Edward Mathews flight engineers course notebook

MMatthewsEH1899046-151002-01.pdf

Title

Edward Mathews flight engineers course notebook

Description

For Halifax III and VI. Includes duties of flight engineer, annotated drawing of flight engineer's panel, details of systems: anti-icing, oxygen, cabin heating, flying controls, pneumatic system, pyrotechnics, Messier hydraulic system, flap circuit, bomb door circuit, undercarriage, hot/cold air intake circuit, landing lamp, fuel system (including damage drills), long range tanks system, and nitrogen system. Continues with maintenance away from base, pre-flight, starting, take-off after take-off and before landing checks. Covers Graviner fire system, fire drills, Q-Type dinghy, ditching drill. Goes on with electrical and instrument systems including, RAE compressor, air intake, oil separator, chemical air dryer and other gauges and instruments. Details many other checks including jettison of bombs. Gives details of Hercules XVI engine, DH Hydromatic propeller, other engine systems and engine handling throughout flight.

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Language

Format

Multi-page notebook with handwritten entries

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IBCC Digital Archive

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This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.

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Identifier

MMatthewsEH1899046-151002-01

Transcription

E. MATTHEWS

1899046

[underlined] HALIFAX III & VI

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[blank page]

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[underlined] DUTIES OF A FLIGHT ENGINEER. [/underlined]

1. To act as a technical member of the crew capable of advising but not instructing the captain regarding engines & aircraft generally.
2. To deal with any mechanical hitch which may develop.
3. To deal with emergency operation of hydraulics.
4. To handle various controls.
5. To compute & log various data relating to the operation of the aircraft.
6. To control distribution of fuel (always in collaboration with captain).
7. To act as Liaison between aircrew & ground staff.
8. To act as a stand-by gunner & to launch pyrotechnics.
9. To supervise maintenance away from base.

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1. CYLINDER TEMP. GAUGES
2. OIL PRESSURE
3. PORT OIL INLET TEMP.
4. STARBD. OIL INLET TEMP.
5. CONTENTS GAUGE SWITCH
6. FUEL PRESSURE LIGHTS
7. PORT CONTENTS
8. STARBD. CONTENTS
9. ENGINE STARTING BUTTONS
10. OIL DILUTION
11. BOOSTER SWITCHS [sic]
12. GILL POSITION INDICATORS
13. GILL SWITCH
14. EXTENDED RANGE TANK GAUGE
15. PANEL LIGHTING SWITCH
16. TEST BUTTON
17. WARNING LIGHT
18. LONG RANGE FUSELAGE TEST BUTTON
19. FUEL TRANSFER PUMP SWITCH
20. FUEL TRANSFER PUMP FUSELAGE TANKS
21. AMMETER SOCKET
22. L.R.T. WARNING LIGHT

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[diagram] [underlined] FLIGHT ENGINEERS PANEL [/underlined]

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[underlined] ANTI-ICING [/underlined]

[diagram]

The pilots screen & bomb aimers panel are de-iced by de-icing fluid. A small pump fitted on the right hand side of pilots seat & draws fluid from a tank in the navigators position & pumps it onto the screen through small jets fitted in front of them. The pump for bomb aimers panel is situated on starboard position & pumps the fluid through small holes in panel retaining screws.

A small cock situated under anti-icing tank must be turned on before flight. The pressure head is heated by a small electric element controlled by a switch on pilots roof panel switch “on” before take-off.

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[underlined] OXYGEN SYSTEM [/underlined]

[diagram]

Oxygen is stored in 21 bottles, 15 under F.E.'s platform and 6 behind F.E.'s bulkhead. The bottles are charged through a valve fitted on port side of fuselage under leading edge. In event of any damage complete loss of oxygen is prevented by a system of non return valves.

Main supply cock is situated at bottom of F.E.'s panel and when turned on allows oxygen to flow to MK 10A regulator on starbd. side pilots instrument panel. The regulator comprises of contents gauge and delivery gauge. From the regulator the oxygen flows through manifolds to each of 13 economisers but will only issue

[page break]
from them when flexible line has been removed from cut off valve.

[underlined] N.B. [/underlined] No cut off valve in pilots position, oxygen will issue as soon as regulator is turned on.

As economisers for the gunners are fitted inside turrets and cut-off valve outside small metal bobbins are fitted to plug cut-off valve. Remove these on take-off.

[underlined] PRE-FLIGHT OXYGEN CHECK [/underlined]
1. Open main supply cock fully
2. Open stop valve on master regulator and check contents (min 7/8 full)
3. Open Regulator valve until delivery gauge reads 40,000
4. Remove all flexible lines and bobbins from cut-off valves check flow indicator flicks to “on” an check 5-9 puffs per min from each economiser
5. Recheck contents (no noticeable drop)
6. Replace all flexible lines and bobbins
7. Check portable bottles for contents remembering to close valve after check.

[underlined] PORTABLE OXYGEN BOTTLE [/underlined]
Contains 10 min supply of oxygen and are carried at each main crew station and in rest position. Luminous indicator contents at night.

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[underlined] CABIN HEATING [/underlined]

[diagram]

Hot air for heating of aircraft is drawn through the flame dampers of each inboard engine and lead via ducts in main planes into vertical trunks on each side of fuselage at the front spat. These trunks are connected across the top and fitted with butterfly valves to control the supply which is delivered to the various crew position by a trunk running along the starbd fuselage wall from which flexible pipes are taken to certain stations. When heating is “off” the hot air escapes to atmosphere through louvres.

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[underlined] FLYING CONTROLS [/underlined]

[diagram]

Movement of main control surfaces is obtained by a sliding movement of push-pull tubes running in Tufnol bearings. Movement of trim tabs is obtained by rotating the same push-pull tubes through a system of bevel gears, chains and sprockets etc.

The aileron trim tab control in cockpit operates starbd tab only, port tab adjusted while aircraft is on the ground.

A locking plate for rudder and elevator controls is fitted on parking aircraft control box, and is stowed when not in use at that point care should be taken when removing this plate as injury has been sustained due to movement of control surfaces when released. The locking device for aileron is a clamp attached to control column when parking and stowed in a bag over starbd rest seat.

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PNEUMATIC SYSTEM

A Heywood compressor driven by port inner engine supplies air for operation of the brakes. The air is stored in a bottle behind F.E.'s bulkhead at max pressure of 300 lbs/ sq in. This pressure is regulated by a Heywood regulator situated behind port inner engine bulkhead, must be drained daily. The external charging valve is fitted in U/C bay near the accumulator.

[underlined] Brakes [/underlined]

Each main U/C is fitted with two Dunlop brake units, pressure to which is controlled by a brake lever on control column through medium of dual relay unit, the functions of this relay unit are:-
1. To reduce the pressure from 300 lbs to max brake pressure of 90 lbs/sq in. 2. To give progressive braking according amount brake lever is applied.
3. To give differential braking when according to position of rudder bar. The min pressure for take-off is 200 lbs/sq in indicated on T.P. I G

Should the brakes be applied rudder bar central and less than 90 lbs/sq in obtained in both brakes this can be increased by adjusting on Bowden Cable. Should different Pressures be obtained no adjustment is allowed
N.B. Brakes must be applied after take-off.

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PYROTECHNICS

Signal cartridges are used in accordance with Admiralty & Air Ministry. The pistol firing point in roof of F.E. compartment.
The cartridges are stowed in a rack fitted behind pilots bulkhead near F.E.’s platform.
N.B. It is advisable never to load pistol unless fitted in firing point.

CARTRIDGE Single Star. COLOUR of SIGNAL white red. yellow green. IDENTIFICATION 1/2 inch coloured band (colour of signal)

CARTRIDGE Double Star. COLOUR of SIGNAL green - green. red - red. yellow - yellow. green - red. red - yellow. green - yellow IDENTIFICATION 2 triangle same colour as signal

CARTRIDGE Changing Star. COLOUR of SIGNAL yellow – green. white – green. IDENTIFICATION Two 1/4” bands colour of signal

CARTRIDGE 3 Star. COLOUR of SIGNAL Various Colours. IDENTIFICATION 3 triangle colour of signal

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MESSIER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
PUMP CIRCUIT
When a selection requiring pump pressure is made & E.D.P. driven by starbd inner engine draws fluid from a tank fitted behind that engine bulkhead & delivers it under pressure through filter & cut-out valve to system.

The function of cut out valve is to provide an idling circuit for pump at completion of operation. It cuts-out when a pressure 2500 lbs/sq in has been reached & cuts in when pressure falls to 2000 lbs/sq in.

The cut-out accumulator charged with initial air pressure 1850 lbs/sq in when piston is at bottom. The gauge & inflation valve is fitted beside accumulator in starbd retraction bay. Hammering of cut out valve will be in most cases caused by insufficient air pressure in accumulator.

The hand pump port side front side spar is used for normal operation on ground & emergency operation in the air should E.D.P. be U.S. a pressure of 2800 lbs/sq in can be built up before pressure limiting valve relieves this pressure should cut out fail P.L.V. will relieve E.D.P.

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[diagram]

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[underlined] FLAP CIRCUIT [/underlined]

[diagram]

The flaps are lowered by pressure from an accumulator situated on starbd side of fuselage behind rear spar. An isolation cock is fitted in the line between accumulator and the jacks is situated on rear face rear spar, the function of the isolation cock is to isolate pressure in the accumulator when flaps are up so that should damage be sustained between distributor & jack the accumulator pressure will not lower flaps. The isolation cocks are closed when flaps are raised after take off & opened when preparing to land.

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Should flaps come down their own accord during flight due to isolation cock being open & hydraulic lock broken it will be impossible to raise them again hydraulically. It maybe found possible to raise them almost fully in following manner:-

1. Close isolation cock. 2. Disconnect jack line at isolation cock. 3. Increase speed of aircraft until flaps blow up. 4. Reconnect jack line. There should be still sufficient pressure to lower flaps partly for landing.

If damage has been sustained between distributor & jack as soon as isolation cock is opened the flaps will come down & pilot be taken unawares. If F.E. suspects damage he should proceed as follows:-

1. Ensure flap selector neutral. 2. Ask pilot to watch indicator then open isolation cock 1/2 a turn. 3. If pilot reports no movement on indicator everything O.K. but if any movement is reported the flaps will have to be lowered by opening isolation cock slowly.

[underlined] Flap Indicator [/underlined]

Mounted on pilots panel registering 0° - 80°. The pilot can obtain any degree of movement by returning selector lever to neutral when required number of degrees are obtained.

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[underlined] BOMB DOOR CIRCUIT [/underlined]

The bomb doors are opened by pressure from an accumulator fitted port side front spar. An isolation cock fitted under accumulator isolates the pressure from the jacks when doors are closed so that should damage be sustained between distributor & jacks the doors will not automatically open. The isolation cock should be

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left open when carrying bombs & closed as soon as bombs are gone & doors are closed.

The fuselage selector cock fitted F.E.s position is installed to stop the travel of fuselage doors when carrying 4000 or 8000lb bombs & need not be opened far to open doors, but it must be closed when carrying bombs. After dropping bombs it must be opened to allow doors to be closed.

A hydraulic locking valve fitted is to prevent pump pressure escaping through a damaged accumulator when using emergency.

[underlined] TO CLOSE BOMB DOORS [/underlined]
1. Isolation cock open. 2. Select doors closed.
3. To check doors are closed either check accumulator pressure (1000# - 1100#) or open bomb station covers.
4. If doors do not close check selection & use hand pump as E.D.P may be U/S.

[underlined] TO OPEN DOORS [/underlined] (INCLUDING EMERGENCY)
1. Select doors open
2. If indication lights on [underlined both [/underlined] panels do not appear after sufficient time check selection
3. Check isolation cock & if open: -
4. Check accumulator pressure if low close isolation cock to allow E.D.P pressure to accumulator side of jacks

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5. If unsuccessful operate hand-pump
6. The emergency cock must be closed & isolation cock opened before selecting doors closed.

If on checking accumulator a pressure of 1000# is shown this would indicate the doors were still closed it may mean improper selection has been made or that distributor is not functioning properly. Operate distributor by any means possible if this is impossible the hydraulic lock can be broken by removing centre pipe from distributor this should only be done with approval of pilot make it clear to him that once doors are open it may be impossible to close them again.

[underlined] BOMB DOOR INDICATION LIGHTS [/underlined]
A set of three lights fitted on co-pilots panel & fitted on bomb aimers panel. The lights are green starbd, white fuselage doors red, port wing doors. These lights only appear when doors are fully open & not until appropriate light has come “on” can bomb aimer release bombs electrically from the particular section.

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[underlined] UNDER CARRIAGE [/underlined]
Consists of two main U/C units and tailwheel unit all hydraulically retracted. Messier oleo strut is a feature of each unit & in adition [sic] the main U/c units are fitted with pneumatically operated brakes.

When a/c is on the ground the U/C selector lever is prevented from being moved to “up” position by a solenoid block. This solenoid is energised through a switch on stabd U/C when weight is taken from wheels on take-off allowing “up” selection.

In event of solenoid failure the lock can be released manually.

[underlined] UNDER CARRIAGE CIRCUIT [/underlined]
each u/c is lowered by pressure from an accumulator situated in each retraction bay.
The lowering is greatly assisted by gravity & bungee cables fitted to radius rods. A hydraulic locking valve fitted to U/c jack for following purpose :-
1. To form a hydraulic lock in “down” position
2. To prevent pump pressure going to damage accumulator when using emergency.
[underlined] “UP” LOCK [/underlined]
1. Hydraulic lock formed between jack & distributor N.R.V

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2. Mechanised “up” lock this only comes into use should hydraulic lock be broken

[underlined] “Down” locks [/underlined]
1. Geometric lock formed by position of radius rods in relation to U/C arch.
2. Hydraulic locking valve each jack
3. Internal jack lock these locks can be checked on ground by indicator at base of jack

[underlined] UNDER CARRIAGE CIRCUIT [/underlined]

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[underlined] Tail Wheel Jack [/underlined]
The jack is retracted by accumulator pressure to lower the tail wheel & extended by pump pressure to raise it. There are three switches on the jack, the switch on top of jack & one on starbd side give green, as soon as any of these switches on port side causes red to go out when fully up.
As soon as any switches are broken indicator shows red.

[underlined] To Raise U/C & Tail wheel [/underlined]
1. Select “Up”
2. When safe height reached engage “Up” locks and check all red lights go out.
3. If red lights still show disengage up lock & use hand pump
4. Rengage [sic] “up” locks & if lights still appear check position of U/C visually.
N.B. The pilot must be advised should this occur as it is evident E.D.P is U/S

[underlined] To lower U/C [/underlined] (Including Emergency)
1. Disengage mechanical “Up” lock
2. Check both “red” lights appear.
If not check fuse No 17
3. Select “down”
4. If only one to two green lights appear & all three reds remain proceed as follows

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5. Open emergency cock
6. If unsuccessful operate handpump
7. If no pressure can be obtained pilot should reduce speed to allow bungee cables to have full effect (This should be tried before emergency cock)
8. After selecting emergency the emergency cock must be closed before landing.
N.B. If on selecting “down” two reds remain on but no others appear it will indicate incorrect selection. If it is found that distributor or linkage is damaged & that normal selection cannot be made try by any means to operate distributor. If impossible disconnect centre line anywhere between distributor & jacks (preferably on tail bulkhead lower pipe to tailwheel jack)

[underlined] Mechanical “Up” lock broken [/underlined]
If “up” lock appears to be broken this can be checked by red failing to appear to that side. Before selecting U/C down ensure sufficient pressure can be obtained on hand pump to shear hook retaining pin then proceed as follows: - Select “down” open emergency cock operate handpump until hook pin shears, close emergency cock.

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[underlined] Standard U/C warning Indicator [/underlined]
Indications are: -
1. U/C & tailwheel down, 3 greens
2. U/c & tailwheel travelling up or down, 3 reds
3. U/C & tailwheel “up” locks disengaged, 2 reds
4. U/C & tailwheel locked up, No lights.
The red light for tailwheel goes out automatically when that unit is fully retracted
any one unit not being fully down will give three reds on indicator. A warning horn fitted if any unit is not fully locked down & throttle lever pulled back 2/3 travel. A red warning light on pilots panel will also appear

[underlined] LANDING LAMP [/underlined]

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[underlined] HOT & COLD AIR INTAKE CIRCUIT [/underlined]
The distributor operated by a control lever at the bottom of the throttle box allows pump pressure to operate jack connected by bloc tube controls to all four intake shutters on the engine. The shutters are spring loaded so that should damage be sustained to hydraulic circuit when in “hot” they automatically return to cold position.

[underlined] LANDING LAMP [/underlined]
Controlled by a junior distributor mounted on left had side of throttle box & is spring loaded in neutral position so that should it be necessary to operate it & E.C.P is U/C it will be necessary to pump up a fair amount of pressure in cut out acc. by hand pump.

Both circuit [sic] depend on pump pressure for operation, movement being obtained in one direction by differences in areas between top & bottom of piston & in other direction by fluid being returned to tank while pump pressure which is always present on other side retracts it. Owing to smallness of jack they can be operated 2 or 3 by pressure from cut out acc.

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[underlined] FUEL SYSTEM [/underlined]
The normal fuel system which has a capacity 1808 galls consists of self-sealing tanks 6 in each main plane. Each tank has a separate filler access to which is obtained by a cover plate on upper surface of mainplane provision is also made there for inserting a dipstick. Each tank with exception of No 6 which is connected to No 5 feeds thru’ its respective tank cock into main gallery line from which the feed to each engine is taken.

Two wing balance cocks & main balance cock are fitted in main gallery line so that when closed they divide system into 4 sections each section feeding one engine.

[underlined] FUEL RULES [/underlined]
1. All balance cocks must be closed on take off & over target area.
2. Main balance cock may only be opened in an emergency & with captains’ permission.
3. Never allow and engine or engines to draw fuel from more than 1 tank at same time.
4. For same reason when making tank changes always close one in use before putting other “on”
5. All tank changes should be carried out in complete collaboration with pilot
6. Never drain tank completely when carrying

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a bomb load. This might cause an engine to cut. Tanks may be drained however at a safe height if not carrying bombs and with pilots’ permission.
7. Control distribution of fuel so that there is no danger of changing tank in vicinity of target.
8. The pilot should be warned when 1 hrs supply remain & later when 1/2 hrs remain.
9. It is advisable if possible to land with wing balance cocks closed.

[page break]
[underlined] FUEL SYSTEM DAMAGE [/underlined]

[underlined] Damage I [/underlined]

[underlined] INDICATION [/underlined]
A gauge of tank turned off shows a drop

[underlined] POSSIBLE CAUSES [underlined]
1. Damage to a tank
2. Damage to tank line between tank & tank cock.
[underlined] Engineers Action [/underlined]
1. It is advisable subject to capt approval to run 2-3 or 4 of damage tank depending on:-
A. Rate of loss. B. Contents of tank. C. Condition of flight.
2. Damage to tank line will not be indicated unless line is so seriously damage [sic] as to present the fuel from feeding the engine. Although The flow may be sufficient to feed one engine it may not be enough to feed two, and it is absolutely essential the engineer should ensure that when running fuel from a supposedly damaged tank to more than one engine – each engine picks up before turning on another. To do this watch fuel warning light on each successive change.

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DAMAGE II

INDICATION
The gauge of tank turned “on” shows excessive consumption no warning light showing, engine continues to run.
[underlined POSSIBLE CAUSES. [/underlined]
1. Damage to tank
2. Damage to line between tank & tank cock
3. Damage to line between tank cock & master cock & fuel pump.
[underlined] ENGINEERS ACTION [underlined]
1. 2. 3. 4. Close affected tank open another. If affected tank turned “off” shows a drop this will indicate damage 1 or 2 action as No 1 damage.
If tank turned off is constant new tank turned “on” shows excessive consumption indicates 3 or 4.
If damage is between master cock & pump No 4 there is a danger of fire, engineer should proceed as follows :-
Stop engine, close master cock. If tank turned on no longer shows a drop this indicates damage to line between master cock & pump 4 and engine should be left feathered while fuel in tanks of that section should be run run [sic] to other engine (as normal engine failure). If on closing master cock tank still shows a

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drop this indicates damage between tank cock & master cock. 3. and it will be advisable to run fuel from the tank affected to others as soon as possible depending on rate of loss. The engine stopped may be restarted in this operation. As soon as all the fuel has been used from tanks in affected sections engine should be stopped and engineer should revert to normal fuel system for 3 engines.

DAMAGE III

[underlined] INDICATION [/underlined]
Fuel pressure warning light comes “on” engine cuts a gauge of tank feeding that engine shows a great drop.
[underlined] POSSIBLE CAUSES. [/underlined]
1. Serious damage to line between tank & tank cock.
2. Serious damage to line between tank cock & master cock.
3. Serious damage to line between engine master cock & fuel pump.
[underlined] ENGINEERS ACTION [/underlined]
1.2.3. Close affected tank & turn “on” another. If engine now picks up this will indicate that the line between original tank & tank cock damaged. 1. The fuel in this tank must now be considered lost but engine safe.

[page break]

If engine remains cut on turning “on” other tank it indicates 2 & 3. Feather engine close master cock for that engine and watch gauge of tank still “on”.

If no drop is registered this indicates 3. so that engine is lost, but fuel in that section may be now fed to other engines. If on closing master cock tank still “on” continues to drop this will indicates damage 2. so that engine & fuel in that section is lost. This is worst circumstances that could occur.
N.B. If fuel pressure warning light does come “on” & engine cuts do not any account open wing balances cock as engine on that side may also cut.

DAMAGE IV

[underlined] INDICATION [/underlined]
Both pressure warming lights appear with rapid rate of loss. Wing balance cock open.
[underlined] POSSIBLE CAUSES [/underlined]
1. Serious damage to lines between tank & engine either inboard or outboard.
[underlined] ENGINEERS ACTION [/underlined]
Close wing balance cock and open tank in inner section. One engine should pick up. Action to be taken with the engine which remains cut proceed

[page break]

as for other damages.

[underlined] LONG RANGE TANK SYSTEM [/underlined]
1.2.3. Self sealing tanks with a capacity of 230 gal each can be fitted as required in fuselage bomb compartment. An electric immersion pump in each tank is used to transfer the fuel via two distributor cocks to tanks 1 & 3 either side of a/c when these tanks have been sufficiently emptied to accommodate it. Owing to position of pump in the tanks it is advisable to fly a/c level when transferring last 30 gal.

To fill front, centre & rear long range tanks remove the bomb station covers in floor on starbd side. The contents gauges which are fitted on the tank can be seen by removing port bomb station cover.

[underlined] EXTENDED RANGE TANK [/underlined]
Tanks of capacity 95 gals each are fitted to special order in outer wing bomb cell of mainplane. An immersion pump in each tank is used to transfer the fuel as required to wing tanks No 1 on each side. The position of long range distributor cocks make no difference to this, refuelling is carried out through wing bomb inspection panel.

[blank page]

[page break]


[underlined] NITROGEN SYSTEM [/underlined]
The object of this system is to fill the space in the tank above the fuel with nitrogen at a low pressure to prevent the forming of an explosive air-fuel mixture. Nitrogen is stored in 6 bottles in each buoyancy chamber at a pressure of 1800#. The system is charged through external charging valve in roof of fuselage bomb compartment. The gas is fed from bottles to main supply cock & pressure gauge fitted above port rest seat. When cock is open the gas flows through Palmer valve reduces pressure from 1800# to 20 lb and amal valve feeds it to tanks at .2 to .4 above atmosphere. Tanks are vented trough 2 Manley Regulus vent under mainplane these vent outward if pressure in tank reaches .5 lb above atmosphere & inward if pressure in tank falls below that of atmosphere due to steep descent. The main supply cock should be turned on after engines are started pressure being noted on F.E.’s log in oxygen “off” column subsequent reading noted hourly a final reading made on landing when cock should be turned off.

[blank page]

[page break]


[underlined] MAINTENANCE AWAY FROM BASE [/underlined]
[underlined] Towing [/underlined] The a/c must not be towed backward over heavy or rough ground.
[underlined] Picketing [/underlined] Mooring ropes & picketing eye bolts are stowed in step up to floor over bomb compartment. Point for screwing in eye bolts are:-
1. Outboard of each outer engine.
2. Under fuselage forward of fuselage door.
[underlined] Maintenance [/underlined] In event of a/c landing away from base it is FE responsibility to supervise to refuelling etc & to ensure adequate inspection is carried out & form 700 A signed. Should repairs be necessary he will telephone engineer officer giving details particulars of requirements so suitably equipped maintenance party may be sent. He should always carry keys of a/c so that it can be locked under such circumstances.

[underlined] PREFLIGHT CHECK [/underlined]
[underlined] Outside Hide Aircraft [/underlined]
1. Pressure head & various covers removed
2. Check tyres for creep & cuts
3. Check tyre pressures
4. Check oleo’s for even extension
5. U/C accumulator pressure 250#
6. Cut out accumulator pressure 1850# piston bottle
7. Remove static vent plug

[page break]

8. Cowlings secure
9. Check leading edge for icing.
10. Wheels checked

[underlined] INSIDE AIRCRAFT [/underlined]
1. Controls (rudder & elevator) unlocked
2. Tailwheel accumulator 250#
3. First aid stowed, shell dressing in position
4. Flap isolation cock “open”
5. Flap accumulator pressure 400 lb
6. Main balance & wing balance cock closed
7. Tanks 1 & 3 on port & starbd “on”
8. Mechanical up locks disengaged
9. Bomb door isolation cock closed or opened
10. Bomb door accumulator pressure doors open 700#
11. Cabin heating “off”
12. Batteries connected
13. Ground – flight switch to flight
14. Check seals on emergency cocks
15. Oxygen main supply cock on carry out oxygen check
16. Signal cartridges stowed & rested
17. Remove aileron locking fear
18. Check flying controls.
20. Check contents
21. Check pilots escape hatch & ensure that forward hatch will open & lift off hinges.

[page break]
22. Crash axes stowed
23. All fuselage lamp serviceable
24. Pyrotechnics & lose equiptment [sic] stowed
[underlined] PRIOR TO STARTING [/underlined]
1. Check U/c lever down green light “on”
2. Bomb door closed lever nuetral [sic]
3. Flaps down lever nuetral [sic]
4. Carb intakes cold
5. Brakes “on”
6. Master fuel cocks “on”
7. Ground – Flight switch “ground”
[underlined] WARMING UP [/underlined]
1. Ground – Flight switch “flight”
2. Test flaps return lever nuetral [sic]
3. Pressure head switch “on”
4. Nitrogen supply “on” check contents
5. Check brake pressure 200 [symbol]
6. Safety harness adjusted
[underlined] BEFORE TAKE OFF [/underlined]
1. Trim
2. Flaps 30o
3. Check fuel warning lights
[underlined] AFTER TAKE OFF [/underlined]
1. Brake wheel
2. U/c “up”
3 Flaps “up” 4. Engage mechanical up lock
5. If closed open bomb door Isolation cock
[page break]
6. Close flap isolation cock
7. Hydraulic levers nuetral [sic]
[underlined] BEFORE LANDING [/underlined]
1. Check hydraulic & brake pressure
2. Open flap isolation cock
3. Flaps down 30o – 35o
4. U/c down visual & electric check
[underlined] GRAVINER FIRE SYSTEM [/underlined]
Methyl Bromide extinguishers are used to deal with fires which may break out in the engine
Each engine has a complete extinguisher system consisting of graviner bottle with perforated pipeline leading from it to cylinder & carb.
They are fired electrically allowing contents to be released. Methods of electrical release as follows:-
1. [underlined] Manual Switches [/underlined] four push button switches mounted port side pilots seat each button controlling one system
2. [underlined] Impact Switch [/underlined] fitted under navigators table operates on impact fire all four systems
3. [underlined] Gravity Switch [/underlined] fitted under impact switch operates all four engines systems if a/c is inverted with U/c locked down.
[underlined] Fire Drill [/underlined]
1. Feather prop 2. Turn off fuel 3. If fire goes out do not operate extinguisher 4. If fire persists
[page break]
press approiate [sic] button after prop has stopped
5. On no account prop be unfeathered after fire even if extinguisher has not been used.
6. If inboard engine effected [sic] turn off cabin heating
[underlined] HAND EXTINGUISHERS [/underlined]
7. portable extinguishers are fitted in the a/c 5 small, 2 large, The large types are operated by depressing a plunger with extinguisher inverted. Small types are operated by unscrewing the valve anticlock. It is advisable to open escape hatches after extinguisher has been used to ventilate a/c. After using any extinguisher make a note should be made in log & make sure that extinguisher is renewed.
[underlined] POSITION OF HAND EXTINGUISHERS [/underlined]
1. Near rear turret
2. Near flare chute
3. Above starbd rest seat
4. Front face pilots bulk
5. Forward main electric panel
6. Roof F.E. position [bracket] large (MK III)
7. Roof Navigation position [bracket]
[page break]
[underlined] Q TYPE DINGHY [/underlined]
[underlined] STOWAGE [/underlined]
The dinghy is stowed in a small watertight compartment in the rear of port centre plane. On inflation the compartment lid is forced off by the pressure in the dinghy allowing it to emerge.
[undelrined] NORMAL METHODS OF DINGHY RELEASE [/underlined]
1. Electrically a circuit is completed by emersion switches fitted in the nose of a/c under bomb aimers position. When coming in contact with water on ditching. This fires a cartridge in the operating head which in turn operates a cutter piercing the seal in the neck of CO2 releasing it.
2. [underlined] Manually [/underlined] a manual release is fitted on port
[page break]
side of fuselage the rear ditching hatch. It is connected to operating heading by a cable & when pulled operates cutters (This release must be pulled after ditching)
[underlined] EMERGENCY RELEASE [/underlined]
Should emmersion & manual release fail F.E. will adopt following procedure:-
1. Break perspex panel with heel of boot
2. Putt toggle attached operating head
3. If on pulling toggle dinghy does not inflate remove stowage cover extract dinghy & inflate with bellows
[underlined] F.E. DITCHING DRILL [/underlined]
1. Acknowledge ditching order
2. Stow seat. Remove parachute harness stow behind armoured bulkhead clear of gangway
3. Open mid escape hatch
4. Deisolate flap accumulator
5. Assist mid-upper gunner with rear hatch & detach hand line ready for exit.
6. Take up ditching position behind rear spar inflate Mae West brace up for double shock of ditching hands behind head.
7. When a/c has come to rest pull manual release & proceed out of rear exit taking life line.
8. Each crew member makes his exit in turn & when all are on board dinghy pointer is cut & cast off.
[page break]
[underlined] ELECTRICS & INSTRUMENTS
BLIND FLYING INSTRUMENTS
ALTIMETER [/underlined] (MK XIV)
Has 3 partially evacuated capsules & 3 pointers 100. 1000. 10.000.
A change of pressure due to change of height causes movement of the capsules which is conveyed to pointers.
[underlined] BEFORE FLIGHT [/underlined]
1. Set B.P. of base on sub scale
2. Pointers should read 0 [symbol] 50 ft
3. Pointers must be at ‘0’ for take-off
[underlined] DURING FLIGHT [/underlined]
1. Set sea level BP of base
2. Pointer will indicate height above S.L
[underlined] BEFORE LANDING [/underlined]
1. Signal Q.F.E for B.P. of base
2. Set on sub scale pointers will indicate height above base.
[underlined] RATE OF CLIMB INDICATOR [/underlined]
Connected to static vent measures rate of change of pressure when pressure is constant pointer will read zero.
[underlined] BEFORE FLIGHT [/underlined]
1. See pointer on zero
2. If pointer is within 200 ft/min of zero it may be adjusted to zero by a small screw in
[page break]
in bottom right hand corner of flange
Tap glass while adjusting.
[underlined] Air Speed Indicator [/underlined]
Measures pressure of air opposing aircraft due to forward movement. The pressure is conducted from pitot to inside of capsule the instrument case connected to static pressure.
[underlined] BEFORE FLIGHT [/underlined]
1. See pointer is off zero (vertical)
2. See correction card is present
[underlined] FAULTS [/underlined]
If glass of A.S.I or other is broken reading will be inaccurate.
[underlined] THEY GYROSCOPE
PROPERTIES [/underlined]
1. [underlined] Rigidity [/underlined] Tries to maintain plane of spin
2. [underlined] Precession [/underlined] A force applied to outer ring will cause the inner ring to precess. The higher the speed of rotation the less the precession The greater the applied force the greater the precession.
[underlined] TYPES [/underlined]
1. [underlined] SPACE GYRO [/underlined] is one that will maintain its position in space & will apparently precess 360o in 24 hr due to rotation of the earth.
2. Controlled Gyro is the one which is gravity controls to conform to curvature & rotation of the earth
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[underlined] DIRECTION INDICATOR [/underlined]
1. To assist in maintaining the a/c on a straight course.
2. To give steady indication during turn. Must be used in conjunction with magnetic compass & reset every 15 min during flight to correct for wander.
FOR TAKE OFF SET TO ZERO & UNCAGE
[underlined] ARTIFICIAL HORIZON [/underlined]
1. Indicates any deviation from level flight
2 Indicates number of degrees of bank.
[underlined] BEFORE TAKE OFF [/underlined]
Horizon bar should settle in a horizontal position at angle of a/c
[underlined] TURN & BANK INDICATOR
BOTTOM POINTER [/underlined]
1. Indicates any deviation from level flight
2. Indicates rate of turn of a/c
[underlined] TOP POINTER [/underlined]
1. Indicates any deviation from lateral level
2. Indicates degrees of side slip on perfect bank
[page break]
[underlined] SUCTION SYSTEM
PESCO PUMP [/underlined]
1. Port inner normally operates B.F. instruments
2. S’Board inner normally operates MK XIV bombsight. A suction relief valve is fitted to maintain a suction contact at 4” – 6” HG at all engine speeds
[underlined] CHANGE OVER COCK [/underlined]
To change over from port to starboard pump in emergency.
[underlined] MK IV AUTO-PILOT
RUDDER & ELEVATOR UNIT [/underlined]
Outer ring of gyro controls rudder
Inner ring controls elevator.
[underlined] AILERON UNIT [/underlined]
Inner ring controls aileron.
[underlined] APPLICATION OF CONTROL DURING DISTURBANCE [/underlined]
Valve piston is connected by linkage to outer or inner of gymbal system & is held rigidly. Valve casing moves with a/c over piston so allowing air pressure to pass to one size of servo motor piston is linked to controls through a quadrant.
[underlined] FOLLOW UP [/underlined]
A bourden cable operated by servo motor moves a main valve back so limiting the amount of control applied. This prevents a/c overshoot
[page break]
[underlined] PITCH ATTITUDE CONTROL [/underlined]
Connected by bowden cable to rotatable port of R & E plate. When operated the plate assumes a position of dive or climb & correction is applied as in a disturbance in pitch.
[underlined] COURSE CHANGE [/underlined]
When steering lever (Pilots) is operated a pressure difference is conveyed to the course change valve. A linkage connected to the piston of the C.C.V applies a force on the inner ring this processes the outer ring & rudder control is applied.
[underlined] TURN REGULATOR [/underlined]
If the outer ring advances in front of a/c by more than 16 1/2o the locating pin on the inner ring will foul the centralizer cone. This will cause a topple of the gimbal system to prevent this a pair of contacts on R & E plate are broken so disengaging the solenoid in the turn regulator this prevents any further air passing to course change valve. The main switch must be switched on before a/c can turn
[page break]
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R.A.E COMPRESSOR
Fitted on Port Inner Engine. Compresses air to 60 lbs/[symbol]” for operation of “George” air enters through breather on Bombsight. Its 2 chambers are offset for even distribution of heat & load
Oil is fed to compressor for:-
1. Lubrication
2. Sealing
3. Cooling
AIR INTAKE THROTTLE
Fitted forward of front spar port side.
1. Maintains output pressure of compressor constant at 60 lb/[symbol]”
2. Acts as non-return valves if compressor reverses
[underlined] OIL SEPARATOR [/underlined]
Fitted on panel with air intake throttle
1. Separates oil from air
2. Feed oil back to compressor under pressure
3. Filters oil before it passes to:-
[underlined] OIL COOLER [/underlined] and [underlined] AUTOMATIC VALVE [/underlined] which maintains a head of oil to compressor when engine is not running (oil must be up to filler plug)
[underlined] CHEMICAL AIR DRIER [/underlined]
Fitted forward Front spar. Air passes from oil reservior [sic] to C.A.D which removes all moisture from the air to prevent freezing & corrosion.
[page break]
on the plates. Drying agent is [underlined] Silica gel [/underlined]
WHITE new BROWN [deleted] new [/deleted] U/S
BLUE new Pink U/S
One C.A.D last for 10 engines hrs but must always be changed before operation
A 2” layer of cotton wool on top prevents dust from silica gel
[underlined] Test Cock [/underlined] allows auto pilot to be ground tested without running a/c engine.
[underlined] COMBINED PRESSURE GAUGE [/underlined]
Fitted port side pilots panel
1. Indicates main pressure in system
2. Indicates pitch attitude of a/c
TAIL HEAVY – RED
NOSE “ GREEN
[underlined] MAIN CONTROL COCK [/underlined]
Fitted on auto Control Panel Port side pilot
[diagram]
[page break]
[underlined] OUT [/underlined] Air passes to bombsight or back to air throttle (depending on position of bombsight cock)
[underlined] SPIN [/underlined] Air passes to jets to spin rotors & steering control
[underlined] IN [/underlined] Jets continue to be supply. The centralizers release the gimbal system & air allowed to pass to main valves & servo motors
[underlined] REGEN SYSTEM [/underlined]
The air which is supplied to the plates is collected under air tight cover & returned to the compressor thus prolonging C.A.D
[underlined] PREFLIGHT INSPECTION [/underlined]
1. See that covers of plates are secure
2. Check contents of oil reservoir
3. Check silica gel in C.A.D
4. Check all controls for ease of movement
5. Start port inner engine.
6. Put M.C.C to spin for 5 min
7. Check air pressure 60 lb/[symbol]”
8. Put steering lever control P.A.C to zero main switch “off”
9. Put clutch lever “in” & engage clutches by moving manual control in all direction
10. Put M.C.C to “IN” control column forward
11. See that controls appear locked
12. Put M.C.C to “OUT”
For takeoff M.C.C. must be “out” clutches “in”
[page break]
[underlined] DURING FLIGHT TO ENGAGE AUTO PILOT [/underlined]
1. A/c must be over 2000’
2. Put M.C.C. to spin check pressure
3. Ensure P.A.C zero, Steering lever control main switch “off”
4. Trim a/c to fly “hands” off”
5. M.C.C to “IN”
[underlined] TURN A/C UNDER AUTO CONTROL [/underlined]
1. Main switch “on”
2. Operate steering lever
3. Return steering lever central
4. Switch “off”
[underlined] TO DISENGAGE AUTO PILOT FOR EMERGENCY OR LANDING [/underlined]
1. M.C.C out clutch lever “OUT”
N.B Clutches must not be reengaged during flight.
MAGNETIC COMPASS
[underlined] TO SET A COURSE [/underlined]
1. Unlock grid ring rotate until required course is indicated by lubber line
2. Turn a/c until compass needle is parallel to grid wires with [symbol] to north
[deleted] [three indecipherable words] [/deleted] PREFLIGHT CHECK
1. Check locking device & grid ring for freedom
2. Check corrector box for security
3. See corrector card is in position & legible
[page break]
[underlined] TO READ COURSE [/underlined]
1. Unlock grid ring, rotate until grid wires are parallel with needle (Lock Grid ring)
2. Course will be indicated by lubber line
[underlined] DISTANT READING COMPASS [/underlined]
A combination of the magnetic compass & gyroscope which overcomes liquid swirl minimises “Angle of dip” & prevents wander of gyroscope
[underlined] VARIATION SETTING CORRECTOR [/underlined]
Enables repeaters reading to be changed from magnetic to true indication.
[underlined] TO START D.R.C [/underlined]
[diagram]
N.B. Switch ON before leaving dispersal
Switch “OFF” only after A/c has come to rest.
[page break]
[underlined] ELECTRICS [/underlined]
To signal with headlamp put switch for down identification light to “morse” & head lamp switch to “signal.”
[header] [underlined] LIGHT – POSITION – SWITCH POSITION – PURPOSE [/underlined] [/header]
Navigation – Wing tip & tail – Pilots roof panel – Navigation
Identification (Upward) – Top of fuselage – Pilots roof panel Port of Switch box – air-air recognition
Downward – Bottom of fuselage – stbd of switch – air-ground
Recognition – Wing tips – starbd switch – assist formation flying
Head Navigation Light – Nose of A/c – centre of panel – Navigation used when taxying Landing etc
Bomb Door Light – (Pilot & B/aimer Panel) – inside bomb compart – Indicates Bomb door open & electric release system alive
[underlined] ACCUMULATORS
PURPOSE [/underlined] To assist generators on any loads & act as reserve
[underlined] VOLTAGE [/underlined] Fully charged 26 1/2 volts
charged 24 “
discharged less than 24 volts.
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[underlined] GROUND CHECK [/underlined]
Engine not running ground/flight to flight, switch on a load of 8 amp (exterior lights + 4 cockpit lights) [underlined] not [/underlined] Pitot head or Landing lamps discharge for a period of 5 min observing that voltage does fall below 24 volts
[underlined] DAMAGE & DISCONNECTING [/underlined]
Remove acc lids & leave for couple of minutes then disconnect damage acc: this automatically leaves two accs in series giving 24V 40 A.H
[underlined] G.F SWITCH & GROUND PLUG
POSITION [/underlined] Switch forward front spar starbd side, socket for ground test & engine starting starbd side fuselage beneath leading edge of mainplane.
[underlined] GENERATORS [/underlined]
3 generators each of 29 volts 60 [symbol] 1500 watt fitted port outer, inner & starbd inner.
[underlined] TOTAL OUTPUT [/underlined]
3 generators in parallel giving 29 v 4500 watt & max current 180 [symbol]
[underlined] CUTOUT
PURPOSE [/underlined] To allow generator to supply current & to prevent acc discharging to generators
[page break]
[underlined] BOMB JETTISON [/underlined][ MIXED LOAD
[underlined] TO JETTISON “ALIVE” [/underlined]
1. Bomb doors open
2. Fusing switches “on”
3. Pull bomb jettison toggle on pilot panel or a button may be fitted (drops all H.E. & contents of all containers)
[underlined] TO JETTISON SAFE [/underlined]
1. Bomb doors open
2. Fusing switches “off”
3. Operate container jettison button pilots panel (drops all containers intact)
4. Pull bomb jettison toggle to drop remaining H.E.’s
[underlined] TO RELEASE BOMBS MANUALLY [/underlined] (EMERGENCY)
1. Remove bomb slip cover
2. Open bomb doors
3. Pull manual release hook
[underlined] TO RELEASE BOMB RACK [/underlined] (EXTREME EMERGENCY)
1. Bomb doors open
2. Remove bomb step cover with care
3. Disconnect electrical plug (push in turn anticlock pull out)
4. Turn butterfly nut to “shut”
5. Depress lever, pull back cross bar
[page break]
[underlined] HERCULES XVI
LEADING PARTICULARS
TYPE OF ENGINE [/underlined] 14 CYLINDER AIR COOLED RADIAL SLEEVE VALVE
[underlined] CYLINDER NUMBERING [/underlined] 1 – 14 CLOCKWISE FROM A/S (ODD NUMBERS REAR BANK)
[underlined] CYLINDER CAPACITY [/underlined] 2366 CUBIC INS.
BORE 5.75
STROKE 6.5
COMPRESSION RATIO 7:1
REDUCTION GEAR .444:1
S/C GEAR RATIO 6.68:1 M GEAR
8.35:1 S GEAR
CARBURETTOR CLAUDEL HOBSON A.I.T. 132 ME or MF
MAGNETOS ROTAX WATFORD NST 14/1
SIMS FST 14.5
B.T.H. C.S.2
FUEL 100 OCTANE
OIL D.T.D. 4Y2
A.O WINTER
B.O SUMMER
C.O TROPICAL
[page break]
OIL PRESSURE 90 LBS/[symbol]” ON GROUND at 70o RP.M ABOVE 2000
80 LBS/[symbol]” NORMAL IN FLIGHT
65 LBS/[symbol]” MINIMUM “ “ at 70o C
60 LBS/[symbol]” MINIMUM “ “ at 80o C
50 LBS/[symbol]” MINIMUM “ “ 80o C – 100o C
OIL TEMPERATURES TAKE OFF 15o C MINIMUM
CRUISING 80o C MAXIMUM
CLIMBING 90o C
3 ENGINE 90o C
EMERGENCY 100o C EMERGENCY 5 MIN
CYLINDER TEMP. TAKEOFF 230o MAX at START
CRUISING 160o MIN 270o MAX
CLIMBING 270o MAX
EMERGENCY 280o 5 MINS
[underlined] NOTE [/underlined] WHERE THERMOCOUPLE IS IN No 14 CYLINDER AN INCREASE OF 20o ABOVE INDICATED IS ALLOWED.
[page break]
[underlined] OIL PUMP [/underlined]
This is on the port side of the rear cover & is driven by the cross drive shaft at 7/6 engine speed. Both scavenge & pressure pumps are contained in the one casting & are of spur gear type. Oil from the tank enters the pressure pump & after passing round gears flows out the hollow spindle & into the pressure recess when the oil is cold it will not pass down the scroll restrictor to the inlet valve side therefore a high initial oil pressure of 200 lb is built up this is then controlled by a ball valve in scavenge end of the spindle, as the oil gets warmer more will flow down restrictor valve & pressure will drop until at 90 lbs/[symbol] is passing its max capacity. A double acting check valve is fitted which prevents oil from tank flooding lower cylinders when engine is stationary & to cope with a surge of oil during unfeathering.
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
[underlined] SLEEVE OPERATION [/underlined]
[diagram]
[underlined] PESCO ECCENTRIC VANE FUEL PUMP [/underlined]
[diagram]
- - - - [underlined] CARB PRIMING [/underlined]
It is driven by cross drive shaft at 7/6 engine speed. The rotor spindle carrying 4 blades is offset in the body of the pump, as the spindle rotates the blades move from min to max & draw the fuel in. In the next half revolution as blades move from max to min fuel is out under pressure, this can be regulated by diaphragm
[page break]
[underlined] CLUTCH ASSEMBLY [/underlined]
[diagram]
[page break]
[underlined] SUPERCHARGER [/underlined]
A two speed supercharger is fitted which gives moderate power at sea level & a high degree of supercharging for altitude. The drive is taken from the spring drive of the tail shaft which meshs [sic] with 3 clutch units the intermediate gear on this unit then passes on the drive to a slipper clutch on the impellor. Oil is introduced to the rear of the selected clutch assemblies this slides along splines to contact the intermediate drive & at same time push out of operation the clutch assembly the gear not required.
[underlined] POWER OUTPUT [/underlined]
[header] CONDITION – B.H.P. – R.P.M – ALTITUDE – BOOST – FUEL CONSUMPTION [/header]
M
TAKEOFF – 1580 – 2800 – SL - + 8 1/4 – 174
INTERNATIONAL RATE – 1355 – 2400 – 4,750 - + 6 – 132
ECOM CRUISING – 1050 – 2400 – 10,250 - + 2 – 64
[underlined] ALL OUT LEVEL – 1640 – 2800 – 4,000 - + 8 1/4 – 180 [/underlined]
S
INTERNATIONAL – 1240 – 2400 – 12000 - + 6 – 127
ECOM CRUISING – 955 – 2400 – 17250 - + 2 – 62
ALL OUT LEVEL – 1440 – 2800 – 11500 - = 8 1/4 – 171
[page break]
[underlined] GROUND CHECK
BEFORE STARTING [/underlined]
1. Turn engine 6 revs by hand
2. Gills open fully
3. Ground battery plugged in – G/F switch to Ground.
[underlined] CHECK CONTROLS BEFORE STARTING [/underlined]
1. Supercharger “M” gear
2. Air intake “Cold”
3. R.P.M lever set at maximum
4. Throttles just off slow running
5. 1 & 3 tanks “on” balance cock off
6. Master cock on
7. Mags “on”
When pilot calls “contact” F.E presses starter button & booster coil, ground crew press trolley acc button & comence [sic] priming.
As engine picks up, priming continues until engine is running steadily. F.E. release booster & starter button.
[underlined] WARM UP PERIOD [/underlined]
While waiting for engine temps to reach minimum of 100o C oil temp 15o
1. Check “George” pressure 60 lbs [symbol]
2. “ Brake “ 250 – 300 lb [symbol]
90 lb in each leg
3 Vacuum depression -4 1/2 to -5 1/2 HG
[page break]
4. Hydraulics (Bomb doors & Flaps)
5. Air intakes to “HOT” note R.P.M drop return to “COLD.”
[underlined] ENGINE CHECKS [/underlined]
1. Functional mag check
2. Throttle back to S.R & open up to +6 lbs
3. Retract throttle to 1500 R.P.M & change to S gear Return to M gear oil pressure returns to normal
4. Open throttle to give 2400 RP.M then reduce R.P.M with R.P.M lever until a drop of 500 – 600 revs is observed.
5. Increase R.P.M to 2200 check C.S.U by opening up throttle to +1 & down to -1
6. Select zero boost check R.P.M obtained with lever in maximum (static check)
7. Open up to T.O.B (2800 + 8 ¼)
8. Retract throttle until a drop of 50 – 100 R.P.M is observed then switch off mags 50 R.P.M max permissible.
9. Throttle back to S.R. 500 – 700 R.P.M
10. Run engine at 800 – 900 to cool.
[underlined] STOPPING ENGINE [/underlined]
1. Run at 800 – 900 until engine temp are below 200o C
2. Open up to -2 for 5 sec return 800 – 900 R.P.M
3. Run for 2 mins at 800 – 900 to clear engine & sump
4. Close throttle & turn off master fuel cock
[page break]
5. When prop ceases to rotate mags “off”
[underlined] D.H. HYDROMATIC PROPELLOR
DOME ASSEMBLY [/underlined]
The steel shell of the dome contains a fixed cam, a rotating cam with bevel gear & piston Attached to the base of the dome is a stop ring plate which holds the stop ring these govern the max pitch ranges feathered to fine.
[underlined] BLADE & BARREL ASSEMBLY [/underlined]
The two halfs [sic] of the barrel contain a spider which is internally splined to mesh with propellor shaft this spider locates the three blades The bevel gears on blade roots are held on by a number of spring packs. This is for preloading as these mesh with rotating bevel.
[underlined] DISTRIBUTOR VALVE ASSEMBLY [/underlined]
This is a light alloy assembly is used to convey oil to either side of the piston & consists of an oil transfer sleeve valve housing & distributor valve which is set at 500 lb spring this operates during unfeathering
[underlined] OIL SEALS [/underlined]
1. Dome Plug 2. Piston Gasket
3. Dome to Barrel 4. Blade root.
5. Two barrel halves 6. Spider to shaft
7. Spider to Barrel
[page break]
[underlined] ASSEMBLY TO SHAFT [/underlined]
1. Check rear cone on engine & grease splines (Master spline down)
2. Assemble blade & barrel No 1 blade down
3. Fit oil conductor sleeve light force fit.
4. Oil seal plate oil seal split cone & retaining nut (R.H 900 ft lb) fit snap ring.
5. Turn blades to stops on micarta blocks (feathered)
6. Check oil seal on dome base. Push piston fully forward.
7. Fit D.V.A (LH 100 ft lbs) lock with special circlip
8. Place on dome assembly check dowel numbers
9. Tighten dome ring 600 lb & lock with great screw & locking wire.
10. Replace dome plug & turn blades to fully fine check arrows on blade roots.
[underlined] TORQUE LOADING [/underlined]
This is the amount of effort required to move blade fine to coarse. It can be altered by placing shims between blade root & spider face. Prevent glade chattering due to stretch.
[underlined] PRELOADING [/underlined]
This is to ensure constant meshing of blade root gear & rotating bevel. It is affected by spring packs which locate the blade gears on blade root. Initial Preloading determined by shims placed under stop ring plate.
[page break]
FINE PITCH 29o
COARSE “ 53o
FEATHER “ 93o
Engine oil at approx 80 lbs/[symbol] + C.T.M to front of piston to fine pitch.
C.S.U oil approx 250 lb/[symbol] to rear of piston to coarsen pitch.
Oil from feathering pump at approx 450 lb/[symbol] to rear of piston feathering blade.
Oil from feathering pump at approx 510 lb/[symbol] to front of piston to unfeather.
[underlined] CONSTANT SPEED UNIT [/underlined]
This is driven by No 1 sleeve drive mechanism its purpose being to maintain constant R.P.M. The unit consists of a booster pump which builds up engine oil pressure & a pair of counter weights which act on a pilot valve this valve will direct oil to either side of the piston.
A normal relief valve set at 100 lb provides an idling circuits during under & on speeding to prevent this opening during overspeeding high pressure oil is allowed to rear of valve An emergency set at 400 lbs is fitted in base of the unit The transfer valve set apposite feathering
[page break]
oil inlet allows the use of C.S.U oil channels when ever [sic] feathering pump is in operation.
[underlined] UNDER SPEEDING [/underlined]
As engine R.P.M tend to decrease counter weights move in & lower pilot valve this allows oil to return from the rear of the piston as the blades fine off.
[underlined] ON SPEED [/underlined]
In this condition the pressure of the spring is equal by pressure exerted by counter weights the pilot valve prevent oil from returning & will also stop C.S.U oil delivering to the rear of the piston, blades are held in a fixed pitch.
[underlined] OVER SPEEDING [/underlined]
As engine R.P.M tend to rise as in diving the counter weights are thrown out lift up pilot valve & allow oil to the rear of the piston to coarsen blades until once again revs are constant.
[underlined] CHECK AFTER ASSEMBLY [/underlined]
1. With engine running & R.P.M max open throttle to 2400 rev.
2. Reduce R.P.M with rev lever by 500 – 600 & return to max position
[page break]
[underlined] CHECK C.S.U [/underlined]
1. Select 2200 R.P.M with rev lever increase & decrease boost by 1 lb see revs remain constant
[underlined] FEATHERING ON GROUND [/underlined]
1. With engine running at 1000 R.P.M press feathering button for 5 sec & release
2. When button snaps out stop engine & press feathering button again to observe any further movement of blades
[underlined] UNFEATHERING ON GROUND [/underlined]
1. Restart engine immediately
2. Press & hold in feathering button release when engine R.P.M ceases to rise
3. Give burst of throttle if R.P.M did not read original setting
[underlined] FEATHERING IN FLIGHT [/underlined]
1. Press feathering button & then close throttle immediately
2. Turn off fuel & ignition when prop ceases to rotate
3. Close gills on that engine.
[underlined] UNFEATHERING IN FLIGHT [/underlined]
1. Set all controls as for starting except R.P.M lever which should be minimum.
2. Press & hold feathering button until 1000 R.P.M is reached.
3. Release button & allow engine to warm up.
4. Press button & hold until 1500 R.P.M is reached then & set R.P.M lever to synchronise with other engines
[page break]
5. Select boost as for other engines.
[underlined] CARBURETTOR
C.H.A.I.T 132 ME & MF
INTERCONNECTIONS [/underlined]
1. Main air balance 2. Slow running transverse passage.
[underlined] JETS [/underlined]
2. Slow running 2. Main 1. Power (starbd)
1. Enrichment (port) 1 Corrector (port)
[underlined] SLOW RUNNING SYSTEM [/underlined]
Fuel for S.R passes through main jets & then through S.R. jets where it is led to a point beneath two quality screws. The flow of air at S.R is not sufficient to draw from the main system so delivery is made at the point where the depression is greatest i.e Air box plug. Air supply is taken from the diffuser heads this can be regarded by two quality screws.
[underlined] S.R. ADJUSTMENT [/underlined]
This should be made on the stop on the butterfly spindle which will adjust R.P.M.
[underlined] MAIN JETS [/underlined]
Fuel from the float chamber passes into the jet well & into main jet to the base of diffuser With the opening of the butterfly the increased airflow through the chokes is sufficient to create a depression over the diffuser heads.
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The fuel is emulsified by air passing through holes in diffuser heads
[diagram]
[underlined] POWER JET [/underlined]
This is fitted to give increased power during climbing a cam on throttle lay shaft comes into operation at 53o opening it depresses a spring loaded valve which allows fuel to flow through internal passage to the two delivery nozzles it is corrected for altitude on a rated climb through excessive mixture strength & stepped power valve is fitted which at the midway position gives a 12:1 mixture strength.
[underlined] CORRECTOR JETS [/underlined]
This is operated by S/C change over mechanism & while in M gear fuel flows from port float chamber to base of port diffuser. Due to butterfly being nearer closed position in S gear than in M gear
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more fuel is drawn from S.R. when using higher gear to prevent a weak mixture while in lower gear corrector jet is fitted.
[underlined] ENRICHMENT JET [/underlined]
This is similar in operation to the power jet a cam on throttle lay shaft operates a spring loaded valve at approx 69o opening this allows fuel to flow to the end of the main delivery nozzles. Its purpose is to provide cooling at max boost pressures & is corrected for altitude
[underlined] ACCELERATOR PUMP [/underlined]
Fitted to overcome flat spots during rapid acceleration. The unit consists of two pumps in tandem separated by a coiled spring these are connected to throttle lay shaft. When throttle is open the small mass discharge piston supplies fuel through two discharge nozzles over chokes, the spring between piston is compressed until sufficient tension causes large delayed action piston to continue supply Fuel is obtained from port float chamber it passes through two non-return valves in the unit which prevents fuel feeding back the two N.R.V under discharge nozzles prevent fuel being drawn off when not required.
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[diagram]
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[underlined] TYPES OF CARBURETTOR [/underlined]
M.C. Two stage mixture control (HERC VI)
M.E. 1. Single stage mixture control (LOCKED IN WEAK)
2. Tuning jet (LOCKED IN WEAK)
3. Larger capacity power jet.
M.F 1. Stepped power valve
2. Port mixture control cock blanked off
[underlined] 3. STAGE VARIABLE DATUM A.B.C
SAFTEY [sic] DEVICES [/underlined]
1. Spring on servo piston in event of oil pressure failure to unit piston is forced down to open butterfly fully, linkage is straightened to give pilot [deleted] valve [/deleted] full manual control.
2. Clearance fit of servo piston allows circulation of oil and prevents boost surge.
3. Collar on aneroid stack in event of punctured aneroid this allows pilot valve to pressure oil to top of servo piston (manual control.
4. Minimum power stop should pilot valve stick in a “up” position to direct oil beneath servo piston the stop in linkage chamber prevents butterflies closing completely (17o – 19o opening)
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[diagram]
As induction pressure [underlined] decreases [/underlined] aneroid [underlined] expands [/underlined] to allow pressure oil to servo piston [underlined] top [/underlined] & [underlined] opens [/underlined] butterflies
[underlined] BOOST ADJUSTMENT
RATED [/underlined] As this resets aneroid it is necessary to adjust in first.
1. With engine running select max R.P.M
2. Open throttle to rated boost should read +6 adjust if necessary on aneroid stack
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[underlined] CRUISING [/underlined] Throttle back to E.C.B boost should read +2 (2650) adjust if necessary on left hand screw.
[underlined] TAKE OFF BOOST [/underlined] Open throttle to T.O.B & observe boost & R.P.M adjust centre screw.
[underlined] BOOST BIAS [/underlined] This is to rule out operation of A.B.C at S.R. Adjustment is made with butterfly at 17o on right hand tappet.
[underlined] A.M.C.
SAFTEY [sic] DEVICES [/underlined]
1. 7 separate capsules if one is punctured mixture is slightly weaker.
2. Spring round brass cage in event of pilot valve sticking this will drag free.
It is fitted to maintain a correct mixture strength at all altitudes. As a/c climbs capsules will expand & this lowers the pilot valve Thus allowing oil to the under side of servo piston as this moves up it resets the capsules to a sensitive position & at same time causes the control cock to open this will allow air from intakes to pass to the head of the diffusers thereby partialy [sic] breaking down the depression & restrict amount of fuel drawn off
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[blank page]
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[underlined] ENGINE HANDLING
RANGE FLYING [/underlined]
This is to obtain greatest distance on min amount of fuel this will give max A.M.P.G Fly always at recommended airspeed which will always give above condition.
[underlined] ENDURANCE FLYING [/underlined]
This applies at times when there is delays in landing & fog etc.
The rule to observe is to fly min engine condition to maintain a safe speed above stalling by this means a/c will remain airborne using min amount of fuel
[underlined] EXTERNAL CHECKS [/underlined]
1. Engine, cockpit, pitot covers off
2. Usual check for oil & fuel leak
3. Cowlings secured
4. Tyres for cuts & creak oleo leg for even compression
5. U/c acc pressure.
[underlined] PREFLIGHT ENGINE CHECK [/underlined]
1. “Cold” air
2. G/F switch to flight
3. Check fuel contents [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] gauges
4. G/F switch to ground.
5. Remove & stow control locks
6. Check with nav signal cartridge for period
[page break]
[underlined] RATED CLIMB
MAX CYLINDER TEMP 270o
MAX OIL TEMP 90o C [/underlined]
[diagram]
[page break]
[underlined] WHEEL MIXTURE CLIMB
I.A.S 160o
CYL TEMP 270o
OIL TEMP 90o [/underlined]
[diagram]
[page break]
7. Check cyl temp gauge from air temp gauge
8. Check boost gauge
9. Complete entries in engineers log.
[underlined] PRIOR TO STARTING [/underlined]
1. Check chocks are in position ground battery plugged in & engine turn 6 revs by hand.
2. Check gills fully open
[underlined] START UP [/underlined]
1. 1 & 3 tanks “on”
2. Pilot fuel cock “on”
3. Blower in M gear
4. Max R.P.M
5. Throttle slightly open
6. Mag switches on
7. Press starter & booster coil buttons
8. When engine starts open up to 1200 – 1500 to warm up.
[underlined] WARM UP CHECK [/underlined]
George pressure 60 lb
Brake pressure 250 – 300 lb
Vacuum depression -4 1/2 – 5 1/2 HG.
Hydraulics system
Hot & Cold air intake shutter return cold
Give normal [underlined] Ground Run Up [/underlined]
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[duplicate page]
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I.A.S
170 OUTWARD
160 RETURN
160 CLIMBING
FUEL CONSUMPTION
174 GLS/HE/ENG
TO
130 GLS/HE/ENG
RATED
RUN UP.
CYL TEMP 100o
OIL “ 15o
1 & 3 TANKS
M GEAR
COLD AIR
GILLS FULLY OPEN
[underlined] TAXYING [/underlined]
2. ENGINE 1500 R.P.M 230o C MAX CYL TEMP
PRIOR T.O STATIC CHECK 230o MAX CYL 2800 +8 1/4 DEISOLATE FLAPS & BOMB DOORS CLOSE GILLS 1/3 OPEN
[underlined] TAKE OFF [/underlined]
WHEN AIRBORNE SELECT U/C “UP” THEN THROTTLE BACK TO +6 & REDUCE R.P.M 2400 SELECT FLAPS UP CLOSE GILLS
[underlined] RATED CLIMB [/underlined]
2400 +6 MAX CYL 270o OIL TEMP 90o [underlined] CONTROL TEMP [/underlined] BY INCREASING FORWARD SPEED SELECT S GEAR WHEN BOOST IS +3 ½
[underlined] COOLING [/underlined]
DECREASE RATE OF CLIMB TO INCREASE FORWARD SPEED. THROTTLE BACK M.W.P +3BOOST
[underlined] WEAK CLIMB [/underlined]
IF TEMP OK COMPLETE CLIMB AT 2400 THROTTLE E.C.B MAX CYL 270o OIL 90o C
[underlined] CRUISING [/underlined]
WITH THROTTLE AT E.C.B REDUCE R.P.M IS LOWEST POSSIBLE TO MAINTAIN IA.S USE [underlined] “M” [/underlined] GEAR IF 2400 R.P.M 0 BOOST
[underlined] APPROACHING TARGET [/underlined]
1 & 4 TANKS ON BOMB DOORS OPEN 2400 R.P.M M.W.P.
[underlined] BOMBS GONE CLEAR OF TARGET [/underlined]
CHEK FUEL SYSTEM CHECK CONTROLS CHECK SERVICE REPORT DAMAGE TO PILOT THROTTLE E.C.B REDUCE R.P.M
[underlined] DESCENT [/underlined]
CHANGE TO “M” GEAR AT APPROX 18,000 THEN REDUCE R.P.M TO 1600 USE “HOT” AIR IF NECESSARY MIN CYL TEMP 160o
[underlined] RETURN TO BASE [/underlined]
USE LOWEST POSSIBLE R.P.M TO MAINTAIN IAS FLY AT F.T.H WHERE POSSIBLE
[underlined] APPROACHING & PRIOR TO LANDING [/underlined]
FLAPS DEISOLATED U/C UPLOCKS OUT AUTO CONTROLS “OUT” “COLD” AIR FLAPS “DOWN” U.C DOWN 2400 R.P.M GILLS AS REQUIRED
[underlined] AFTER LANDING [/underlined]
RAISE FLAPS OPEN GILLS FULLY
[table]
[page break]
[underlined] TAXYING [/underlined]
Use two engine running at 1500 R.P.M (MAX) leave gills fully open & do not exceed 230o cylinder temp if so use other two engines.
[underlined] PRIOR TO TAKE OFF [/underlined]
1. Check flaps & bomb doors deisolated
2. Check temps & pressures if cylinder temp are near 230o run engine at 800 – 900 to cool
3. Open each to 0 boost & check R.P.M obtained
4. Close gills to 1/3 as pilot opens up.
5. When airborne select U/C up.
[underlined] CLIMBING
RATED [/underlined] Immediately after T.O pilot selects +6 & 2400 R.P.M these condition can be maintained for 1 hr providing engine temps do not exceed max. Climb at a speed of 160 I.A.S this to be maintained by angle of a/c. Gills should be closed throughout climb if temps are high increase forward speed by decreasing rate of climb. Change gear when boost has dropped to 3 1/2 lbs. Throttle should be retracted to M.W.P when boost is +3 - +2 1/2 if temps are high if they are reasonably throttle back to E.C.B. and if rate of climb not important retract T.L also to E.C.B. As an emergency condition 2500 R.P.M maybe used at +5 in S gear if highest rate of climb essential.
[page break]
[underlined] WEAK MIXTURE [/underlined]
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[blank page]
[page break]
[graph]
[page break]
[blank page]
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[graph]
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[underlined] DECENDING [sic] [/underlined]
Before decent, [sic] oil cooler shutter & gills must be closed.
Supercharger changed at about 12,000 ft
[underlined] SHUTTING DOWN [/underlined]
Switch off booster pumps
Open up to +6
Check mags
Retract T.L to zero boost check R.P.M
Close throttles slowly & evenly taking about 4 secs to about 800 – 1000 R.P.M
Run until Cylinder temp falls below 230o C
During this exercise S/C
Move cut-out to cut-off
When stopped mags off fuel off.
If engine fails to stop when cut-off levers have been closed open T.L to E.C.B & returned to stopps [sic] & engine should then cut.
[page break]
[underlined] CRUISING [/underlined]
Oil shutters approx 1/8 open. Gills closed
After a long cruise at low engine power it may be neccessary [sic] to close oil shutters completely The aim should be to maintain an oil temp of approx 55o – 65o C
[underlined] NOTE [/underlined]
Violent movement of oil shutters should be avoided. If a failure of gill motor the indicator will show fully open as shutter will be blown open. In this case a drop of oil pressure will be observed. The engine should be run at min power (1600 R.P.M -1 lb boost) until a warmer air temp is reached. Should coring occur no action will clear it. If pressure drops below 60 lbs/[symbol]” prop should be feathered at once.
Should coring occur when shutter is serviceable close shutter at once and use normal procedure.
[page break]
ENGINE HANDLING
[underlined] STARTING [/underlined]
Switch on appropriate booster pump & turn primer cock to the engine started. Check that high volatile/normal priming selector to normal. Operate priming pump until is felt move. Cut out to normal. Switch on ignition & press starter. Commence priming steadily while engine is turning. After one or two strokes according to the air temp etc. press booster coil & start priming. Keep pressure on booster coil button until engine is running smoothly
If engine fails to start after 20 sec turning return the carb cut-out to cut off & wait 30 sec before attemping [sic] to start
[underlined] BEFORE T.O [/underlined]
Switch on booster pump
Gills to approximately one 1/3 open
Oil cooler shutters approx 1/4 open
[underlined] CLIMB [/underlined]
Switch off booster pump
Close gills but do not allow cylinder temp to exceed 270o C
Oil shutters aprox [sic] 1/4 open The aim should be to control oil temp to 60o – 70o Switch on booster pump of approx [deleted] 58o – 65o C [/deleted]10,000 ft.
[page break]
[underlined] OVERLOAD TANK [/underlined]
Wing Overload Tanks No 2 & fuselage tanks feed into No 4 & 7 (which drain first) through selector cocks
[underlined] WITH No 2 TANKS [/underlined]
1. Use 50 gals from No 4 tank
2. Open fuselage selector to feed inboard group
3. Switch on transfer pump and top up No 4 tank to 184 gals.
4. Switch off transfer pump Select outboard group
5. Switch on transfer pump and top up No 7 tank to 160 gal
6. As the level of petrol in No 7 tanks drops switch on transfer pump at interval to top up until No 2 is empty.
7. Switch off transfer pump & return fuselage selector cock off.
No 2 TANK & FUSELAGE OVERLOAD.
1. Use 60 gallon each from Nos 4 & 7
2. Open fuselage selector cock to Outboard Group
3. Switch on fuselage overload pump & pump 60 gallons to outboard.
4. Switch off transfer pump & [deleted] return fuselage [/deleted] selector cock to Inboard.
5. Switch on transfer pump & pump remaining 55 gallons into Inboard.
6. Selector cock “off” Then proceed as No 2 full.
[page break]
from the feed tanks and in the top of the sump of the master tanks. As petrol is drawn from the feed tank into the sump these non return open. When a tank drain the pressure in the sump closes the non return valve of the empty tank thus isolating it automatically. There is therefore no danger of air locks.
[underlined] TANK MANIPULATION[/underlined]
1. Switch on booster pump.
2. Throttle back.
3. Open balance cock.
4. Close group isolation cock of group being isolated.
5. Open up engines to setting.
6. Switch off booster pump if below 10,000ft.
[underlined]After balancing[/underlined]
1. Switch on booster pump.
2. Throttle back.
3. Open isolation cock.
4. Close balance cock.
5. Open up engines.
6. Switch off booster pump.
[page break]
[underlined]FUEL SYSTEM[/underlined]
[underlined]CAPACITY[/underlined]
No. 1 TANK 62 GAL.
No. 2 OVERLOAD 150 GAL.
No. 3 247 GAL.
No. 4 188 GAL.
No. 5 161 GAL.
No. 6 122 GAL.
No. 7 165 GAL.
[underlined] 1095 GAL.[/underlined]
No’s. 1, 3 and 4 form the inboard group with a total capacity of 497 GAL.
No’s. 5, 6 and 7 tanks form the outboard group with a total capacity of 449 GAL.
No. 3 tank is the master tank for the inboard group.
No. 5 tank is the master tank for the outboard group.
No’s. 1, 4, 6 and 7 tanks may be looked upon as feed tanks. These tanks. These tanks drain into a 30 GAL. sump incorporated in the master tanks. No’s 1 and 4 tanks feed into sump of 3 tank and No’s 6 and 7 into the sump of No. 5. Petrol is passed from this sump to the engines either by suction from the engine driven pump or assisted by electrical booster pump. There are therefore, two outlets from the sump coupled to a by-pass valve which automatically closes when the booster pump is in operation. Non return valves are incorporated in the pipe line.
[page break]
HALIFAX VI
[underlined]HERCULES 100[/underlined] (R. A. E. PRESSURE INJECTION CARB.)
[underlined]ENGINE LIMITATION[/underlined]
[table]
Showing R. P. M. – BOOST – TEMP – OIL TEMP – MAX CYLINDER TEMP.

Citation

E H Mathews, “Edward Mathews flight engineers course notebook,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed December 4, 2021, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/32112.

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