RAF notebook



RAF notebook


Includes notes on the air force act, Kings regulations and air council instructions, the official secrets act, disclosure of information, communications to the press, complaints and grievances, testimonials, communication with officials, officers character impugned, bankruptcy, political meetings and candidates for parliament, smoking, gambling, intoxicants, civil employment, confidential reports, proceedings at inquest and other legal procedures as well as procedures following incidents/accidents. Continues with principles of flight and airmanship notes with text and diagrams.




Forty page notebook with handwritten notes


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745193 SGT. ROSSER

[underlined] Form 407. [underlined]



T.4821. Wt. 331 140,000 Bks. 5/39. W. & S. Ld. (212476F.)

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[inserted][missing letters] istration [/inserted]

1/. [underlined] Air Force Act [/underlined] – [underlined] General [/underlined]

2/. [underlined] Air Force Act [/underlined] – Sess. 4-44

3/. [underlined] Air Force Act [/underlined] – evidence

4/. [underlined] Air Force Act [/underlined] Rules of

5/. [underlined] Air Force Act [/underlined] Powers of C/O

6/. [underlined] Air Force Act [/underlined] – Explanation of following paras KR 1070 – 1073
1075 – 1078
1080 – 1083
1085 – 1088-9
1092 – 1094-7
1099 – 1103

[underlined] K/R’s [/underlined] A.C.1.

Are a collection of administrative regulations and instructions laid down with authority of the King, issued by the Air Council and amended from time to time. K.R’s are for the guidance of all R.A.F. personnel in regard to the A.F.A. A copy is available for reference in connection therewith it is advisable to see that the particular copy is properly amended.

[underlined] Par 1020. [/underlined] [deleted] Digit [/deleted] [underlined] Acquaintance with regulations. [/underlined]

1/. [underlined] Every Officer [/underlined] will make himself acquainted with and obey as far as he is able enforces the K.R.’s A.C.I for RAF. All other regulations instruction & orders which may from time to time be issued. He will also conform to established customs and practices of the services.

2/. [underlined] Every Airman [/underlined] will be held personally responsible for making himself acquainted with (a) Station [inserted] standing [/inserted or local orders & instructions which are necessary for the performance of the duties apertaining [sic] to his service employment. (b) such orders and details of duties in barracks. (c) he will further be required to perform the customs and practices of the service.

Applicable to both – ignorance of daily duties and orders will not be permitted as excuse for non-observance.

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1071 [underlined] Official Secrets Act. [/underlined]

1/. It is the C/O’s responsibility to ensure that all persons under his employ are acquainted with the provision of the official secrets act, 1911 & 1920. The poster form 520 relating to the official secrets act will be displayed prominently throughout the stations and headquarter offices.

1022 [underlined] Disclosure of Information[/underlined]

[underlined] Sect. 1A.[/underlined] R.A.F. personnel will exercise greatest care to avoid disclosing any information relating to official matter to anyone outside the service in such circumstances as to insur [sic] any risk of such information being made public or otherwise reading unauthorized persons. 1B/. Officers seconded for service under the Foreign Office or any other Government dept. likewise must not disclose information relating to official matters with express permission of the official concerned.

[underlined] Sect. 2. [/underlined] Personnel are forbidden to communicate any service information which might directly or indirectly assist an enemy to any person other than a/. the person to whom he is authorized b/. one to who, it is his duty to communicate it.

[underlined] Sect 3. [/underlined] Personnel are forbidden to rubbish any form whatever or communicate directly or indirectly to the press any service information or views of any service subject with special authority; also he will be held responsible for any statements contained in communications which may subsequently find their way to the press, he will not pre-judge questions which are under the consideration of superior authority either anonymously or otherwise of his opinion and he will not take part in pubic in any discussion relating to orders, regulations or instructions issued by this superiors.

[underlined]Sect. 4. [/underlined] Any information of a professional or technical

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nature which a person may require in the performance of the duties well be regarded as the property of the Air Council and will not be published or communicated either or orally or in writing to any person not directly employed in the service of the Air Ministry without the previous sanction of the Air Council.

[underlined] Sect. 5. [/underlined] Officers Retired. Clauses 1-4 concern an officer or airman retired or has ceased to be an officer or airman no longer on the active service list or no longer in regular Air Force service.

[underlined] Sect. 6. [/underlined] In dealing with commercial firms performing work for the Air Ministry care will be taken to ensure that particular trends of development on any given matter which should be left secret are not made known to the firm.

[underlined] Sect. 7. [/underlined] Personnel are forbidden without permission from the Air Ministry to publish any article whether pertaining to be fiction or fact which in any way deals with Naval, Military or Air Force subjects. This also cover broadcasting of talks.

[underlined] Sect. 8. [/underlined] Process whereby permission to publish or broadcast service information. When permission is sought under the above sect.7 – either to publish or broadcast the matter intended with either be typewriter or in proof form and will be submitted in duplicate through the usual channels in the Air Ministry accompanied by a statement from the authority under whom the subject is serving to the effect that there is no objection for permission to be applied for. One copy of document submitted will be kept at the Air Ministry for future reference. The permission will apply only to the proof submitted and

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no alternation therein will not be made except of a rarely editorial nature. Permission if given will not convey endorsement of the contents of the documents and no statement tending to imply official endorsement will be included in any part of the published article nor will any reference [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] be made to the fact that the A/M sanction has been obtained. The individual concerned in regard to same will take particular care that no information of the nature referred to in Sect. 3 or 4 is communicated to the publishing or broadcast it authorities until the A/M permissions has been granted.

[underlined] Sect 9. [/underlined] Official report or correspondence or copies thereof will not be furnished without the special sanction of the A.O.C. or C.O. communicating.

[underlined] Sect 10[/underlined] Press reporters or photographers will not be permitted to attend the trials of any aircraft.

[underlined] Sect 11. [/underlined] Allowing admission to stations by means of passes which are provided to restrict authorised persons from entering and for identification purposes. Disclosure within the service of information concerned is secret or confidential publications.

[underlined] 1073 Communication to the Press[/underlined] Sect. 1. Any communication affecting the service generally or any branch of service which it may be considered desirable to be made known to the press will be made by the A/M communications will be made to the press only where they obey affect the command concerned and then they will be made by command H.Q. exactly as provided in the following clause. Sect 2. Article or notice containing non professional or non technical subjects which do not contravene 1072 and nominal or athletic matter may be communicated to the masses

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by an officer or an airman but a C/O will be responsible for taking disciplinary action should any personnel under his command publish matter in the press which is objectionable either in form or imbalance that is likely to reflect disdain on the service.

[deleted] 10 [/deleted] Sect. 3. Communications to the Press. Press representations (including reports or photographs) visiting air force stations are received by officer- preferably [indecipherable word] C/O. will ensure that regulations in correction with such visits will be obscured.

Fly facilities for the press by A/M Authority.

1075. Definition of a C/O – Generally the station commander. On large stations unit commanders may be granted disciplinary powers of a C/O but only on authority if the A/C. Such authority being published in orders.

Every officer however temporary or cancel his command may be in the [indecipherable word]
Of an accused person [inserted] K.R’s or H.C.I.S or confirm of service member time [/inserted] he is responsible for listing disciplinary action against the accused.

1076 [deleted] Prof [/deleted] Prevention of Crime

A C/O will exact every effort to prevent crime and to prevent any tendency to [indecipherable word] its existence. There is a tendency sometimes on the hurt of weak officers and N.C.O.S to pass over offences. This is most subversive of discipline and generally leads to the more serious offence. Whilst not encouraging charging more with offences that are merely incidents steps should be taken to avoid the screen of offences.

1077. Responsibilities in General. 1. An officer is responsible at all time for maintenance of good order and discipline. 2. An officer is to afford utmost aid to his C/O. It is his duty to notice, suppress and instantly report any negligence or impropriety of any airman either in or off duty and whether the officers do or do not belong to his particular unit.

1078 Treatment of subordination – An officer will at any time adopt towards his

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no alteration there in will not be made except of a purely editorial nature. Permission if given will not convey endorsement of the contents of the document and no statement tending to imply official endorsement will be included in any part of the published article nor will any reference [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] be made is the fact that the A/M sanction has been obtained. The individual concerned in regard to same will take particular care that no information of the nation referred to in Sect 3 or 4 is communicated to the publishing or broadcasting authorities until the A/M permission has been granted.

[underlined]Sect 9. [/underlined] Official reports or correspondence or copies thereof will not be furnished without the special sanction of the A.O.C or C.O Commanding.

[underlined]Sect 10. [/underlined] Press reporters or photographers will not be permitted to attend the trial of any aircraft.

[underlined]Sect 11. [/underlined] Allowing admission to stations by means of passes which are forwarded to restrict unauthorised persons from entering and for identification purposes. Disclosure within the service of information concerned is secret or confidential publication.

[underlined]1073 Communication to the Press [/underlined] Sect 1. Any communication affecting the service generally or any branch of the service which it may be considered desirable to be made known to the press will be made by the A/M. Communication will be made to the press only when they solely affect the command concerned and then they will be made by command H.Q. except as provided in the following clause. Sect 2. Articles or notice containing non professional or non technical subjects which do not contravene 1072 and could or athletic matters may be communicated to the press

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by an officer or an airman but a C/O. will be responsible for taking disciplinary action should any personnel under his command publish matter in the press which is objectionable either in form or substance that is likely to reflect disdain on the service.

[deleted] 10 [/deleted] Sect. 3. Communications to the Press. Press responsibility (including reports of photographs) visiting Air Force station are received by officer preferably [indecipherable word] C//O. will ensure that regulations in connection with such visits will be observed. Flying facilities for the press by A/M authority.

1075 Definition of a C/O – Generally the station commander. On larger stations unit commanders may be granted disciplinary powers of a C/O but only as authority of the AS/C. Such authority being published in orders.

Every officer however temporary or [indecipherable word] his command may be in the C/O of an accused person [inserted] if N.R or H.C.I.S or action of service makes him [/inserted] he is responsible for listing disciplinary action against the accused.

1076. [deleted] Pre [/deleted] Prevention of crime. A C/O will exert every effort to prevent crime and to prevent any tendency to service its existence. There is a tendency sometimes on the part of weak officers and N.C.O.S. to pass over offences. This is most subversive of discipline and generally leads to the more serious offence. Whilst not encouraging charging men with offences that are merely incidents steps should be taken to avoid the screen of offences.

1077 Responsibilities in Guard. 1. An officer is responsible at all times for maintenance of good order and discipline. 2. An officer is to afford utmost aid to his C/O. It is his duty to notice, supress and instantly report any negligence or impropriety of any airmen wither on or off duty and whether the offender do or do not belong to his particular unit.

1078 Treatment of subordination – An officer will at any time adopt towards his

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subordination such treatment as will not only ensure desirable but ensure self respect and personal honour essential to efficiency. For obvious reasons an officer will not refuse an [inserted] W.O. [/inserted] officer or N.C.O. in the presence of other airmen unless it is necessary for the benefit of examples.

W.O.’s or N.C.O’s will be guided with the foregoing principals in dealing with each other and airmen. They will [deleted] [indecipherable word][/deleted] [inserted] avoid [/insert] offensive language or manner.

[underlined] 1080 Criticism of subversive [/underlined] An officer will refrain from remarking or passing criticism on orders of his superiors which may tend to bring them into contempt and will avoid replying if doing anything which seen or heard by or reported to that under him might discourage them or lead them to be dissatisfied with the conditions or with the service on which they are or may be employed.

[underlined] 1081 Complaints or grievance [/underlined] Complaints submitted to C.O. in writing =. It should not be offensive or indicative of insubordination. Officers are compelled by law to thoroughly investigate all complaints. False accusation must be avoided as they constitute as offences; there is no such charge as fictious complaint, but backless complaints constantly repeated may involve charges “conduct & prejudices”. Complaints are to be fully and distinctly stated. Anonymous complaints are forbidden as are collected ones.

[underlined] 1082. Conflicting Orders[/underlined] If received officer should represent orally the contrariety in correcting if time permits if order is still to be obeyed there must be no hesitation doing so.

[underlined] 1083 Testimonials and [indecipherable word] [/underlined] Forbidden in any form – particularly from public parties or [inserted] private individuals for services rendered in deformation of duty

[underlined] 1085 Communication an interview with A/M officials [/underlined]. An officer is forbidden to write private letters to officials at the A/M on official or personal matters such as promotion or postings etc.

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Such attempts by a personal to obtain favourable communication of my application by the use of outside influence are forbidden and if reported to will be regarded as an admission on the part of the applicant that the case in not good on its merits and will be dealt with accordingly. Likewise, if an interviewer is asked for on behalf of an officer by any person other than himself such communication will be deemed to have been made at his suggestion unless he can [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] disprove it.

[underlined]1088 Officers character impinged. [/underlined] When an officers character or conduct as a gentleman is impinged he must submit his case within reasonable times to his C/O for investigation. Pending investigation the officer may be suspended from duty where he will be under the same restrictions as an officer under open arrest, he will remain on effective strength return.

[underlined] 1089 Bankruptcy [/underlined]

If an officer finds himself seriously embarrassed financially either by bankruptcy, liquidation or legal proceedings & unable to meet his engagements he will at once notify full fact to his C/O. The C/O will report the circumstances to the C/O in counsil [sic] who will decide whether the officer may continue to hold His Majesty’s Commission.

[underlined] 1092 Political Meetings and Candidates for Parliament[/underlined]

Regular officers and airmen are not permitted to take part in the affairs of Government – even local. An officer [underlined] may [/underlined] be permitted to resign and an airman allowed his discharge or transfer to the reserve.

[underlined] 1093. Smoking [/underlined] – Forbidden on duty except by authority. Motor transport drivers must not smoke because of the risk of fire and because their attention may be distracted from the traffic – forbidden in aircraft except flying boars with metal hulls but not when refuelling

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and until all petrol is cleared away.

[underlined]1095. Gambling [/underlined] (or acting as bookmakers or agent to [indecipherable word]
Prohibited in stations, camps or barracks. A notice regarding this appears in order every 3 months.

[underlined] 1095 Intoxicants [/underlined] Forbidden in barrack rooms and other places specified in standing orders. Cpls. Or airman may have 1pt. of beer with dinner but only on dining hall

[underlined] 1096 Civil employment etc. [/underlined] An officer or airman on full pay is not permitted without sanction of the A/M to belong to the directorate or to take part in the officers of any Company. Nor is he allowed to accept any [underlined] continuous [/underlined] employment for profit.

An airman about to be discharged may accept invitation employment but if he’s [deleted] employ [/deleted] employed by a government department he must decide which pay to accept.

In case of civilian employment being permitted the A/M will not accept any responsibility to any damage, accident etc, while engage.

[underlined] 1097. Confidential reports [/underlined] – Officers. (In obeyance in wartime) Normally rendered annually on the 1st August. The privilleged [sic] reports never shown to the public but must be shown to the officer concerned.

If the views of the C/O or higher authority conflict the nest higher authority will investigate & communicate his decision. C/O’s or any other higher commander may if they consider necessary report at any time of an officer, but if the report is unfavourable the officer must use an initial name.

[underlined] 1099 Proceeding at inquest [/underlined] Officer to attend and watch proceedings. He should be prepared to give court particulars of [indecipherable word]

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nature of duties – care being taken not to act as advocate.

[underlined] 1100. Proceeding under ordinary law. [/underlined]

1./ Officers not subject to legal proceeding as individual whilst not carrying out A. Force duties – except that he is liable to flagrant offences.

2./ If proceedings instructed – must be immediately reports to A/M.

3./ Officers against ordinary criminal code of a person subject to the Air Force Act should be reported at once by the C/O. [deleted] for [/deleted] to the local police for civil action.

4./ In any criminal use where legally considered necessary full date to A/M.

5./ [underlined] Solicitor [/underlined] not to be employed on behalf of public either from proceedings or merely advice. [deleted] In very [/deleted] without reference to treasury solicitor. In very urgent cases one may be engaged but if possible [inserted] the treasury [/inserted] solicitor is to be engaged if none available an ordinary solicitor’s agent may be engage but a report send [sic] immediately to the treasury solicitor. Preliminaries only should be undertaken, remand asked for them treasury is to take over the caser. When legal advise [sic] is required full statement should be sent to A/M by C/O.

6. [underlined]Personnel made defendant in civil or criminal proceedings [/underlined] are responsible for their own defence unless the A/C rules otherwise/ If cases occur where [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] reimbursement of expenses are necessary full particulars are to be forwarded through the usual channels to the A/M and statement showing act complained of was one sanctioned of by competent authority and was within prescribed course of duty of defendant.

[underlined] 1101. Acquaintance with Air Force Act[/underlined]

C/O is responsible that every airmen under his command is

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acquainted with report of section 4-44 Air Force Act, they will from time to time be explained particularly to recruits so as to preclude possibility of ignorance on their part of the additional offenses and punishment to which they render themselves liable by becoming subject to air force law. A copy of the act is normally kept available at permanent stations. Every 3 months the C/O will ensure that the following notice is read out to the personnel under his command. Under the existing law any person who shall maliciously and advisedly endeavour to reduce any person or persons serving in H.M. Forces by Sccc, saved or Air from his irk her duty and allegiance to H.M. or to incite or stir up any such person or persons to commit any act of meeting or to make or endeavour to make any mutinous assembly or to commit any treacherous or mutinous practice whatsoever may, on being convicted of such an offence be sentenced to moral servitude for the natural life of such person.

[underlined]1102. Concealment of Venereal Disease. [/underlined]
In every unit there is to be a standing order that any airman suffering from V.D. is to report himself sick without delay, this standing order will be read to the unit on parade at interval not exceeding 3 months, care being taken to see that new recruits are to be informed on joining. Concealment of V.D. will be dealt with under sec.11 nor under 18 (3) or 40.

[underlined] 110. Witnesses in private law suits[/underlined] Application for the attendance of R.A.F. personnel as witnesses in private law suits to be reported through the usual channels to A/M. Direct if urgent. No evidence given.

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except on suppenna [sic]. A/M may claim privilege on grounds of currency or otherwise. On special occasions only will an officer or airman be granted permission to give evidence as expert witnesses.

[underlined]Air Force Law [/underlined]

[underlined] Air Force Act.[/underlined]

[underlined] Sect. 1. [/underlined] By the law of England a man who joins the Air Force as an officer or airman does not cease to be a citizen, with few exceptions his position under the ordinary law of the land is unaffected. If he commits and offence under the civil law he may be tried and punished for it as an ordinary civilian. Similarly civil rights and responsibilities although few privileges are given him and a few restrictions informed on him the ordinary law applies to him. Whilst however remaining subject to these qualification of the ordinary law of England he has become subject also to an entirely distinct code know as ‘Air Force Law’ which governs the members of the Air Force and regulates the conduct of officers and airmen at all times and all pleas in peace & in war, at home & abroad. Air Force Law is contained in the Air Force Constitution act of 1917.

The Air Force Act and the Air Force Annual Act supplemented by the realm of procedure by K.R. A.C.I. for the R.A.F which contains regulations as promotion etc. & by A.M.O’s & Regulations.

The Air Force Consultation Act established the Air Force, provides code for R.A.F.

The Air Force Act (in effect Army Act amended) & adapted to meet the needs of Air Force is a standard code dealing with discipline, court, martial, enlistment and other

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Air Force Act has no continuous operation for it contains only a Parliament from time to time derides. It is part of statute law of England & with considerable difference that it is administered by Air Force court & not by civil judges. It is constrained in same manner, and carried into effect under the same conditions as to evidence & otherwise as the ordinary criminal law of England. Purpose of these codes of Law:- [underlined] 1. [/underlined] discipline [underlined] 2.[/underlined]
Administration [underlined]1- [/underlined]To provide to the maintenance of discipline of other person part of or following the forces for this purposes acts & omission which in civil life are mere incidents namely desertion must, if committed by soldiers or airmen even in times of peace be made punishable offence whilst in war every act or omission which impairs a man’s fighting efficiency must be dealt with severely [underlined]2 [/underlined] To provide for administration i.e terms of service, billeting, enlistment etc. The term ‘Miliary Law & Air Force Law’ may therefore be used properly as including provision of both the above terms but in practice they are more often used with reference to the disciplinary provision only.

[underlined]Section 4-44 A.F.A [/underlined] Dealing with discipline i.e Crime & Punishments

a). [underlined]Offences in respect of Air Force Service [/underlined] (4.5.6)

Some of these offences carry punishment of [underlined] death [/underlined] such as treachery in the face of the enemy. Offences such as destruction of property or active service., holding correspondence with enemy, cowardice, are punishable with [underlined] penal servitude [/underlined]. Others carry more severe penalties in war than in peace. A sentinel sleeping or drunk at his post, or leaving it

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before relief, is liable to imprisonment in peacetime, penal servitude in war.

b.) [underlined]Mutiny and Insubordination [/underlined] (
Besides usual interpretation of these, neglect to obey general, local, and other orders can be proceeded with under this heading.

c) [underlined] Desertion. Fraudulent Enlistment & Absence without leave [/underlined] (

d) [underlined]Disgraceful Conduct [/underlined] (16.17.18)
Including embezzlement, Fraud and Malingering

e) [underlined]Drunkenness [/underlined] (19.)

f) [underlined] Offences in relation to Persons in Custody. [/underlined] (20.21. & 22)
Including releasing prisoners without proper authority, allowing prisoners to escape, unnecessary arrest, and wilful delay in furnishing an account of the offence, and when under arrest or confinement, escaping or attempting escape.

g) [underlined]Offences in relation to Property [/underlined] (23.24.25)
Including stealing, ill-treating, pawning, or losing by neglect any service equipment.

j) [underlined]Offences in relation to False Documents & Statements [/underlined] (25.27.28)

i) [underlined] Offences relating to Court-Martial. [/underlined] (28-29)
Including neglect to attend, refusal to take the oath, refusal to produce relevant documents, contempt of Court, false evidence etc.

j) [underlined]Offences in Relation to Billeting [/underlined] (30)

[underlined] Impressment of Carriages[/underlined] (31)

[underlined]Enlistment (32.33.34) [/underlined]
Making false statements in alteration papers.
[underlined] Miscellaneous. [/underlined]
Concerns ill treatment of subordination – retention of pay due to others – fighting duels – attempting to commit suicide.

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[underlined]39.a Aircraft [/underlined]
Neglectfully leaving or damaging AC low flying offences.

[underlined]40. Conduct prejudicial to discipline [/underlined]

[underlined] 41. Offences punishable by Civil Law [/underlined]
Personnel no way absolved from conforming to Civil Law.

[underlined] 4 + L43 Redress of Wrongs[/underlined]

[underlined] 44 Punishment for offences against aforesaid reactions.[/underlined]

For Officers/ For Airman

1) Death / 1) Death
2) Penal Servitude (Over 3 years) / 2) Penial Servitude
3) Imprisonment (Up to 2 years) / 3) Imprisonment
4) Cashiering / 4) Detention
5) Dismissal / 5) Discharge
6) Forfeiture of Seniority / 6) Reduction of Rank (N.C.O)
7) Reprimand / 7) Reprimand (N.C.O)
8) Stoppages/ 8) Forfeiture, fines & stoppages

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[underlined] Rules of Procedures [/underlined]

[underlined] Selection [/underlined]

[underlined]The Charge [/underlined]. Every C/O shall see that any charge against a person must be investigated within 24 hrs in presence of accused who may cross examine any witness against him and call witness in his defence, he may also demand that evidence be taken on oath.

The C/O may at end of hearing of charge – if accused is an airman, a) dispose of case [indecipherable word] b) refer it to the proper superior Air Force Authority c) Adjourn case to have evidence submitted in writing – accused however has the right to be tried by district court martial If he wished. Sentence up to seven days must be given f hours and over that in days.

[underlined]Powers of C/O [/underlined] A C/O if of rank above F/LT may award following [punishments to airmen A0 Detention up to 28 days [inserted] * nots. Forfeiture of pay [/inserted] b) fines for drunkenness only up to £2’s c) on active service field punishment up to 28 days d) in certain circumstances deduction of pay. A C/O below of Sqd/Lr. May award detention up to 168hrs dentation only and fines up to 16/- only for drunkenness.

[underlined] Court Martial. [/underlined]
3 types. If a court martial has been ordered- accused must be allowed free communication with his witnesses, with any friend, officer or

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Legal adviser & he must be given a copy of charge is order to prepare his defence. Rules of evidence present the prosecution from offering any evidence not directly bearing on the charge, a cop of summary of evidence must also be provided for the accused at least 24 hours prior to court. An officer must if at all possible be tried by his equals and in no case may an officer below rank of F/LT sit in court which is trying an officer of or above Rank of S/LR. Court proceedings are same as in the civil court. Officers making up court take their seats in order of seniority. President of court is responsible to see that all proceeding are in order. List of documents to be made immediately available.

1. K.R. & A.C.I. A.F.A 2. Rules of procedure 3. Bible

[underlined] On Active Service & Field General Court Martial [/underlined] may be held which if considering of these or more numbers has power to award any punishment a G.C.M. may award

[underlined]Court of Inquiry [/underlined] An inquiry may be made by Air Council, any officer in command & any officer in the Air Force. It is an assembly of officers to collect evidence and to make a declaration on any matter which may be referred to them such as cause of assistant, loss of service equipment etc.

[underlined] Evidence [/underlined] In court of Law judge laws down law & jury has to decide from fact. In majority of cases this is decided by evidence with oral or documentary. Evidence may also be direct or indirect, 1st eye-witness 2nd From persons who can supply fact enabling an inference to be drawn as to what really happened there often comes & point where indirect evidence has so little bearing upon the matter issue.

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that it becomes non-admissible. This is divided by judge or members of court martial.

Rules of evidence in court martial are same as in civil courts of criminal jurisdiction.

[underlined] Evidence [/underlined] a) What must be proved 1) only charge brough against prisoner or one differing only in degree, namely murder – manslaughter or unlawful wounding.

b) What facts are known 1) These are in law considered to be fact so well known it is unnecessary to prove them ex-c country at war. Concerns part of the British Commonwealth.

c) By which proof must be given. 1) Every person is assumed innocent until proved guilty and any person who alleges a fact must prove it. Prosecution for ex. Must establish rather fussy evidence of guilt but if prisoners’ defence is alibi he must endeavour to prove it.

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[inserted] Airmanship] [/inserted]

[underlined]Accordance Procedure [/underlined] – A.P. 129 Par. 106-115 & A.P 129 App.7 & A.R 129 App1

[underlined] Care of Aeroplane[/underlined] – A.P 129 Chap. 2 Par. 10 & 11 & 15-23

[underlined] Engine Starting & Airservices [/underlined] Swing ring – A.P 129 Chap 2. Para. 47

[underlined]Action if the event of fire [/underlined] – AP.129 Chap 3 Par. 101 & 102

[underlined] Forced Landing Procedure [/underlined] – Chap 3 Par 157-170 Chap.2. Par 95-105

[underlined] Flaps & Flying Controls [/underlined] – Flaps AP 129 Chap.6. Par. 34 & 37

[underlined] Engines – 4 stroke internal [/underlined] combustion – chap 7 Par 2-7 A.P. 129

[underlined]Running faults [/underlined] AP.129 Chap 2 Par 88.

[underlined] Safety Precautions before flight [/underlined] A.P 129. Chap 2. Par 7.

[underlined] Regulations delivery with ballast [sic] [/underlined]
Must be of correct weight & Type securely fixed in proper position.

[underlined] Regulations dealing with safety harness [/underlined]
Must be used on all flights. Pilots responsible to all that both are securely fixed. Must be aware of quick release operation.

[underlined]Action of Pilot before flight [/underlined]
1/. Pilot must be fully acquainted with fuel & oil systems and endurance of plane.

2/. Pilot is personally responsible to see fuel is sufficient for flight. No rely on gauges.

3/. Pilot must ascertain how long & plane has flown [deleted]before [/deleted] since last flight.

4/. No Pilot must fly solo unless familiar of action to be taken in case of fire.

[underlined]Low flying [/underlined] Low flying practices may only be carried out with instruction over approved area. When forced to fly low by weather – report in low flying book giving Name Time Date Reason

[Page Break]

[underlined]Cross Country Fights. [/underlined]

1/ To be carried out at a minimum height of 2000’.

2./ No Flight to the attempted unless 2,000’ can be kept up.

3./ [underlined] Before setting off. [/underlined]

1./ Obtain favourable weather report.

2./ Obtain correct maps & route cards & 1415 (signed)

3./ Aircraft must have correctly working compass & serviceable watch.

4./ Aircraft is [underlined] filled [/underlined] with fuel & oil.

5./ Must report destination to the time keeper.

6./ No unauthorised landing.

4./ [underlined] Action before take-off[/underlined]

1./ Test controls & ensure free movement in correct direction throughout their entire range.

2./ That engine controls move freely but with sufficient resistance to ensure them checking set in correct positions.

3./ Run up engine with chocks properly placed.

4./ Use full length of ‘drome for take off

5./ Take off into wind

5./ [underlined]Regulations regarding aerobatics. [/underlined]

1/. Not to be carried out over populated areas.

2/. At sufficient height for manoeuvres to be carried out above 3,000’.

6./ [underlined] Flights over populated area [/underlined] – must be carried out at sufficient height to enable a glide to open country. Must not be below 2,000.

7./ No matches other than safety matches or firing lights are prohibited or potassium chlorate tablets.

[Page Break]

[underlined] Notes of the air. [/underlined]

In the case of two aeroplanes meeting head on both shall alter course to the starboard.

When on paths which cross the one that has the other one on its starboard side must alter course to starboard and go behind the other.

Fast aircraft overtaking slower must alter course to starboard.

Aircraft on surface of water obey regulations for prevention of collision at use.

Flying boat must give way to vessels. Power driven craft must give way to non power driven craft.

[underlined]Flying in cloud or fog. [/underlined] Shall fly at reduced speed & take all precautions having regard to circumstances. Must not fly immediately above or below cloud. Distance to be allowed for observations – to be seen and to see yourself.

[underlined] Take off [/underlined] ‘Plane must not turn from take off until at least 500 yds away from ‘drome boundary.

[underlined]Circuit Law [/underlined] must conform to this law when inside 2.500’ & below 6.500’
Circuit always left handed unless sign is placed for opposite. Left hand at night always.

[underlined] Procedure adopted approaching storage ‘drone[/underlined]

Approach [deleted] less than [/deleted] not above 120mph & above signal area at 2,000’ than circuit at 1,000’ to note bad ground w/s & direction & keep sharp lookout for other planes.

Climbing turns below 500’ not to be accrued out. Parachutes must be worn on all flights. Responsibility of pilot to see all passengers follow procedure.

[Page Break]

[underlined] Air endurance and Radius of Action. [/underlined]

1./ Air endurance must be measured in time.

2./ Total endurance – total time it stays in air on full tanks but fuel consumption will vary.

3./ Safe endurance is total endurance less 10%

1/. [sic] Radius of action is total distance in still air.


Generally defined as half range in still air.

[underlined] Aerodrome Procedure. [/underlined]

1./ Marking of aerodrome boundaries and bad ground.

2./ The Duty Flight is marked by a yellow hollow disc on a white standard.

3./ Circuit Rules.

4./ Visual recall signs for aircraft. See App VII

[underlined]Care of the Aeroplane [/underlined]

An aircraft which is dirty must be booked [indecipherable word] as unserviceable.
Petrol & paraffin must not be used to remove grease – only [indecipherable word] & hot wate.

Picketing – look up & draw diagram.

[underlined]Action in the event of fire [/underlined]

[underlined]Engine fire in air [/underlined]

1./ Turn off petrol

2/ Open throttle wide

3/ Switch off engine

4/ Use fire extinguisher if poss.

5/ Side slip away from flames

6./ If fire gains greater hold – head ‘plane for open country and jump.

7./ If fire exhausted under no circumstances start engine again – carry on with forced landing.

[Page Break]

[underlined] Forced Landing Procedure [/underlined]

In case of engine breakdown instantly start to glide.
Select suitable field – when field in selected do not change from that field.

How to select field.

1/ Of firm level surface with sufficient room to execute an up-wind landing.

2./ A clear up-wind approach.

3./ Proximity to some means of communication.

4./ Opportunity for goof take off.

General causes of engine failure
1./ Ignition switch accidentally switched off.

2./ Petrol accidently turned off.

3./ Mixture accidently changed.

4./ Loss of air pressure in tanks.

[underlined] Procedure after forced landing. [/underlined]

1./ Safe-guarding of ‘plane

2./ Estimation of damage to private property.

3./ Examination of ‘plan

4./ Communication to R.A.F. nearest unit.

5./ [indecipherable word] of ‘ plane

6./ Information to be given – No. Rank Name

No. & type of plane
Home aerodrome & destination
Position as grid or bearing and distance
Amount of fuel left.
Damage to private property – if any.
State of aeroplane – give particulars of any damage.
Description of field – size – surface etc.
Detailed description of obstructions.
If room for up-wind take off.

[Page Break]

[underlined] Procedures to be adopted on leaving for cross country flights.[/underlined]

Report to duty pilot giving following information:-

1./ Name & Rank 1./ Unit

3./ Type and No of aeroplane 4./ No. of crew

5./ Destination 6./ E.T.A

[underlined] Procedure on arrival at destination after cross country flight[/underlined]

1./ Taxy to duty flight 2./ Switch off

3./ Give instructions as to fuel etc

4./ Report to duty pilot giving 1./ Rank and Name

2./ Unit

3./ No. of passengers

4. Where from

5./ Destination


7./ If weather doubtful; obtain permission to leave from C/O.

[underlined]Moving of aeroplane in and out of hanger [/underlined]

Use correct lifting places only.
Do not push on trailing edges of wings or any other weak part of structure.
A competent person must be in charge of operations/

[underlined]Moving of aeroplane over bad ground [/underlined]

Inspect ground thoroughly before commencing movement. Ise wooden planks as support for wheels.

[Page Break]

[underlined] The duties of a duty pilot [/underlined]

1./ Responsible for control of aerodrome traffic.

2./ Responsible for despatch and receipt of aircraft and any signals concerning them.

3./ The signal area is under his control and he is responsible for the laying of the landing ‘T’. changing the circuit if and when necessary etc.

4./ To report bad flying and obtaining and supplying a weather report.

5./He must arrange that any special equipment such as for signalling or night flying etc. is on order and ready for use.

[underlined] The duty flights [/underlined]

The duty flight is indicated by a large hollow disc on a white standard and is detailed to attend to any visiting aircraft.

[underlined] The Watch Office [/underlined]

The watch office is situated in front of hangers on the tarmac. At stations with a variable circuit the roof of same is panted yellow.

[underlined]Circuit Rules [/underlined]

Circuits are left handed at all R.A.F stations except training stations and statin laid down in A.P. 129 App. 1 Para. 14. At these circuits are variable.

[underlined] Night Flying [/underlined] – At all R.A.F. stations when night flying is in progress – circuits left hand.

[Page Break]

[underlined] FLAPS [/underlined]

Flaps are fitted to the wings as a means if altering their effective camber and angle of attach in flight. Similar to ailerons the whole trailing edge of the planes between the ailerons and the wing root being hinged to form a flap coupled so that they move up and down together.

The best gliding angle of a plane is increased by the use of flaps enabling a steeper glide. They are useful on high speck aeroplanes for making the gliding angle steeper and so clearing obstacles that might otherwise have prevented them from landing.

When flattened out for landing flaps reduce the landing speed, on the ground they act as an air brake and reduce the run.

Certain types when slightly depressed increase the lift of the wings without appreciably increasing the drag therefore reducing the take off run.


[underlined] Circuit Indication. [/underlined]

a) From the Air. At normal left hand circuits no ground sign at all. When circuits are variable a red right handed arrow will be displayed on corner of signal area to indicate right hand circuit is in force. Note – signal area situated near watch office, in it are displayed all ground signals.

b) From the ground. At normal left hand circuits no signal. Variable or [deleted] right [/deleted] [/inserted] left [/inserted] hand circuits – red flag hoisted.

[Page Break]

on watch office mast. A green flag is hoisted on same for a right hand circuit.

[underlined] Ground Signals[/underlined]. Ref. A.P. 129 App 1

[underlined]Red Square [/underlined] indicated that a special rule applying to civilians are not in use.


[underlined]Red Right-handed Arrow [/underlined] – Right handed circuit


[underlined] Red Square with two yellow diagonals [/underlined] indicated total prohibition of landing


[underlined] Red Square with one yellow diagonal [/underlined] bar – temporary obstructions – aerodrome parity unserviceable. Special care to be taken on landing.


[Page Break]

[underlined]Ground Signals Contd. [/underlined]

[underlined] A white hollow square of ground strip[/underlined] indicates bombing practice in progress. Sharp look-out to be kept for aeroplane bombing or diving. Land well away from target.


[underlined] A red “G” on a triangular background[/underlined] indicated that aerodrome bas been subject to gas attack. Landing permitted but must taxi to upwind edge of aerodrome and wait till further orders.


[underlined]A red “G” with a red strip underneath on a triangular base [/underlined]

Indicates that aerodrome has been subjected to gas attack and aircraft are not to land.


[underlined]A yellow triangular equilateral pyramid hoisted on duty pilot’s mast [/underlined]
Indicated Lorenz beams in action. This is to warn pilots to avoid taxying across the beam.


[underlined] A red ball 2’ in diameter, hoisted on mast and a white cross made by ground stripes [/underlined] Indicates parachute dropping in progress. Pilots are not to taxy, take -off or land. Tose in the air to fly to distance of not less that 2 miles from centre of ‘drome and not below 1.500ft.


[Page Break]

[underlined]A white ‘dumbell’ [sic] [/underlined] indicates that runways only are to be used for landing and take off.


[underlined] FLAPS [/underlined] – continued from over page.



[Diagram] THE ZAP FLAP


[underlined] Landing ‘T’ [/underlined] & black ball on watch office mast. Land in direction of ‘T’.


[Page Break]

[underlined] Navigation lights on single engine aircraft. [/underlined]


[underlined] Starboard side[/underlined]:- Green light – constant to show unbroken light between two vertical planes when dihedral angle is 100 degrees – measured to the right from dead ahead. TO be visible for at least 5 miles.

[underlined]Port side [/underlined]:- Red light – constructed as starboard light. From dead ahead to the left. Visible for at least 5 miles.

[underlined] Rear [/underlined]:- White light – visible in a dihedral angle of 140 degrees bisected by a vertical plane through the line of flight, and visible for distance of at least 3 miles.

[underlined] Note [/underlined]:- The green and red side lights should be fitted so that green light should not be seen from the port side, nor the red light from starboard side.

[Page Break]

[underlined] PICKETING OF AEROPLANE IN OPEN [/underlined]

NOTE. This is a temporary measure to be adopted when no hanger space is available (To be carried out however settled the weather may appear to be).


1./ Place aeroplane with head to wind in most sheltered position available.

2./ Control column to be lashed to neutral position

3./ Wheel brakes firmly applied.

4./ Chocks placed behind wheels – and in front if sufficient number available. (wheels may alternatively be placed in channels dug in ground.)

5./ Lashings to be fixed to mooring rings on [inserted] each [/inserted] wing tip, one leading forward and one to the rear.

6./ [inserted] x [/inserted] Lashings to be fixed from end of fuselage, away to each side from the tail skid or tail wheel bracket. (x- of wire or rope)

[Page Break]









7. FIN




[Page Break]



1. Control columns

2. Torque tube.

3. Connecting rod.

4. Ball-race pivots

5. Elevator lever

6. Control Cables

7. Elevator Connector shaft

8. Connecting rod

9. Elevation lever

10. Tail Plane

11. Elevator

12. Rear torque shaft bearing.

[Page Break]


[underlined]AILERON CONTROLS [/underlined]

[Page Break]

[underlined]Flying Controls [/underlined]

On modern small aircraft it is general practice to use cables throughout except at those points where the cables are greatly deflected out of their run. In such positions chains and sprocket wheels are used as the wear on a cable rounding a plain pulley wheel would be very great. Where the wire is only slightly deflected (less than 5°) fibre fair leads are used – split to facilitate the renewal of cables. If the deflection is more than five degrees a plain pulley is introduced to obviate unnecessary friction.

Turnbuckles are usually provided for the adjustment of cable. Controls in the cockpit are usually connected by means of bill plank levers.

[Page Break]

[underlined] RUNNING FAULTS [/underlined]


[a] Engine will not start [b] Intermittent spark – defective magneto [c] No fuel [d] – [e] Loss of Compression – spark or valves loose [f] –

[a] Engine stalls [b] Sparks plugs oiled up [c] Defective fuel feed [d] – [e] Loss of compression – valves not seated properly [f] –

[a] Low oil pressure [b] – [c] – [d] Dirty oil filters [f] –

[a] High oil pressure [b] – [c] – [d] oil too cold – insufficient time to warm up [e] - [f] –

[a] Rough Running [b] Intermittent sparking. Requires adjusting [c] insufficient fuel supply – piping system obstructed. [d] [deleted] insufficient oil – tanks empty [/deleted] [e] Loss of compression valve not seated properly. [f] Engine too cold – insufficient time to warm up.

[a]Loss of power [b] no park – plugs oiled up [c] insufficient fuel supply – piping system obstructed [d] insufficient oil – tanks empty [e] loss of compression- valves not seated properly [f] insufficient cooling – air lock in system.

[a] Misfire [b] Spark plugs oiled up [c] water in fuel [d] excessive oil – badly fitted piston rings [e] loss of compression – valves not seated properly [f] –

[a] Popping back [b] wires disconnected [c] water or dirt in fuel [d] – [e] loss of compression valve springs broken [ Engine too cold – insufficient time to warm up.

[a] Black exhaust smoke [b] wires disconnected [c] unsuitable fuel [d] – [e] loss of compression - valve springs broken [f] Engine too cold – insufficient time to warm up
[a] Pre-ignition [b] Mags requires correct adjusting [c] unsuitable fuel [d] insufficient oil – tank empty [e] – [f] Insufficient cooling – air locks in systems.

[a] Overheating [b] Mags requires correct adjusting [c] unsuitable fuel [d] insufficient oil [e] loss of compression – valves not seated properly[f] Insufficient cooling – air locks in systems.

[a] Abnormal noises [b] Mags requires correct adjusting [c] unsuitable fuel [d] insufficient oil [e] loss of compression – valve springs broken Insufficient oil [f] –

[Page Break]


1.) [underlined]Induction [/underlined] Inlet valve open – piston moving downwards sucks in mixture.


2.) [underlined] Compression [/underlined] Both valves closed – piston rising compressed mixture


3) [underlined] Power [/underlined] Both valves closed. Spark fires mixture – mixture expands rapidly – forcing piston downwards.


[underlined]Exhaust [/underlined] Exhaust valve open – upward movement of piston expels [indecipherable word] gases.


[Page Break]

[underlined]THE FOUR STROKE ENGINE [/underlined]


The power is produced by the explosion of air when heated by the burning of fuel in it. The heat causes a rise in pressure which drives the piston down towards the crankshaft.

During the four strokes the crank shaft will have travelled through two revolutions i.e. 270°

[Page Break]

[Blank Page]

[Page Berak]

[underlined] ARMAMENT [/underlined]

[underlined] STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING[/underlined]

[underlined] POINTS TO BE OBSERVED [/underlined]

Ensure gun is unloaded & block closed i.e.. Breach block forward.
Always use correct tool.
Do not use force.
Test each part, and the complete gun, for correct functioning whilst assembling.

[underlined] STRIPPING[/underlined]

[underlined] REMOVE FLASH ELIMINATOR [/underlined] Take out split pin and unscrew ante-clockwise.

[underlined] REMOVE BACKPLATE [/underlined] Disengage catch and slide upwards.

[underlined]REMOVE RETURN SPRING ROD AND SPRING [/underlined] Push forward the rod, disengage and remove rod and spring.

[underlined] REMOVE BREACH BLOCK [/underlined] Raise cover. Pull back cocking stud and remove.

[underlined] REMOVE LOCK FRAME [/underlined] Hold barrel in left hand and lock frame in right, press forward excelarator [sic] claw and disengage from barrel extension.

[underlined]REMOVE BARREL [/underlined] Raise barrel locking spring and support it on side of barrel extension, unscrew and remove barrel. Take out pin and remove breach block locking piece from barrel extension. Remove barrel locking spring.

[underlined]TO REASSEMBLE – REVERSE PROCESS [/underlined]

{Page Break]

[underlined]STRIPPING OF THE BREACH BLOCK [/underlined]

1./ Pull cocking lever to the rear and release sear to ease firing pin spring.

2./ Hold switchplate [sic], raise transponder and remove it. Take switchplate [sic] plunger and spring.

3./Pull out axis pin and remove cocking lever.

4./ Place rear spring retainer keeper in central position and push out from underneath.

5./ Remove rear spring retainer taking care rear spring does not fly out. Remove rear spring.

6./ Remove rear retainer and rear.

7./ Take out firing pin and spring.


Ensure that the chamfered edge of the locking piece id at the top and towards the front. Engage ‘T’ projection of barrel extension between ramps of exceleration [sic] and end of barrel return spring plunger and push home the lock frame.

When inserting components into breach casing depress rear sear to clear rear sear [inserted] lever [/inserted] from bottom plate, and fit rear sear release unit before group is right home. Depress plunger of lock frame retainer to clear side plate. When replacing breach block, firing pin must be contact and cocking lever forward.

Rear sear must be disengaged to allow breach block to go forward

[Page Break]

Breach cover must not be closed until barrel and breach block are fully home.

[underlined] Ring Sight[/underlined]

Data Required:-
Target speed = 100m.p.h = [calculation]
Range = 200 yds
Sight Base = 36”
Bullet Speed = 24440 ft. per. sec


Assuming A/C’s speed to be 100 m.p.h. across line of sight and bullet speed 2440 ft. per sec. it will be necessary to aim approx. 40 ft in front of target at 200yds. This distance is arrived at by converting target speed to ft. per. Sec. (22/15) and as bullet will only take approx. 1/4 of sec. to travel 200 yds, the target must travel for that same period of time only. If sight base is fixed at 36” size of ring required can be found by simple proportion sum. Target speed in 1/4 sec. = 40 ft. deflection. Range 600 ft. Sight base 36” [symbol] [calculation].

[Page Break]

[underlined] Browning Gun – General Description [/underlined]

[underlined] Details [/underlined]:-

Length of gun with flash elimination 44 1/2”.
Length of barrel – 24”
Weight of gun – 21lbs 14oz.
Weight of gun with firing and landing mechanism – 22lbs 12 ozs

Rifting – Enfield system – 1 in 10” – left handed
No. of grooves – 5
Ammunition – all types of S.S.A. .303” Mark VII
Method of fuel – belt
Rate of fire approx. – 1150 rounds per min.
Mountings. Fixed position. Wing or cockpit Free position Turrets installation.

Gun divided into 2 portions – for description only – recoiling and Non – recoiling portions.

[underlined]Non – recoiling portions [/underlined]:-

1) Barrel casing, which included muzzle attachment & flash elimination
2) Ternion block
3) Blast tube adapter
4) Breach casing; which included right and left side plates a& their fitting, - back plate – top & bottom plates – breach grooves and fuel mechanism.
5) Lock frame – which included the acceleration – barrel return spring – rear sear and their components.

[Page Break]

[underlined] MECHANISM [/underlined]

[underlined] ACTION OF RECOIL[/underlined]

At moment of explosion, breach, barrel extension and breach block, recoil as a single unit for almost 5/16”. This ensures that bullet has left muzzle before breach block is unlocked from barrel extension. The locking pins hides cam, positive action being assured through the prongs of the lock frame, engaging with the locking piece pin, thus the breach block is freed from barrel extension and is enabled to continue it recoil movement independently of the barrel portion.

The recoil of the barrel causes the T-shaped projection on the barrel extension to engage the plunger and compress the barrel returning spring, the movement totalling about 5/8” is arrested when the barrel extension butts against the lock frame. At the same time the barrel extension pushes the accelerator upwards, backwards and over centre, until its two ramps are interlocked with the front face of the T piece projection of the barrel extension. This locks barrel extension to lock frame against the pressure of the barrel return spring. As the accelerator rotates backwards its sorns strike against the bent of the breach block thus accelerating the moving block sharply to the rear.

The breach block is moving backwards compresses the return spring and cancels the cockling lever, through the engagement with its cocking lever bracket – to [indecipherable word] forward and draw back the firing pin. The rear sear under the action of its spring engages the bent of the firing pin and holds it in the rear position. At the same time the round which is gripped between the claws of the transporter and ejector is withdrawn from the

[Page Break]

and carried by the transporter to the rear. The breach block [deleted] and [/deleted] as it moved away from the barrel extracts the empty case from the chamber. On reaching the end of the rear cam on the side plate the transporter plunger is compressed and forced down by the tamp on the breach cover. This action brings the live round its position in the cartridge guides of the breach block face – thus forcing out the empty cartridge case through the opening for ejection.

[underlined] RETURN ACTION [/underlined]

The recoil of the breach block is arrested when the breach block strikes the buffer on back plate. Provided that rear sear release unit is being operated, thus depressing the sear, the block flies forward in the rebound, its movement being assisted by the return spring. During the forward movement the live round is fed into the chamber, and when transporter plunger meets the front cam on the side plate the transporter is raised and ejector is lifted clear of the round.

When the bent on the breach block strikes the horns of the accelerator, it rotates forwards, allowing the barrel return spring to re-assert itself and return the barrel, barrel extension with the breach block altogether into the firing position. As the barrel piece pin is dis-engaged from the prop of the lock-frame and the locking piece riding up its incline and the locking piece cam engages the recess in the breach block & locks it to the barrel extension. Whilst the last movement is taking place the claw of the transporter engaged the next round in the belt under the action of the spring in the breech cover and the ejector embraces the next round to support it.

[Page Break]

[underlined] FEED MECHANISAM [/underlined]

As the breach block travels backwards and forwards the feed lever is caused to oscilate [sic] by the sliding of its stud in the cam grove in the breach block. During the backwards movement of the breach block the feed lever moves the feed slide across the belt until the feed pawl under the action of its spring engages behind the round which is held on the feed opening by the return pawl. When the breach block moves forwards the feed slide moving back and feeds in the belt. Double feed being presented by the feed pawl leg. At the same time a second round is brought in and held by the return pawl.

[underlined] REER [SIC] SEAR MECHANISM [/underlined]

When the firing control is operated the plunger of the rear release unit engages the rear sear lever causing it to rotate and depress the rear sear, until the bent is below the level of the lock frame plates, thus allowing the breach block to fly freely forwards. When the firing control plunger is released the plunger of the rear sear unit is withdrawn and the compressed rear sear spring raises the sear rear, as the breach block recoils its rear end strikes and depresses and overrides the rear sear which again [deleted] raises[/deleted] rises and engages the bent of the breach block as the rebounds off the buffer. As the two bents engage, the rear sear rotates forward which causes the rear sear cradle to rotate and compress the rear buffer spring, so absorbing the blow.

[underlined] FIRING MECHANISM [/underlined]

At the end of the forward movement of the recoiling portion the sear meets the projecting plunger of the fire and safe unit.


[Page Break]

[underlined] Loading and Unloading [/underlined]

[underlined] Points to be observed before loading [/underlined]

1./ Ensue that cartridge and bullet stops are free and feed & retaining pawls react smartly.

2./ Cock the gun by means of loading handle and replace the loading handle forward, operate rear sear release unit by hand, and if breach block does not go fully home look for following :-
a./ Friction due to burns on breach block guides.

b./Incorrect adjustment of – or burrs on – locking pins cam.

c./ Bent return spring rod or weak return spring.

d./ Weak barrel return spring

e./ Fouling in muzzle attachment

f./ Dirt on brass clips in tension block.

[underlined]To load gun [/underlined]

1./ Ensure that firing control mechanism is set to [underlined] ‘SAFE’[/underlined]

2./ When feed is from right, single end of link must be towards gun, when from left, double end must be towards gun.

3./ Ensure breach cover is closed and cockling stud fully forward.

4./ Insert the belt and ensure first round is held by retaining pawl.

5./Lock the gun and depress rear sear release unit.

6./ Lock the gun and depress rear sear release unit.

7./ Set firing control mechanism to [underlined]’fire’. [/underlined]

8/. [underlined]Fixed installation only [/underlined] – gun is now loaded.

N.B. If, after cocking the gun there is no round in the breach block look for following: - defective transporter or ejector.

[Page Break]

[underlined] To unload the gun. [/underlined]

1./ Ensure the firing control mechanism is set to [underlined]’Safe’ [/underlined]

2./ Open breach cover and remove belt from feedway.

3./ Pull back loading handle, and whilst holding it in this position, vary the pressure, so that transporter may be raised, remove cartridge from guides on breach block, lower transporter and replace loading handle in the forward position.

4./Operate rear sear release unit and close breach cover.

5./ Cock gun, operate rear sear release unit and ease firing pin spring. (F.C.M TO [underlined] ‘FIRE’ [/underlined])

6./Gun is now unloaded.

[underlined] FIRING MECHANISM CONT’D [/underlined]

and is forced out of engagement with the firing pin. The firing pin spring thus released reasserts itself and forces the firing pin forward to strike the cartridge in the chamber and fore the round.

[Page Break]

[underlined] STOPPAGES [/underlined]


[a] FIRST [b] Cock the gun. Fre and watch feed [c] Gun Fires [d] Misfire [e] Nil

[a] – [b] – [c] Feed takes place but gun does not fire [d] I) Defective firing pin or spring II) Dirt, congealed oil or brass chips in firing pin way. III) Defective firing control or insufficient pressure. [e] [underlined] Unload [/underlined] (1) Change B.B reload and fire. II) Remove and clean B.B III) Examine and test F.C.M

[a] – [b] - [c] Feed does not take place. Gun does not fire. [d] I) Defective transporter on ejector II) Defective feed pawl spring III) Defective retaining pawl spring [e] I) II) & III)- change defective part, reload and fire.

[a] SECOND [b] Cock the gun and fire [c] Gun repeats stoppage [d] 1) Transporter fails to lift due to defective plunger II)loose link jammed in feedway. III) Cross feed due to cartridge journey in the feedway. IV)Separated case
[inserted] [underlined] Note [/underlined] [/inserted] (III) May also cause a stoppage in the first position. [e] [underlined] Unload [/underlined] I) Change transporter, reload and fire. II) Clear link, ensure that fuel pawl extension is in correct position, Reload and fire. III) Adjust belt. Reload and fire. (IV) If inspection indicates stoppage not due to above use cleaning plug to remove separated case unless brought out by sound on breach face. Reload and fire.

[a] THIRD [b] Cock the gun. Raise breach cover. Clear gun operate rear sear release unit. Close breach cover. Cock the gun. Fire. [c] 1) Gun fires 2) Gun separate stoppage [d] 1) Defective ammunition empty case not extracted from chamber or ejected from breach chock 2) Defective breach block, defective ejection [e] 1) Nil 2) [underlined] Unload [/underlined] 1) Change Breach block 2) change transponder reload and fire

[a] IMMEDIATE ACTION – The immediate application of a probable remedy for a stoppage based on the position of the cocking stud. It must not be considered to be complete until gun is again functioning satisfactorily.

POSITION OF COCKING STUD – 1st Position – At forward end of slot
2nd Position – from nearly right forward to half way back slot
3rd Position – More than half way back in slot.


[underlined] Notes [/underlined] Excessive fouling in muzzle attachment, defective barrel return firing on displaced barrel return spring or displaced barrel locking spring will cause stoppage in 2nd position.
Faulty breaching up of gun will cause a stoppage due to a separated case or to the recoiling portions not going fully forward (2nd position)
Broken transporter guide spring or bent or damaged return spring rod may cause stoppages in various positions.

[Page Break]

[underlined] CARE OF THE BROWNING GUN [/underlined]

Operation when gun is to be fired (Before each days flying)
1. Inspect gun, attachment or mounting for security.

2. Ensure that flash eliminator and muzzle attachment are clean and secure. Shift pin to be in good condition and opened.

3. Gun to function correctly – fit few links and drill cartridges, operate loading handle and rear sear release.

4. Clean and dry before using cleaning rod or Flannelette. 4” x2”

5. Clean and oil moving parts and working surfaces of casing.

6. Test fire & safe and rear sear release units for efficiency.

7. Inspect ammunition base and empty cartridge case chute for security and alignment.

8. Check the right for security, and in case of reflector sight, for continuity of circuit.

Operations at inspections between flight when firing is taking place.

1. Ensure gun is unloaded.

2. Check security of gun, its attachments and mounting.

3. Obtain firers report and if necessary make any exchanges.

4. If exchanges are made check functioning of gun.

5. Clean the bore, using single pull through, with gauze and flannelette which must be pulled through six times.

6. Remove flash eliminator and clear any fouling.

7. Remove fouling from muzzle attachment with [indecipherable word] which must enter up to the shoulder.

8. Inspect ammunition, from entry cartridge case chute and link chute for security & alignment.

9. Empty spent cartridge containers if fitted.

10. Check empty card and remove misfired rounds.

11. Examine the sight for damage and security.

Operation at end of days firing.

1. Unsure gun is unloaded. 2. Remove gun from aeroplane as soon as possible after firing and take to the armoury for cleaning. 3. Dismantle the gun.

[underlined]Barrel [/underlined] 4. Boil and dry 5. Inspect bore for chemical corrosion and metallic fouling which, if present, must be removed. 6. Try gauge, plug 303, if gauge does not run, repeat deshelling process. 7. Oil the bore. 8. Wipe exterior of barrel with oily rag. Ensure that chromium plating is clean, but no abrasive material or metal polish may be used for purpose.

[underlined]Breach and barrel casing. [/underlined] 9. Wipe the exterior with an oily rag. [underlined]Lock frame [/underlined] 10. Do not remove barrel return spring socket or rear sear cradle unless there are signs of rust. Wash in oil anti-freezing and then oil thoroughly. [underlined] Breech blocks, barrel extension or flash eliminator [/underlined] 11. Boil, dry and oil, except firing pin, which must be washed in oil anti-freezing. 12. Flash eliminator to be [indecipherable word] to remove fouling. [underlined]Feed mechanism. [/underlined] 13. Clean with an oily rag, dry and oil. [underlined] Return spring[/underlined] 14. Wash in oil anti freezing and wash with oil.
[underlined]Muzzle attachment. [/underlined] 15. To be cleaned in situ, with tool provided to remove fouling. 16. Examine parts for damage and exchange if necessary. 17. Remove all burns 18. By use of scratch card or N0.00 emery cloth, ensure that all signs of fouling are removed from following parts:- (I) Inside breach casing near breach of gun (II) Underside of breach cover (III) front face of breech block. (IV) The firing pin and its housing in the breech block. (V) The ejector (VI) The barrel extension (VII) Breech and muzzle faces of barrel. 19. Adjust cartridge head space when reassembling gun (breaching up) 20. Enter any firing, breakages and any exchange of parts in the gun history shoot.

[Page Break]

[underlined]THE VICKERS GAS OPERATED GUN. [/underlined]

[underlined]General Details [/underlined]
Length of gun including flash eliminator 40”
Length of barrel 20”
Weight of gun 19 to 20 lbs
Rifling -infield system – one turn in 10”.
No. of grooves – 5.
Ammunition used – all types of Mark 7.S.A.A. 30D.

[underlined] Method of feed. [/underlined] – Magazine – capacity of magazine No.1. Mark 1.60 rounds
No.2. Mark 1 100 rounds. [underlined] Rate of fire[/underlined] 950 rounds per minute.
[underlined]Mountings [/underlined]- air [deleted] surface [/deleted] [inserted]service, [/inserted] turret or free insulation, ground service – tripod

[underlined]Description of Gun. [/underlined] Gun is divided into two parts for discrimination purposes.
1./ Stationary portions 2./ Moving portion.

[underlined]Stationary portion consists of following groups: - [/underlined]

1./ Barrel with gas block, flash eliminator, right brackets & front magazine catch.

2./ Body with rear magazine catch, ejector, gas cylinder and barrel returning strap.

3./ Cocking handle with slide, catch and lug.

4./ Body extension with buffer, trigger mechanism and spade grip with safety catch.

[underlined] Moving portion consist of [/underlined]

1./ Piston with return springs and rod.

2./ Breach block with firing pin, feed piece & extractor

[Page Break]

[underlined]STRIPPING AND ASSEMBLING. [/underlined]

1. Ensure gun is unloaded.

2. Remove sights (if fitted).

3. Drive out securing pins to their fullest extent and remove body extension.

4. Withdraw return springs and return spring rod.

5. Pull back cocking handle and remove piston rod and breach block. Replace cocking handle in forward position.

6. Unscrew barrel strap bolt nut and remove washer bolt and barrel retaining straps & gun pivot.

7. Disengage barrel and gas cylinder from body.

8. Remove split pin and unscrew flash eliminator


[underlined] MECHANISM [/underlined]

[underlined] Cocking by hand. [/underlined] When cocking handle is pulled to rear, catch is released and allows cocking handle to move backwards. Cocking handle lug engaging to piston, causes it to be driven to the rear, unlocking and carrying with it, the breach block, compressing the return springs. If trigger us released, piston bent will ride over sear and depress it, but the rear spring will force rear up and engage it with bent of piston, holding it to the sear in the cocked position.

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63360” in one mile. [symbol] Water Aerodrome
[symbol] Seaplane Mooring 908-2730 – Geographical ref. point. Univ. System
[symbol] Danger Area. X= explosives L Mooring mast for airships
[symbol] Air Corridor [symbol] Aerodrome Controlled Zone
[symbol] Wireless station – Ordinary broadcasting station
[symbol] Wireless & Non directional Wireless beacon
[symbol] Lightship [symbol] Danger Area
[symbol]General ground sign X Explosives
[symbol] Airship Hanger [symbol] Prohibited Area
6080’ = 1 Nautical Mile 0 Landing ground
1’087’ = Geographical Mile = 1 minute of Lang at the Equator
[symbol] Balloon obstruction beacon.
[symbol]Landing Ground for Gliders
[symbol] 400 Unlighted obstruction – 400’ above sea level
[symbol] 400 Unlighted obstruction - 400' above sea level (Centre of base highest point of obstruction)
[symbol] Not aeronautical but possibly of use to aircraft} Radioelectric Station
[symbol] Communication with aircraft} Radioelectric Station
[symbol] Sending Met. Information} Radioelectric Station
[symbol] Non directional} Navigational radio beacons} Radioelectric Station
[symbol]Track indicating} Navigational radio beacons} Radioelectric Station
[symbol] Landing approach radio beacon} Radioelectric Station
[symbol] Goniometric} Radioelectric Station
[symbol]Air Navigation Light
[symbol]Track – indicating light
[Symbol] Marine light, light house or light buoy.

[Page Break]

[underlined]Navigation [/underlined]

[underlined] Principle of C.S.E.[/underlined]

Given:- Track = 240°. A/S 120K – W/V 300° 30 K.


By [symbol] of velocities

By C.S.C.


[underlined] C.S.C [/underlined]

[underlined]To find Track or G/S. [/underlined]

a) Set A/S on A/S scale (knots or MKK)

b) Turn wind plate to wind direction & set wind pin to wind speed.

c) Put slot of drift bar over wind pin and turn bearing plate until course is on course pointer.

d)Read of Track from Track pointer & G/S against wind pin.

[underlined] To find course and G/S[/underlined]

a) Set A/S on A/S scale & W/V as before

b) Turn bearing plate until track is against track pointer (T)

c) Read of G/S against wind pin.

[underlined] To find wind velocity [/underlined]

a) Set A/S on A/S scale

b) Turn bearing plate for course to register on course pointer.

c) Lift drift bar off pin & move it until track pointer in

d) against track. Make a pencil mark in slot of drift bar against G/S.

e) Set wind pin in centre. Drop drift bar over wind pin.

f) Turn bearing plate until pencil mark appears between wind pin and course pointer.

g) Read off [deleted] course [/deleted] [inserted] W/D [/inserted] against [deleted] W/D course [/deleted] [inserted] course [/inserted] pointer and W/S on scale from pencil mark to wind pin.

[Page Break]


See Chapter 13 Para 1,2,3,4.

[inserted] Notes SEE NOTES OVER PAGE [/inserted]

[underlined] COURSE OF PROCEEDURE[/underlined]

1. Set Ground pressure

2. Set temperature

3. Set indicated height

4. Put indicated height at ‘I’

5. Read correct height at ‘C’

6. Put indicated A/S at ‘I’. read correct A/S at ‘C’.


[inserted] Notes [/inserted]

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[underlined] The P.4. Compass[/underlined]

The P.4 is the standard pilots compass in the Royal Air Force. It is grid steering. A oslating [sic] grid ring is fitted above the bowl and can be locked in any position by means of a locking arm on the left side of the bowl. Two parallel grid wires are placed across the grid ring and the inner edge of the grid ring is graduated every 20.

[underlined] To [indecipherable word] course of aircraft.[/underlined] Turn grid ring until grid wires are parallel to the N. & S. wires magnet system & “N” on the grid ring registers with “N” wire. Then read course as indicated by lubber line against grid ring.

[underlined]To set a course. [/underlined] Turn grid ring until desired course is registered against lubber lines. Then turn aircraft until grid wires are parallel to N. & S. wires and the ‘N’ wire registers with ‘N’ on the grid ring.

[underlined]Advantages to P.$. Compass. [/underlined]

1/. Design permits compass to be mounted in positions other than directly in front of pilot without the effect of parallax becoming serious when given course is steered.

2/. Accurate course may be set and steered without concentrating on a small lubber line registering on a scale.

3/. Steering on a course at night is facilitated.

[underlined]Type P.6. compass. [/underlined] In all essentialities similar to P.4. Diameter is 2 inches smaller and weight is less than half. The magnet system has only 2 magnets while the p.4. has 4.

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[underlined]Acceleration and deceleration error. [/underlined]

[underlined]Acceleration error. [/underlined]

Suppose an aircraft to be flying in an easterly course in the northern hemisphere increases speed. To cause a body to accelerate, a force must be applied to it in the direction of motion. Thus a force ‘F’ is an easterly direction is applied to the magnet system at the pivot ‘P’, which is its sole point of attachment to the aircraft (see illus.) Owing to its inertia, the magnet system tends to lag behind. Hence a force due to the inertia, equal and opposite to that applied to the pivot, will act through the centre of gravity G. A clockwise rotation of the magnet system, i.e. an easterly deviation, results.

Acceleration on a westerly course causes westerly deviation, while [underlined] deceleration [/underlined] cause deviation in the opposite direction.


[Page Break]

[underlined] Magnetic Dip[/underlined] – correction of


For the correction of dip the suppression methos is used.
The system is supported (at P) above its centre of gravity (G). The system will alt, when dip takes place, in the vertical plane about the N & S axis therefore displacing the centre of gravity so G is no longer directly below P- this displacement results in a couple which is equal to and directly opposes the couple caused be the dip – the whole system has a pendulum effect.

[underlined]The angle of the Dip. [/underlined] -At North Pole – 90°. Equator 0° Sthn. Lat. (England approx. 66°)

[underlined] Residential Dip.[/underlined] – or dip after correction.


1/. Magnetic needle with no dip

2/. Magnetic needle with considerable dip.

[underlined]Northerly turning error [/underlined] – Magnetic element moves in same direction as a/c. Indicates a) slower rate of turn than actual b) no turn at all c) Opposite turn.

A compass, owing to the fact that Earth’s Total Magnetic force is inclined. (In England) at an angle of 67° to the horizontal, is pivoted above its centre of gravity. This causes a pendulum effect compensating the effect of the magnetic dip.

Continued over page.

[Page Break]

[underlined] The Altimeter [/underlined]

The [underlined]Isothermal convention [/underlined] ensures that the ground pressure is 1032 millibars, and ground [deleted] pressure [/deleted] [inserted] temperature [/inserted] is 10° cont. and temp remains constant all the way up.

The I.C.A.N. convention assumes that the ground pressure is 1013 millibars and the ground temp is 15° cont. and decreases at the rate of [inserted] 1.98° cont. [/inserted] cent per thousand feet up to 36.090’feet where the temp. should be -56.5 ° cont. Above that is supposed to be constant.

[underlined] The instruments under each convention[/underlined]

[underlined] ISOTHERMAL[/underlined]- ALL altimeters except sensitive altimeters and computers.

[underlined] ICAN [/underlined] – Sentitive altimeters, computer and special testing instruments.

[underlined] Causes of errors with altimeters. [/underlined]

a/. Atmosphere condition different from those of conventions. (This may be corrected with computer)

b/. Lag – due to mechanical friction.


[Page Break]

[underlined]Dip – Turning error contd. [/underlined]

This has no effect on a course as long as the compass is horizontal, but when it is inclined about its N/S axis, it immediately obeys the force of dip and will swing towards this angle.

When on a Northerly course and the plane is banked to turn to the East the needle will immediately turn with the plane, while the plane is banked, but when the plane resumes the horizontal the needle will show the correct turn. Thus it can be seen that on a N. course the compass is sluggish.

On a Southerly course the needle will be very sensitive.



[underlined] The Air Speed Indicator [/underlined]

Air is forced into the pitot tube and forms pressure in same which is transferred to the diaphram [sic] or capsule in the instrument. The higher the pressure the further does the capsule push the connecting arms which in turn rotate the lever attached is the needle registering the air speed. The calibration of the dial s not regular as the pressure in the pitot tube increases quicker than actual air speed and alowance [sic] is made for this. The hair spring behind the wheel attached to the pointer is to stop any backlash as the cogs are loosely corrected to prevent friction.

The Static Pressure head is not open at the end like the pitot tube but is perforated with small holes. A correcting tube leads to the actual casing of the instrument ensuring that the pressure of air in the instrument is roughly the same as the surrounding outside air. If this were not so the difference in pressure would influence the capsule or diaphram [sic].
[underlined]THE ELECTRICALY HEATED PITOT HEAD [/underlined]

This is very useful for high altitude flying when the whole pressure head may be heated at the pilot’s will should any moisture, which may have collected in the pitot.

[underlined] THE TRAPPED PITOT HEAD[/underlined]

This is used chiefly in the tropics to prevent insects clogging the pitot head. The filter inserted at the mouth of the pitot head ensure that no foreign substances passes in its cam.

[Page Break]

A.P. 1234 Chap. 5 Para 3.4.5.
Chap. 13. Para 1-5
Chap 11. Para 2-6. 8 &9

[underlined] THE A.S.I. CONTD.[/underlined]

[underlined]Positioning of the pressure head [/underlined]

The pressure head must be placed so that it is clear of airscrew slipstream or eddies, there is however always some eddy affecting the pressure of air in the pitot head and no causing a slight error in the reading of altitude. This is called ‘position’ error.’ In aircraft of similar type this should always be the same.

[underlined]A.S.I. Faults [/underlined]

A Slight amount of lag when changing air speed is caused by friction in the mechanism. The pressure head tubes should be parallel to the line of flight, if this is not so the air will not blow directly into the pitot tube and at the same time will blow into the holes of the static tube. To avoid this the angle between the pressure head and line of flight must not be more than 10° or the error will be so large as to render the instrument useless.

When the airspeed indicator is calibrated it should be accurate with the limit of + or – 2m.p.h. (1.75% of indicated w/s for 1,000ft to he added)

Stoppage of static or pitot tubes, darts, fruits in same or leaks etc, will cause serious errors.

[Page Break]

[underlined] THE COMPASS CONTD.[/underlined]

[underlined]THE APERIODIC TYPE. [/underlined]

The characteristics of the aperiodic compass are heavy damping and a large magnetic field moment compared to the [indecipherable word] of the system, which must be small. The damping is secured by fitting damping filaments- which are thin metal rods or glass tubes – to the magnet system, they project units of liquid, and, by reason of the resistance offered by the liquid, exercise the damping effect. The further the filaments project, the greater is the damping produced. A large magnetic moment is necessary in order that the compass shall not be sluggish in action. Usually four to six short, powerful magnetic needles are used instead of the two longer needles in the older type A. Small inertia is essential so the weight of the system as much as is practicable is reduced and by concentrating its mass as close to the centre as possible. The weight is usually 1/10th ounce in air. It is not feasible to fit a card of anything like the usual size without increasing the inertia too greatly. This has led to the special method of indication the chouse as in the P.4 and 0.3 types.

Such a heavily dampened system will never compete on oscillation after deflection, it follows that it cannot have a paradox time, accordingly it is described as aperiodic.

Advantages of the aperiodic system.

a/. After being disturbed it quickly returns to the meridian because of its strong magnetic moment and stops promptly on rearing its seating position by reason of its heavy damping.

b/. The magnet system is carefully balanced and is mounted on a suspension almost frictionless, consisting of a pivot, of german

[Page Break]

silver tipped with iridium, bearing in a cup of sapphire mounted on a stem attached to the bottom of the compass bowl in such a manner as will prevent the system from becoming unstripped. All parts of a compass other than the magnets themselves are made of non-magnetic material. For the bowl and container, brass is generally used, and the magnet systems are of german silver.

[underlined]LIQUID USED IN COMPASS [/underlined]

[underlined] Requirements[/underlined]:- Transparency and cheapness.
Low freezing point (for high altitude)
Small coefficient of expansion to prevent unduly large difference of volume of the liquid may not result from temperature changes.
ALCOHOL is found to be the most satisfactory liquid. Small viscosity.

[underlined]LIQUID SWIRL [/underlined]

A disadvantage of filling the compass with liquid is effect called ‘liquid swirl). As the bowl is turned the viscosity of the liquid causes some to be dragged round with the bowl, eddies are set up which tend to set up rotations of the magnet system; an efficient compass cannot therefore be made very small. Alcohol, through it small viscosity together with the cylindrical bowl minimises this effect but liquid swirl is still a noticeable cause of error during change of course.


1/. Test for Pivot-stick

2/. Draw off magnetic system to one side – allow it to settle – do same to opposite side – difference should not be more than 1°

3/. Loko for bubble in liquid. Liquid should be clear.

4/. Grid ring to work properly.

5/. Move compass in all directions to test suspension system.

[Page Break]

[underlined] Cross Country Flight[/underlined] – standard procedure.

1/. Lay down intended track on map and study the whole of the track carefully, especially the first and last 15 or 20 miles.

2/. From available meteorological information select suitable height for flight. (Compute A/S for selected height)

3/. Calculate course, G/S, & E.T.A., enter these on route card or form 433.

4./ Mark off along track a distance scale at suitable intervals, say 10 miles.

5/. Draw 10° lines to the track at the aerodrome of dep. & arriv.

6/. Set calculated course on compass – note direction in which aerodrome should be left before taking off.

7/. Climb to selected height and trim A/C

8/. Fly over centre of aerodrome at the correct height and A/S and on calculated course.

9/. Note exact time of departure when over centre of aerodrome.

10/. Maintain accurate course until position of a/c can be checked in relation to a land mark, the check should generally be from 5-10 mins. After time of departure.

11/. If not on desired track – estimate number of degrees error.

12/. Alter course towards track by amount of error and note corrected course, then make small additional corrections to course to bring A/C gradually over track.

13/. When over track steer corrected course as noted.

14/. Take all available opportunities of calculating/S and mentally checking E.T.A

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[underlined]Cap.9. Paras 8 &9. [/underlined]

[underlined] The two point method for locating position[/underlined]


A = Starting point B = Destination
X = Landmark y = Landmark

2.3. 4.5. = Set at equal distances – equal to distance between X & Y

The landmarks X & Y should be in sight of aerodrome so that method of finding curse to steer may be carried out [symbol].

[underlined] Method of use. [/underlined]

a./ Distance between X & Y is measured out along track.

b./ Time taken to travel from X – Y is worked out.

c./ Pilot checks each pint as he passes over it and notes time.

d./ Should he get lost before reaching next point he notes time and checks distance for that time on the track.

e./ He is then fairly certain not to be far away from estimated position. ([symbol])

[Page Break]

[underlined]The 10 ° line method of locating position [/underlined]

(if after 60 miles A/C is found to be 1 mile off track error is 1°)


Double the error to return to track – then take off half to continue along it. [symbol] Finding course to steer when doubtful of wind (the two landmarks (X&Y) are reached and – looking back set in line with aerodrome – this gives course to steer x W/V.

[underlined] METHOD OF USE. [/underlined]

a) Pilot discovers he is off track and over landmark X.

b) Pilot finds landmark X is approximately half of 10°

c) He alters his course accordingly.

[Page Break]

[underlined]SCALES [/underlined]

Two types – Fully divided and Open Divided.

[underlined] The [deleted] open [/deleted] [inserted] Fully [/inserted] Divided Scale. [/underlined]


In this scale the secondary divisions are marked all along the scale.

[underlined]The Open Divided Scale [/underlined]


In this scale only one of the primary divisions is divided into secondary divisions, and the zero mark is the 2nd primary divisions from the left.

[underlined]To Construct a Scale [/underlined]

Example:- To construct a scale of 2” to 1 mile to show hundreds of yards.

The representation fraction [calculations]

To show 5.000 yds. The length of the scale line must be [calculation]

A line 5.68” in length must be drawn divided into 5 primary.
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divisions, and subdivided into 10 secondary divisions.
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[underlined] TIME SCALES[/underlined]

Time scales are made with reference to the scale of the particular map being used and to the ground speed.

Example: - G/S 100-200 m.p.h. on 1/4” to 1 mile map.


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“RAF notebook,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed June 16, 2024, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/36701.

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