeyed. He is responsible at all times and anywhere for the maintenance of good order and discipline.

[underlined] Treatment of Subordinates (Clause 1078). [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] An officer of any rank will adopt towards his subordinates such methods of command and treatment as will not only ensure respect of authority, but also foster the feelings of self-respect and personal honour, which are essential to efficiency.

2 An officer will not reprove a W/O or N.C.O in the presence of other airmen, unless it is necessary for the benefit of example that the reproof be public.

[underlined] 3. [/underlined] W/O’s and N.C.O’s will be guided by the foregoing principles in dealing with each other and other airmen. They will avoid any intemperate language and offensive manner.

[underlined] Criticism of Superiors Para (1080) [/underlined]

If criticism is heard – stop it.

[page break]

[underlined] Communication and Interview with Air Ministry Officials Para (1085) [underlined]

[underlined] 1. [/underlined] No correspondence on official matters may pass between airmen and A.M. officials

[underlined] 2. [/underlined] All applications for interviews etc. must pass through the Commanding Officer of the Unit. If an airman has to go to the A.M. he must always have a letter of authorisation.

[underlined] Bankruptcy Para. (1089). [/underlined]

Bankruptcy, and failure to meet debts must be reported to the C.O. and it will be decided if the commission is to be continued.

[underlined] Gambling (Section 1094). [underlined]

Gambling in any form is forbidden in the R.A.F.

[underlined] Intoxicants (1095) [/underlined]

The introduction of wines, spirits, etc, into barracks or like places is strictly forbidden. Corporals and airmen may be permitted a pint of beer with their dinner.

[underlined] Civil Employment (1096). [/underlined]

Officers and airmen must not accept directorships

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be paid consultants or agents fees unless such positions were held before appointment.

[underlined] Concealment of V.D. (1102). [/underlined]

Any airman contracting V.D. must report it immediately. Failure to do so is a criminal offence.

[underlined] Witnesses in Private Law suits 1103. [/underlined]

If a witness, an airman’s name and unit is given, and it will then traverse the usual channels, C.O. etc. An officer or airman must refuse if asked to appear as an expert witness, if pressed then report the matter.

[underlined] THE AIRMAN. [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 Dress [/underlined] [underlined]

At all times must be correct.

[underlined] 2 Discipline [/underlined]
Every airman must obey all orders without question.

[underlined] 3 General Deportment. [/underlined]

Airman must salute at all times. All officers holding commissioned rank.

[underlined] Airmen’s Messing Committee’s etc. [/underlined]

Airmens [sic] Messing Committee comprises of the President A.M.C.

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1 N.C.O or a W/O. Senior Cook and a representative of airmen. The [deleted][indecipherable word] [/deleted]committee meets once every week.

[underlined] Airmen’s Diet. [/underlined]

Consists of, 4 1/2ozs Boneless Beef or 6oz of Beef or Mutton per day. 12oz of Bread per day. 2/7oz Tea per day. 2oz sugar per day, 1/4oz salt per day – these are basic rations.

[underlined] Basic amount from the NAAFI. [/underlined]

4/7oz cheese per day 1oz of jam per day, 9oz Bacon per week 1oz of margarine per day. There is also a commuted ration allowance. A rebate of 6% is allowed but this is spent on the welfare of all airmen.

[underlined] Service Institutes [/underlined]

Really began in 1800 – pedlars and bagmen used to follow the troops round. In 1863 a Regimental Canteen was formed, the idea being to provide as much as possible for the soldiers. In 1894 a Canteen and Mess Co-operative Society was formed. The society bought up stores in bulk to stock camp canteens.

In 1917 an Army Canteen Board was set up which was later joined by the Navy. It became

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the [deleted] [indecipherable abbreviation] [/deleted] N>A>C>B> and it also ran a R.A.F. canteen. In 1921 the N.A.A.F.I. was set up.

[underlined] Objects of the N.A.A.F.I. [/underlined]

[underlined] 1. [/underlined] To supply all messing requirements other than those supplied by service sources, for the airman’s mess.

[underlined] 2. [/underlined] To provide a club for corporals, L.A.C’s, A.C.1’s &A.C.2’s, apprentices and boy entrants where they may read, write, play games and hold entertainments etc. and where they may obtain refreshments and articles of common requirements at reasonable prices.

[underlined] 3. [/underlined] To supply by means of a rebate on purchased money for the station institute funds.

4 To supply families of officers and airmen with household requirements at reasonable prices.

[underlined] The N.A.A.F.I. Policy. [/underlined]

Controlled as to a policy by a council of twelve – 4 Army, 4 Navy and 4 R.A.F. The board of management consists of three civilian business men and one officer from each service. Locally, a committee is formed consisting of one corporal two A/C’s sometimes

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a Flt/Sgt. or a Sergeant. An officer is at the head of the committee.

[underlined] Organisation of the R.A.F. [/underlined]

[hierarchical diagram showing, in order] R.A.F. R.A.F.R. Reserve of Air Force Officers Special Reserve R.A.F.V.R. A.A.F

[underlined] The Ancillary Services. [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Princess Mary’s R.A.F. Nursing Service.

[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Education Service.

[underlined] 3. [/underlined] Construction staff. Directorate of Works.

[underlined] 4 [/underlined] A.T.C.

The Government of the R.A.F is vested in the Crown and the command is in the hands of the Air Council.

[underlined] The Air Council. [/underlined]

The Secretary of State for Air (President of the Air Council) appointed by the Prime Minister.
The Permanent Under Secretary of State for Air (appointed by S.S.A).
[ditto mark] Parliamentary [six ditto marks] ([three ditto marks])
Chief of Air Staff appointed by the King.

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Air Member for Personnel and Air Member for Supply and Organisation, and Air Member for Training, are all appointed by the secretary of sate for air. He may also appoint from other members.

If anything goes wrong in Parliament regarding air matters the Secretary of State has to defend.

[underlined] Home Commands. [/underlined]

Bomber, Fighter, Coastal, Training, Army Co-operation, Balloon, Maintenance, Technical Training.

[underlined] Commands Abroad. [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Aden [underlined] 2 [/underlined] India [underlined] 3 [/underlined] Mediterranean 4 Iraq [underlined] 5. [/underlined] Far East [underlined] 6 [/underlined] Middle East [underlined] 7 [/underlined] Trans-Jordan [underlined] 8 [/underlined] Palestine.

A command is usually commanded by an Air Marshal or Vice Marshall – known as A.O.C. in C. Groups are territorial units and are concerned with group personal operations. A Group is commanded by an Air Vice Marshal or a Senior Air Commodore. Wings & stations come directly under Group and are commanded usually by Group Captains.

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[underlined] STATION ADJUTANT. [/underlined]

Is the confidential officer of the staff room, responsible for filing documents, leave passes and warrants, issue of D.R.O’s & Wing Standing Orders, maintenance of discipline, charge sheets, R.A.F. service papers, goods, drill, billeting etc.

Each Wing is divided into 3, 4 or 5 squadrons. There are 3 flights of 5 machines in a bomber squadron and 4 flights of 3 machines in a fighter squadron. The squadrons are commanded by by a Squadron Leader, and each squadron is divided into a number of flights & each i/c flt/comdr.

[underlined] COURTS MARTIAL [/underlined]

All confessions must be made voluntarily. The court can only charge & find him guilty of the offence he is in court for. A prisoner need not answer any questions that may reflect upon his wife or family.

[underlined] COURT OF INQUIRY. [/underlined]

Convened by Air Council or A.O.C or Officer Commanding Its purpose is to collect intelligently & systematically facts

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concerning minor crimes or other offences.

A court of enquiry need not express their opinion at a trial if [underlined] not [/underlined] asked.

[underlined] AIRMAN’S DOCUMENTS. [/underlined]

Each airmen has two sets of documents, first original documents, medical etc. kept by Air Officer I/C Records seldom out of his possesion [sic]. Other is Service Documents, these contain all details of airmans [sic] service life. Very important & must be kept with care, & fairly endorsed with unbiased opinion of character.

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Airmans [sic] Record Sheet (active service) Form 1580

[underlined] 2 [/underlined] General Conduct Sheet – Form 121.

3 Medical History Envelope Form 48.

In [underlined] 1 [/underlined] have official no, name rank, R.A.F trade, date of birth, religion, occupation in civil life. Last enlisted current engagement, type of reservist, whether married etc Next of Kin, then section 1. In 3 columns :- Unit from which Unit to which Date of Effect [indecipherable word] movements and casualties.

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Section 2 – 3 columns :-
Promotions, Acting appointments, Remusterings [sic] Authority Description of Appointment

Section 3 – entitled Good Conduct Badges. 4 columns Authority 1st 2nd or 3rd Good C.S. – Awarded Deprived, Restored, Date of effect Section 4 – entitled Character & trade Proficiency (to be assesed [sic] on every occasion on which an airman is struck off the strength of the unit). E.g. on posting, admission to hospital, death, etc. Rank/Character/Trade Classification/Proficiency [letters A B C underneath] /Whether Specially Recommended, Recommended, or not Recommended for promotion/Date/Signature & Rank of Commanding Officer. Section 5 – Decorations, Mentions, Special Commendations by A.O.C’s etc.

Assessment of character when leaving station & at Dec 31st every year.

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Form 121 – General Conduct Sheet.
Unit & Place/Date of offence/Rank/Cases of Drunkeness/Offence/Witnesses/Punishment Awarded/Date of award or order dispensing with trial/By whom awarded/[indecipherable word] & Rank of Officer making entry with remarks & date.

All offences put on sheet except, [underlined]1 [/underlined] Sentence of a Court of Summary Jurisdiction, if a fine (except for drunkenness), and no imprisonment has been imposed in default therefore, bound over, or if case has been dismissed with costs, if R.A.F. name been disgraced, Wing Comdr or over authorises entry should be made. [underlined] 2 [/underlined] One day’s C.C. or one extra guard or picket [underlined] 3 [/underlined] Admonition. These sheets are destroyed if entries on them [underlined] 1. [/underlined] Completion of 6 months from the date of attestation, [underlined] 2 [/underlined] After 2 years expiration of the last punishment [underlined] 3 [/underlined] When attaining substansive rank of sergeant [underlined] 4 [/underlined] When transferred to the reserve. New sheet marked – “Sheet Destroyed on – Date – under K.R. 2154

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Form 48 – Medical History (Confidential).

Contains, [underlined] 1 [/underlined] Contents of envelope [underlined] 2 [/underlined] Medical Category [underlined] 3 [/underlined] Inoculations [underlined] 4 [/underlined] Vaccinations [underlined] 5 [/underlined] Dental Treatment [underlined] 6 [/underlined] Spectacles & Surgical Appliances [underlined] 7 [/underlined] Blood Group.


[table of punishments]


Every C.O. must see that the charges against an airman are investigated and dealt within 48 hours. Every investigation must be made in the presence of the accused who can

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question or bring witnesses or demand the proceedings be taken on oath.

[underlined] 1. [/underlined] C.O. can dispense case to proper R.A.F. authorities (Refer to higher authorities).

[underlined] 2. [/underlined] Adjourn case to reduce evidence in writing. Accused can be tried by Court Martial but he must be asked if he agrees to his punishment, without knowing what it is.

Courts Martial

Accused must be allowed communication with his friends, legal advisors, and he must be given a copy of the charge, so he can prepare his defence.

When an officer is charged he must be charged by an officer of similar rank, except for drunkenness when any officer may.

Kings Regulations and Air Ministry Orders must always be at hand at court martials. The president of the Court Martial is responsible for all proceedings. Rules of evidence is the same as ordinary courts of England.

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[underlined] A. [/underlined] Only the charge must be proved

[underlined] B. [/underlined] What facts are known.

[underlined] C [/underlined] All innocent until proved guilty, the prosecution must prove the case.

[underlined] D [/underlined] Admissability of facts (opinion is not evidence neither is hearsay.) Wife of prisoner can only give evidence for her husband, not against him. Witnesses must not be asked a leading question.

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[blank page]

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[blank back cover]

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David Geach, “RAF Training Notes,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed April 2, 2020, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/18759.

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