Harold Warren's note book



Harold Warren's note book


Form 407, RAF Large Note Book, belonging to Harold Warren, and consisting of 90 pages of notes and drawings relative to his training.




90-page notebook


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[underlined] [inserted] 619608 WARREN [/inserted][/underlined]

[inserted] Rough not [indecipherable word] [/inserted]

[inserted] 4 [indecipherable letters] [/inserted]

[inserted] 609608 [/inserted]

[RAF large notebook in printed square] [inserted] WARREN [/inserted]

[page break]

R.A.F .12.

H Warren [drawing]
[deleted] Coombe Farm [/deleted] Herridge
[deleted] Crewkerne [/deleted] Somerset [two indecipherable words]
619608 WARREN. H J.
Hut A 9. No 2 Wing
Royal. Air. Force.
Glam. S Wales
[zig zag underline]

619608 Warren H [deleted] J [/deleted] J

Hut A 9 No 2 Wing [scribble]

Royal Air Force

Glam S Wales [row of ticks inserted]

[broken underline]

[inserted] 619608 Lac [indecipherable letter] [/inserted]

619608 Warren H J – LAC.
Hut A9A No 2 Wing [inserted] 619608. [/inserted]
Royal Air Force
[underlined] Glamorgan S Wales [/underlined] [inserted] [tick symbol] [/inserted]
[deleted] S [/deleted]

Spark Test


[page break]

[underlined] Spark Test [/underlined]

Metal Spark
Wrought Iron Bright Yellow. Non Burst
Mild Steel. [ditto symbol] [ditto symbol] Few Bursting
High Carbon [ditto symbol] Flimsy Golden. All Bursting
Lungster Steel Dull Red Non Bursting
Nickel Chrome [ditto symbol] Yellow. Few [ditto symbol]
Grey Cast Iron Dull Red Non [ditto symbol]

Temperature Chart [indecipherable initials]
Very Pale Yellow 430°F
Straw [ditto symbol] 460°F
Brown [ditto symbol] 500°F
Light Purple 530°F
Dark [ditto symbol] 550°F
Dark Blue 570°F
Pale [ditto symbol] 610°F
[horizontal line]

Heat Treatment of Steel.

There are three general heat treatments annealing, hardening and Tempering. The controlling factor in all heat treatment is temperature. Process of hardnening [sic] steel consists of [deleted] hardning [sic] [/deleted] [inserted] heating [/inserted] to required temperature and quenching suddenly in cold water. Main points to watch when heating are small

[page break]

projections or cutting edges are not heated more [indecipherable letter] rapidly than the body of meteral,[sic] i.e. all parts are heated at the same rate and temperature. Tempering is removing some of the hardness by adding some heat to the required temperature. When heating steel there are two critical points, recalescence and decalescence that occur in the chemical composion [sic] of the steel at certain temperatures. The decalescence point is the correct hardening temperature. The recalescence point is when steel becomes soft when slowly cooled after heating.

[two short horizontal parallel lines]

Annealing is heating a steel to a medium red heat and allowing it to cool slowly. The slower the cooling the softer the steel becomes

[two short parallel lines]

normalising is when a metal is forged , bent or rolled into shape it becomes strained by heating the steel to a medium red heat and keeping it at that temperature depending upon the bulk and severity

[page break]

of the strain and allowing it to cool f off in air.

[horizontal line]

[indecipherable signature]


[six indecipherable words]

[two drawings of planes]

[page break]

Principle of Fuselages and their construction
A Fuselage is the main body of the aircraft to which main planes and other components are attached.

[underlined] Longerons.) [/underlined] [inserted] Underline headings [/inserted]

Longerons are the main longtitudeale [corrected by marker to] longtitudinal [/corrected] members of the Fuselage running from font to rear.

[underlined] Engine Bearer. (or plate.) [/underlined]

The engine bearer is the foremost member of the fuselage.

[underlined] Stern Post [/underlined]

The stern post is the rearmost member of the fuselage to which the rudder is hinged.


Struts are located between the Longerons and the name of the strut relates to its position.

Fuselage bracing.

There are three types of frames, 1/ Imperfect frame, which is [deleted] located [/deleted] insufficently [sic] braced to withstand any load.

2/ Perfect frame is one that has to [sic] many or [deleted] tw [/deleted] to [sic] few members and is

[page break]

rolled into parts which are riveted together.

[underlined] Struts and Longerons. [/underlined]

Struts & Longerons are braced with diogonal [sic] struts.

If a frame is under a single load and bracing wires are used only one wire is intensioned and the other carries no load.

When diagonal struts are used the struts take the place of wires taking booth [sic] loads and tension.

[underlined] Metal and Composite Fuselage. [/underlined]

These are divided into 3 portions
1/ Engine bay or fore portion which carries the power part.

11/ Centre portion in which is situated the pilots cock and which carries the main plane.

3/ Rear portion which carries the tail unit. Each portion is constructed eg front portion, solid, centre portion tubular riveted structure, rear portion, wood or light metal.

[page break]

[drawing of Fairy Gordon airframe]

[drawing of Hawker double N girder airframe]

[underlined] Monocoque. [/underlined]

This fuselage is designed on the principle that the skin shall be stiff and strong to carry the loads.
Bulkheads varie [sic] in types, are inserted down the Fuselage to increase stiffness and carry certain

[page break]

types of loads.

But it is virtually the skin which takes the majority and is the main component.

[drawing of stressed skin]

Types of joints.
1/ Stainless Steel side plates

[diagrams of types of joints]

[page break]

2/ Cup Bolts and Ballended Strut (HAWKER)

[five diagrams of frames and joints]

[page break]

[diagrams of joint and rivet]

[inserted] [underlined] Good Drawing [/underlined] [/inserted]

[inserted] indecipherable signature [/inserted]

[underlined] Supporting the Fuselage. [/underlined]

The Fuselage must be supported upon trestles at convient [corrected by marker] convenient working points. Care must be taken that the trestles are placed under the correct jacking points, front and rear, if no sutch [sic] points are marked trestles must be placed under parts where there is additional strength, such as the undercarriage fittings or a robust strut fitting, they should never be placed under an unsupporting part of the Longeron

[underlined] Care in Hanling. [sic] [/underlined]

1/ Do not stand on the Longeron when working on the Fuselage.

2/ Constantly check Longerons

[page break]

and struts for bowing.

3/ Do not use adjustable spanner for adjusting streamline wire or see that all lock nuts are undone before attempting to turn wire, otherwise the threads will strip.

4/ Never tighten a wire untill [sic] its opposite number has been slackened off.

5/ Give an equal number of turns to each wire.

6/ Constantly check when truing and adjusting wires.

[short horizontal line]

Rigging Tools and Instruments.

1/ Straightedge.

Best type made of steel but owing to its weight it is unsuitable for Rigging. Hard wood are the most suitable and used extensivly [sic]. These must be frequently tested and care must be taken in storing them, otherwise they become distorted.

2/ Spiritlevel. [sic]

Used in conjunction with a straightedge in checking

[page break]

parts for being level and horizontally. [sic]

3/ Trammel Points.

These consists [sic] of rods which can slide along and be secured to a beam. They are used for transfering [sic] and comparing distances which should be equal, such as cross bracing wires.

4/ Plumb Bobs.

Made from brass with steel points and attached to cords to form a Plumb line, this line will give a true vertical line from the point of vast contrast.

It is used to find out by visual comparison whether the object should be lined up is vertical.

5/Adjustable Level

An instrument for measuring accurately the angle of a component set to [deleted] a [/deleted] the horizontil. [sic] Measures from nought to ten in degrees and minaites. [sic]

[page break]

Truing Fairey Gordon Fuselage.

The Rigging position of this Fuselage is the attitude which the aircraft adopts in normal flight.

This is obtained on the Gordon by adjusting on the [inserted] front [/inserted] trestle under frame 3 untill [sic] the rear sprar[sic] tube is level laterally.

Adjust on the rear trestle under frame 10 untill [sic] no 3 bottom cross strut is 2 1/8 ins below no 2 and no 3 top cross strut is 5 13/16 ins in advance of no 3 bottom cross strut.

The position of the Datum line is along the centre top Longeron from no 1 point. Starting from front to rear trammel from the internal cross bracing from the pin centre until corresponding diagonals bring the Fuselage true and in view. Trammel and adjust top and bottom until Fuselage is true in plan view The Fuselage is then placed in position and points are measured down all side struts and equal distances from the top Longeron.
Straight edges are then clamped

[page break]

on frame 1 and 2 so that the top edge cuts the marked points.

Cords are then stretched over the top outside the Fuselage and side cross bracings is adjusted until all the points on side struts cut side lines. Stern post is adjusted to be vertical by the diagonal tubes in bays.

Final Check and Inspection.

Plumb bobs are then dropped from the top of the Stern Post and from the centre of the front straight edge.

The ground line is then set up to coincide with these Plumb bobs and further Plumb bobs are dropped from mid points or all top cross struts, these should coincide with the ground line.
On compleation [sic] of truing are systematical check and inspection of all components should be made for Longerons and struts, for bowing wires being locked and in safety.

[page break]

Truing a Hawker Fuselage.

At convient [sic] working places, place the Fuselage on trestles under joint Y.O, slacken bracing wires, mark trammel points on top face of top Longeron and bottom face of bottom Longeron commencing at A.B.

Tension and Trammel internal cross bracings and then bottom and top cross bracing of the centre portion.

The same procedure is carried out on front and rear portions and finally the side cross bracings of the stern is adjusted to even tension.

Final Check.

The Fuselage is then placed in rigging position by leveling [sic] laterally with spirit level across the top Longeron at E.G. Plumb lines are then dropped from the middle point of a straight edge across the engine bearer from the top of the stern post.

A ground line is streched [sic] to cut

[page break]

these Plumb lines, further Plumb lines being dropped from the mid point of each cross strut.
The engine blocks should be level fore and aft laterally 17 of the 1/4 “ between centres, an allowance of a 33nd [sic]between port and starboard blocks and 3 32 nd on the front blocks.

The stern post must be vertical and is trued by the top cross bracing wire. Finally inspect Fuselage check components for bowing, wires in correct tension, in safety and not butting and blocked.

Chaffing plates to be fitted where r wires cross.

[diagram of metal section]

[page break]

[diagram of main plane construction]

[page break]

[underlined] Main Spars [/underlined]

Main Spars are the main longtitudinal [sic] members running throughout the length. They are so designed to take the loads of sheer mending and end loads. Meterial [sic] wood, solid drawn steel tubes and high tensile steel strip The top and bottom pieces of the spar are called [deleted] stang [/deleted] strang and boon and the inside called the web.

[two short horizontal lines]

[four section diagrams]

[indecipherable signature]

[page break]

[diagram of box]

[two short horizontal lines]


Large ribs, compression ribs used to brace the main spars.

Camber ribs are lighter in construction and used to transmit loads to the spars and preserve the shape of the mainplane.

Drag struts are usually tubular members fitted between spars to brace the structure.

In other types of construction compression ribs take their place with the advantage of supporting the spar under [deleted] loads [/deleted] twisting loads.

Drag wires, cross bracing wires running from the front spar uutwards [sic] prevents the structure from collapseing [sic] backwards.

Anti drag wires appose [sic] the above and prevent structure from collapsing forwards

[page break]

[underline] Nose Ribs & Riblets. [/ underline]

These are small ribs running from front spar to leading edge to brace that portion where the loads are greatest.

[underline] Leading and Trailing Edges. [/underline]

Made of light metal tubing or wood (Spruce). Root end that part of the mainplane near the Fuselage. Wing tip end farthest from Fuselage being a l continuation of leading & trailing edges.

[underline] Types of Construction [/underline]

1/ [underlined] Wooden. [/underlined] Spars & Ribs – (Spruce)

Fairing – Three Ply
Spars – Sowd [sic], Spindled & Laminated

2/ [underlined] Composite. [/underlined] Spars and Drag Struts, Ribs & Riblets L/E. & T/E Wood (Spruce)

3/ All Metal Spars. Solid drawn steel tubes & Steel strip.

Ribs. Light alloy. (Duralumin & Alclad. (3Ply.

[three diagrams to illustrate spindled, laminated and box]

[page break]

Mono Spar.

This type of construction a single spar is used to withstand and transfer all the loads imposed on the wing. The spar is located in the deepest part of the section of the wing.

Stiffened to withstand tortion [sic] by a system of diagonal or Pyramid bracing.

Along a spar at suitable intervalls [sic] are a number of cross members, tubes or special ribs and midway between these are short bracing wires which run from top and bottom langes [sic] of the spar to the ends of the tubes.

The advantage of the Mono spar is that the main plane is modified.

With two spar construction the mainplane must have a certain depth to allow for the rear spar so that the design is affected at two point [sic] instead of one.

[page break]

Mainplane Truing.

Support the mainplane at convient [sic] working point on three trestles evenly spaced and the same height to ensure that the spars are not bowed.

Without Sweepback

Place Aluminium clips along the spars at each drag strut. Start at root end and work towards the tip.
Place straight edge across two spars at second drag strut and parallel to it. Check by placing two fitters squares on the straight edge and so that they just tuch [sic] drag strut.

Mark the clips [deleted] where the clips [/deleted] then find centre of spar at these points. Place the Blades of the square against spar face & halve distance between them.

With Trammels set at a distance from the mark along the front spar mark the clip at first drag strut.

Transfer this distance to the rear spar & find centre of the spar at this part.

[page break]

Repeat at third strut & transfer to rear spar.

Repeat on all other struts. Slacken cross bracing wires, Trammel diagonals and adjust wires untill [sic] they are equal starting at No 1 bay.

To check, Trammel 1 & 2 bays as one 3&4 as one. Obtain 3 blocks of equal size, place 1 at each end and on top of the spar.

Streach [sic] a line tightly over these blocks & use the third as a testing block.

[underline] Truing a Mainplane With Sweepback [/underline]

Support the Mainplane on trestles as before, mark Trammeling points at each drag strut starting from the Formula 2 π / 360 RN where R is the distance between spar centres and N is a number of degrees of sweepback. Measure in from the root along the rear spar a given distance, say 1”. Measure along the front spar the same distance (1”) plus the result of the Formula.

[page break]

Find the centres of spars at these and they are your first Trammel points.

Carry on marking other points at other drag [deleted] points [/deleted] struts and proceed to true up as with the normal Mainplane.

Check as before, Trammeling two bays as one.

Check struts for squareness find the centre line of the strut, measure along the Longeron for equal distances either side.

Mark a point up the strut any distance and check the length of the diagonal which are to be equal.

[underlined} Aircraft Generall [sic] Stores [/underlined]

Comprises all items that can be fitted to any aircraft irrespective of type and design. e.g. nuts, bolts, split pins, taper pins, etc etc are common to all types.

RAF Wires = Medium Carbon Steel. 9% mangnase [sic] Cold Rolled. – Tensile Steel. 52-65 Tons/0” Elliptical or Oval Section used for

[page break]

internal & extrenal bracings.

A. Length – Overall Length.
B. “ – Length between Shoulder.
C. Cropping Exact length before rolling.

Identified by numbers on a tab or round part of the wire giving the “A” length & Diam. [diameter]

To find Diam of wire from figures add 5 to first figure of 3 figured number and call them 1/32”.

Example – [boxed] 5W3310 [/boxed] = 310/5/8 = 8/32” =1/4”

[underlined] A.G.S. [/underlined]

Every wire of certain Diam increase in lengths of 4”, to find length in inches subtract 1 from last 2 figures, multiply by 4, add minium [sic] length. (from table).

Example – [boxed] 5W.3310 [/boxed] (1/19) x 4 = (36)+11=47” long

[page break]

[table illustrating diameter of thread, wire number, minimum length and fork joint number]

Threads conform to BA & BSF.

Left hand always to the top RH supplied longer to enable wire to be shortened if required.

Protected against corrosion by Cadmium coating. Cleaned with Parrafin [sic] rag dried. thouroughly [sic] & Sozzle mixture (Grease) applied.

[page break]

[underlined] Tie & Swaged Rods [/underlined]

Spec W8. Medium Carbon Steel round section used soly [sic] for internal bracing & connecting links in controll [sic] system.

[underlined] Fork Joints [/underlined]

Used for connection R.A.F. wires & swaged rods to wiring plate & lugs form part of tension rod turnbuckle. Low carbon Steel 35 Tons / [square drawn] in “

Thread BA & BSF – RH & LH. 4 BA – 1 3/8 BSE identified by numbers stamped on body (see Table). Size determined by subtraction 406 fom number 1 3 1/32 (except BAS 7/32” 9/32” 5/8 BSF

[underlined] Zinc or Cadmium Coating [/underlined]

Distorted forks not to be used.
Material. (Identifation [sic]).
Mild Steel - Plain Collar.
High Tensile Steel – Grooved Collar
Stainless Steel = No Collar
Stainless Steel = Stamped SS

[page break]

[underlined] Shackle Pins. [/underlined]

HT Alloy Steel, Zinc or Cadmium coating Size. Diam & length measuring from under head to inside edge of split pin hole.

[underlined] Diam. [/underlined] Denoted by letter stamped on head A=5/32 increasing by 1/32” (See Table)

[underlined] Length. [/underlined] Denoted by number.-No l=25”(1/4) increasing by 1” from l”
Example H19

AGS. (Bolts). Identifation [sic]
Meteral .[sic]
Mild Steel – Plain Head.
High Tensile Steel –Grove [sic] round Hexogun. [sic]
Stainles [sic] Steel – Stamped S.S.
[underlined] Sizes [/underlined] – 6 BA – 1/2 BSF most commonly used, Diam denoted by a letter on head (See Table).
[underlined] Length. [/underlined] Smallest 6” increases by 4” for each size. Identified by number which when divided by 10 will give length in inches
[diagram and calculations]

[page break]

B.A sizes are not, [inserted] marked [/inserted] packages are labelled.
B.A – British Assocation [sic]
BSF British Standard Fine
[curly bracket to include above two lines] Typ [sic] & number of threads per inch

[underlined] Nuts [/underlined]

M.S. Plain
HTS Graved. [sic]

Nuts above 1/4 “ in Diam are stamped on one flat with letters to denote size, also stamped with L.
Example 3/8 left hand thread.

[diagram to illustrate]

Lock Nuts.

Half thickness of [deleted] thickness [/deleted] ordinary nuts.

Brass. –Soft Yellow Colour
Cast Iron – 2 flats only others rounded off
[arrow pointing at illustration]
Brass used extensivly [sic] for marine aircraft owing to non-corrodibility
Reason for use. To avoid damage to wire in event of over tightning. [sic]
[list of bolts]
Locking Devices.
[underlined]1[/underlined] Slotted Nut & Split Pin.
[underlined]2[/underlined] Burring.
[underlined]3[/underlined] Centre Pop (3 Marks).
[underlined]4[/underlined] Simmonds Self-Locking Nut.
[drawing self locking nut and locking ring]
[underlined]5[/underlined] Double Lock Nut
[underlined]6[/underlined] Locking Ring.
[underlined]7[/underlined] Locking Plate & Grub Screw.
[underlined]8[/underlined] Tab Washer.

[page break]

[underlined]9[/underlined] Spring Washer.
[underlined]10[/underlined] Soft Iron Locking Wire.
[underlined]11[/underlined] Terry Safety Pin.
[drawing of locking plate]
[drawing of tab washer]
Tubular Rivets. (Identification)
Spec. T1. Medium Carbon Steel – 1 Flat.
“ T26 Mild Carbon Steel – 2 Flat.
“ T9 Aluminium – 1 Flat.
“ DTD97. Stainless Steel. – No Flat.
Taper Pins.
Conform to:-
R.A.F. Taper Pins – 1 in 48.
Morse. 1 in 20.
Measured by length & Diam of smallest ind.

[page break]

A Reamer Fit. (Method of Locking.)
[underlined]1[/underlined] End split & opened out.
[underlined]2[/underlined] End threaded Nut & Spring Washer.
[underlined]3[/underlined] Small end burred over.
Large end must protude [sic] more than 1/8” and small end no more than 1/16”
U Shackles.
Size governed by size of Pin used.
[deleted]W[/deleted] Turnbuckles. Two types.
[underlined]1[/underlined] Tension rod type. [underlined]2[/underlined] Barrel type.
Used for adjusting control cables. No 1 Locked with 18 gauge soft iron locking wire (figure of 8) & brass or cast iron lock nuts. In safety when threads are past the pin hole in fork joint. No 2 replaced by No 1. Locked with sort iron locking wire in shape of letter S. In safety when all threads are inside barrel.
[drawing of Tension Rod]
Wheels. (Types).
A Wire braced with floating bushes

[page break]

B) Wire braced with floating [deleted] booshs [/deleted] bushes. & braced across shims.
C) Plain disc wheels, non floating bushes.
D) Wire braced with brakes, floating bushes.
E) Disc wheels with brakes, non-floating bushes.
F) Intermediate low pressure.
G) Full low pressure.
H) Intermediate low pressure, with brakes.
Bushes made of Phosphon [sic] Bronze.
Bushes in C & E are a force fit- extractors will be required to remove.
[handwritten indecipherable signature] 19.11.38
Wheels. (Shims).
Shims may be fitted when wear occurs on bushes 20 SWG.
Brass Hard Sheets.
To be loose fit on axle 1 – 5 in number.
[underlined]ON.[/underlined] Unbreaked [sic] & breaked [sic] wheels with roller bearings, shims on the outside
[underlined] ON [/underlined] [deleted] UnBreaked [sic] wheels & Unbreaked [sic] wheels

[page break]

with roller bearings shims on outside [/deleted]
ON Breaked [sic] wheel with plain bearings (D & E) shims on outer face first, then inner face – alternately.
24/1/39 [handwritten indecipherable signature]
[underlined] [underlined] Types of Undercarriages. [/underlined] [/underlined]
1) [underlined] 1 [/underlined] Through axle.
[drawing of undercarriage] [drawing of undercarriage]
2) Divided u/c.
[drawing of undercarriage] GAUNTLET [deleted] GAANTLET. [/deleted] GLADIATOR.

[page break]

[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Split Axle.
[drawing of undercarriage] MOTH.
[drawing of undercarriage] HEAVY BOMBER (WHITLEY). Now Obselete.
[deleted] Splicing (1st Tuck) (Heart strand)
.020 200

[page break]

1st Tuck Heart strand straight forward. Three on each side.
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] No 3 goes in under one. 2 to the left
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] “ 1 “ “ Where no 3 comes out. Under 2 strands.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] “ 2 “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 1 “.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] “ 4 “ “ 1 to the right of where no 3 went under 1.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] “ 5 “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 4 “ “ “ “
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] “ 6 “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 5 “ “ “ “
2 Tuck
Start no 5 (1 to right of heart) tucked over one & under one.
4 “ “ “ “
3 “ “ “ “
2 “ “ “ “
1 “ “ “ “
6 “ “ “ “

Extra flexible high tensile steel wire rope; 19 wires to a strand; 7 strands to a cable. Size denoted by its safe working load in cwts. Most common used in R.A.F. 5, 15, 25, 45 cwts. Extensively used for bracing & controls [sic] .

[page break]

5 cwts – Actuating Gear.
15 “ - Flying Control[deleted] l [/deleted] s
25 & 45 “ – Bracing.
Connected to component by loop or roller spliced into the ends.

[page break]

[missing page]

[page break]

[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Fin stabilises the machine directionally. It is sometimes ofset [sic] to counteract the effect of the slipstream.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Gap is the distance between top & bottom plane. The reason for not having to [sic] small a gap is that there should be no interference in the airflow.
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Chord is the distance between leading & trailing edges on an aerofoil.
[underlined] 7 [/underlined] Angle of incidence is the angle which chord line of the aerofoil makes with the relative airflow
[underlined] 8 [/underlined] Dihedral angle is the angle at which the main planes are set to the horizontal when viewing machine from front.

Stagger is the horizontal distance one plane is set in front of, or in rear of another.

Ailerons are attached to the rear spar of the mainplane near the wing tip. They control the rolling movement with natural control & one continuous system.

Flaps usually

[page break]

Fitted are in rear of M/P to widen range of speed.
Slats are small aerofoil sections fitted to the leading edge of the top M/P at the wing tip to give increased angle of stall & decrease the stalling speed by smoothing out eddies which form at stalling speed.

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Yawing. Inclination of the A/C to move to left or right.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Rolling is inclination of the A/C to move [deleted] about [/deleted] out of its fore & aft axis
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Hitching is the movement of an A/C about its lateral axis.

Thrust is the name given to a force applied by the rotation of the Airscrew ie forward motion of the A/C.

Slipstream is the helical column of air set up by the rotation of the airscrew.

Airscrew Torque is the tendency of a machine to turn in the opposite direction to which the airscrew rotates.

Tail Incidence Gear or Actuating Gear is a device for altering the angle of incidence of a tail plane & carried

[page break]

out by raising or lowering the rear spar of the tail-plane. It is operated by a wheel in the pilots cockpit from which cables are taken to the vertical tail-jack

[underlined] Nose or tail too heavy [/underlined]
This is a tendency for a machine to fly with its nose up or down and counteracted by the actuating gear.
[underlined] Downwash [/underlined] is the flow of air deflected by the inclined surface of an aerofoil passing through it.
[underlined] Stalling Speed [/underlined]
An aircraft is said to be at stalling speed when the airspeed is at the minimum necessary to support it.

Leading Particulars (Fairey 3F)
[underlined] Engine [/underlined] – Napier – W/C.
[underlined] Duty [/underlined] Generall [sic] Purpose.
[underlined] Type [/underlined] Two seater, Bi-Plane & convertible to seaplane

[page break]

Main Dimensions.
Span – 45 ft. 9”
Height – (over sling) 13 ft.
Chord – 5 ft. 6”
Gap - 5 “ 7 “
Stagger – Nil.
Incidence – 4o
Dihedral – 2o 15’
Tail Plane.
Incidence to datum plus 5o 50’ plus 5o 50’ to 0o 6’Jacking points
Frames no 1, 14 & 10
Bracing or Balance Trestle.
Rigging Position
When equipment is scarce the U/C may be used as the jacking point provided that it has been trued up & the legs hardened with wood blocks.
To check rigging position
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Slacken balance trestles. Check lateral level with makers cross level under the spool joint of no 2 frames & adjust on front trestle if necessary.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Check longitudinal truth with

[page break]

makers fore & aft level placed under front & rear spar tubes. Adjust on rear trestles if necessary.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Adjust on balance trestle untill [sic] it just takes a bearing.
Sequence of Assembly
Fuselage trued.
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Erect & true U/C
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] “ “ “ C/S
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] “ “ “ T/U
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Box, erect & true main planes.
Attaching & Truing the Undercarriage.
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Wheels and Oleo legs are attached to the axle.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] [symbol] U/C wheeled under fuselage. Oleo legs are attached [deleted] to the [/deleted] first with bolt head forward.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Radius rods are attached with [deleted] e [/deleted] their bolt heads downwards.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Bracing wires attached, bolt heads downwards & top starboard to bottom port uppermost.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Tension & trammel cross bracing wires.
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Check rigging position.
[underlined] 7 [/underlined] Suspend plumb lines from inside face of bottom spool joint,

[page break]

number two frame & mark points of axle with chalk & pencill [sic] measuring from grease points.
[underlined] 8 [/underlined] Distance from plumb to marked points equal. Adjust cables if necessary. Check for squrness [sic] .
[underlined] 9 [/underlined] Check cables for safety, lock up & split pins.
Centre Section.
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Support centre section upside down on felt covered trestles.
Fit [deleted] trestles [/deleted] struts, longest in front, rear starboard carries brackets for ASI, inboards & on top.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Place C/S bracing wires front & rear swaw [sic] rods, Bottom starboard, top parts nearest tanks side drag wires 607 & 608. 607 nearest tanks. All RH thread at bottom equally engaged in fork joints points for swag rods heads forwards.

[page break]

[underlined] Rigging Iinstruments [sic]
[underlined] I [/underlined] By Makers Instrument Board.
[underlined] II [/underlined] Abney Level.
[underlined] III [/underlined] Incidence Board or Dihedral Board
[underlined] IV [/underlined] Spirit Level

[drawing of calculating angle of 4o]

[underlined] Problem [/underlined]
To find angle of 4o on A, B, C, D.
[underlined] Construction] [/underlined]
With compasses & radius 57.3” scribe an arc. EH from point A. From line AD mark off 4” along HE & call it F.
Join AF & produce to G. [symbol] Angle between AG & AD must be 4o.

[page break]

Truing Main Planes.
[underlined] Tolerances [/underlined]

[drawing of plan view of A/C]

[drawing of side view of aerofoil]

[page break]

[underlined] [underlined] Undercarriage. [/underlined] [/underlined]

[drawing of undercarriage]

[drawing of undercarriage]

[drawing of unknown]

[page break]

[drawing of Aileron controls]

Ailerons 24o UP.
“ “ 24o Down.

[underlined] Differential Control [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Rigging Position
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Test control column in central position [inserted] AFT [/inserted] 30/14
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Test that aileron control attachments both on the cam is vertically in line with the centre of each chain sprocket & the chains are equally disposed about the sprockets.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Adjust aileron controls until ailerons continuation with the flaps are set at normal 4o.

[page break]

Adjust on gap wires until the ailerons are normal.
[underlined] v [/underlined] Release C/C & check aileron [deleted] s [/deleted] travel with straight edge & Abney level on underside of selected rib.

[underlined] 24 Up & DOWN. [/underlined]
Abney Level reading.

[underlined] 20o up – 28o DOWN [/underlined]
[underlined] I [/underlined] [underlined] R.P. [/underlined]
[underlined] II [/underlined] [deleted] Adjust [/deleted] Wind wheel forward & check that trunions are fully outward.
[underlined] III [/underlined] Adjust controls & check with straight edge & Abney level under a flap rib so that the flap is 5o UP.
Wind wheel back & check trunio [inserted] n [/inserted] s for being in right inboard & flap for being 16o Down from normal. Wind flaps to normal in continuation with M/P check Top Flap Gap wire adjustment.

[page break]

Strut at 90o to an airflow.
Same with strut 45o to an Airflow.

[drawing of strut]

[underlined] Sections round which air flows. [/underlined]

[page break]

[drawing of pressure curve]

[drawing of pressure curve]

Pressure curves & centre of Pressure.

Pressure curves at 4o & 14o.
Postive [sic] angles of attack.
The top surface of an aerofoil 4/5 of the complete lift while the bottom only produce 1/5

[page break]

[drawing of manometer]

[underlined] Manometer [/underlined]

Flight of curvature called the camber while the ratio of chord to span is called the aspect ratio.
Datum line otherwise chord line from wick [sic] all measurements are taken. Highest point of curature [sic] 1/3 from leading edge.

[page break]

[drawing illustrating turning moment]

The turning effect of a force (moment) Moment produced by AB. – 10LB 5x2 = 20LB – 1 FT. 10x5.

[drawing of high aspect ratio]

[drawing of low aspect ratio]

[page break]

Lamantation of Span.

[table of bending moment]

[two drawings relating to bending moment table]

[page break]

Development of the bi-plane.

[drawing of cross section of monoplane and bi-plane]

[page break]

Effect of forward & backward Stagger.
([underlined] Blind Areas. [/underlined] )

[drawing of blind areas]

[page break]

[drawing of a couple]

Calculation of a couple may be defined as 2 equal forces acting in opposite direction some distance apart so as to cause rotation.

[page break]

Effects of Stagger

[drawing of interference]

[drawing of non-interference]

[page break]

Air – Speed Indicator
The Pitot tube records the difference between the wind pressure due to the passage of the A/C. through the air & the pressure of the sorrounding [sic] still air.

[drawing of pitot/static head]


[page break]

Air Speed Indicator.

[drawing of air speed indicator]

The Altimeter is a instrument to tell the heigh [sic] of the A/C.

[underlined] Fore & Aft Levels [/underlined] .
Fore & Aft levels are instruments used [deleted] to [/deleted] on A/C to indicate the angle between horizontal axis & longtitudanals. Consists of a glass shaped triangular container of round section one side being set vertical & facing the instrument board.
When liquid is above zero mark the nose of the A/C is tilted upwards, when below zero mark nose of A/C is tilted downwards.

[page break]

Turn Indicator.
Designed to help pilot keep on straight course to give him a clear visible indication of flight.
The complete instrument comprises of an indication coupled to a venturi head.
The venturi head is put in the slipstream while the Pitot head is [deleted] as [/deleted] outside the slipstream.


[drawing of turn indicator]

The needle in relation to zero mark

[page break]

Turn Indicator Venturi.

[drawing of turn indicator venturi]

Oleo Legs.

An oleo leg is a telescopic contravance [sic] forming one of the main parts of the U/C designed to absorb landing & taxying [sic] shock.

The shock exsorbing [sic] qualities derived by causing oil which compressioned [sic] to be forced through holes which are arranged to decrease proggressively [sic] inside [inserted] as [/inserted] the leg. telescopes.

Oil action is assisted usually by one of the following. Rubber, Air & Springs.
[inserted] Good Drawing [signature] [/inserted] [page break]

[diagram of Fury oleo leg] [page break]
[underlined] WAPITI [/underlined] [diagram of Wapiti oleo leg]
[page break]

[underlined] HORSLEY [/underlined] [diagram of Horsley oleo leg]
[page break] [blank page]
[inserted] Don’t Waste Space [/inserted] [page break]
Faults, Reasons, & Remidies [sic] for Oleo Legs.

[underlined] A [/underlined] Piston does not move or only moves a small amount.

[underlined] Reason. [/underlined] Air Pressure too high or gland become gummy through long period of use.

[underlined] Remedie. [sic] [/underlined] Reduce Air Pressure.

[underlined] B [/underlined] Piston does not extend to normal & machine wobles [sic] on a turn. [underlined] Reason. [/underlined] Air Pressure to [sic] low.
[underlined] C [/underlined] Piston extends normaly [sic] & air pressure is correct but machine rolls badly on a turn.

[underlined] Reason. [/underlined] Oil level to [sic] low & air pressure does not increase fast enough with motion of piston.

[underlined] Remedie. [sic] [/underlined] Check oil level.

D Piston at normal extension & air pressure correct but machine very harsh in taxying [sic].

[underlined] Reason. [/underlined] Oil level too high. causing ondue [sic] increase of air pressure. with movement of piston.

[underlined] Remedie. [sic] [/underlined] Check oil level.

E There is loss of oil at main gland, if leakage is slow keep unit in [page break]
commission by maintaining air pressure. Replace complete unit as convient [sic]. The gland of the departure unit must be dismantled & faulty packing rings replaced.

F If the air pressure in the unit is not maintained ascertain that all valves are tight & if the leak still persists detach unit & submerge unit in water to locate fault.

[underlined] Vickers Air Brakes [/underlined]

[underlined] I [/underlined] This is shown diagrammatically in scetch [sic].

[underlined] II [/underlined] The wheel brakes are operated by compressed air drawn from the main system.

The brakes are applied by hand & operation of the rudder bar normally assists steering on the ground by giving differential braking.
[underlined] III [/underlined] The chief component of the brake systems are:- A Pilots hand lever.
B Brake control valve.
C Independent parking control.
D Wheel brake unit [page break]
E Duplex pressure gauge.
F The pipes are of small diameter & metal couplings are used throughout the complete piping system shewn [sic] in the diagram.
G The pilots hand lever control fitted on the control column handle & connected to the control valve by Bowden transmission Operation at this lever give braking protortion [sic] to the load applied.

[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Brake control valve.

This is [deleted] a [/deleted] in effect a sensative [sic] duplex, relay, valve enabling high braking forces to be devoloped [sic] although relitivly [sic] in a small load are applied to the controls.

This valve admits compressed air to brakes motors up to a predetermined pressure, this being also coupled to the rudder controls. This allows the braking forces on the wheel to be varied thus assisting ground monoeurvers [sic].

[underlined] 6 [/underlined] The independent parking control is used for running up the engine [page break]
& parking A/C.

It is governed by a small catch on the C/C.

The control must only be used when the A/C is at rest on the ground, also in gusty weather the rudder bar must be locked to avoid loss of air due to rudder movements.

[underlined] 7 [/underlined] Thes [sic] are Vickers standard type 2 shoe brake. [underlined] 8 [/underlined] The Duplex pressure gauge.

Reading [deleted] to [/deleted] 0 to 100 lb per sq in but 200 lb per sq in over load is fitted on the changing panel on the S Board side of the pilot & indicate the pressure in the brake motors. Pressure is shown at all times but need only be refined when testing.

[underlined] 9 [/underlined] The minimum pressure normaly [sic] required in the brakes is 35 lb per sq in when rudder bar is in neutral position & hand lever off it stops the “Parking Pressure” it is also 35 lb per sq in.

The brake pressure [page break]
or inner wheel does not rise above the normal, the turning effects are obtained by allowing the pressure to fall away in outer wheel brake.

[underlined] 10 [/underlined] The hand lever must be used for compensated braking, turns must be made with rudder.

The parking control must be used when A/C is at rest on ground. Brakes must be tested before taking off.
[underlined] Tests [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Ascertain that the pressure in air bottle is 150 to 200 lb per sq in.

[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Apply the brakes by hand lever, rudder nuteral [sic], the pressure in the Duplex should indicate 35 lb per sq in.

[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Still holding the hand lever on the stop, move the rudder bar for a turn to Port, gauge should indicate – Port 35 lb per sq in S Board zero.

[page break]

4 Repeat this for a turn to S B gauge should now indicate – S Board 35 lb per sq in – Port zero.

[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Bring rudder bar to nuteral [sic], the pressure should now equalise at 35 lb per sq in.

[underlined] 6 [/underlined] With hand lever released oscillate the rudder bar to its full angle as in flight; gauge should still indicate zero.

[underlined] 7 [/underlined] Throw over the parking catch, a pressure of 35 lb per sq in should be indicated on gauge.


12 In order to reduce to a minimum the amount of air used in applying brakes, it is advisable to take up the wear in the shoes by lengthening the brake motor about 0.25 to 0.25 of an inc [sic] axial measurment [sic] of rod should be allowed when brakes are on

13 An even check on the pressure in the system should be made when A/C is parked. 14 The A/C wheels are fitted with oil seals to keep oil from shoes
[page break]

should the brakes seem affected at any time, although air pressure is normal it is advisible [sic] to [one indecipherable word] shoes for oil

[underlined] 15 [/underlined] [underlined] Brake control valve [/underlined]

This is main control valve having many duties to perform, the following notes show its action & in case of emergency will enable replacements & minor adjustments to be made.

[underlined] 16 [/underlined] The valve governs maximum pressure which may be applied to brakes, it responds to movements of hand lever on the control column & to [deleted] to [/deleted] those of [deleted] of [/deleted] the rudder bar or else to parking control.

[underlined] 17 [/underlined] The valve box contain 2 identical groups of mechanism of which control the Port & S Board brakes; both groups consisting of the following parts –

2 inlet pressure valves connected to air resivour [sic] & 2 ( exhaust ) valves. The [inserted] inlet [/inserted] exhaust valves of each group contained in same [page break]

The cam, common to both groups of [deleted] mechanism [/deleted] The levers of the cam following.

The governer [sic] spring with their assocated [sic] diaphram [sic]. [deleted] The [/deleted]
[underlined] 18 [/underlined] Diaphragm of each group is acted upon by the load by the governor spring on the other side & by the pressure in the brake chamber on the other.

This chamber is in communaction [sic] with the corresponding brake load.

When a balance exists between these two forces the pressure in the brake motor, & consequently the braking force leaves a direct reletive [sic] to the governer [sic] spring which is directly acted upon by the hand lever.

The inlet & exhaust valves are closed do not open again untill [sic] the state of balance refered to a body above is altered.

[page break]

[underlined] 19 [/underlined] Only the inlet pressure valve to the state of balance becomes smaller & smaller when the valves closes [sic]

[underlined] 20 [/underlined] If the braking is increased release [?] hand lever allows the load to fall causing the diaphragm to move upwards opening the exhaust valve. This allows air from the brake motor to escape until the pressure of the brake chamber again balances the spring load.

[underlined] 21 [/underlined] With brake released entirely there is no load on the spring & exhaust release valve is permantly [sic] open. The pressure in the system is then atmospheric.

[underlined] 22 [/underlined] It will be seen from the foregoing that the max pressure obtained in the brake motors depends on the movement which loads the governor spring. This movement being limited by adjustable stops.

[underlined] 23 [/underlined] The load on the governor spring are affected by the position of the rudder bar which is assumed is in the neteral [sic]

[page break] position.
When it moves this allows the pressure in one brake to fall.

[underlined] 24 [/underlined] The only parts of the complete assembly wich [sic] are likely to need attention are the valve units.

Should it leak it is best to replace the complete valve box by a new; faulty valve can be examined, the valve units removed & replaced by spare ones being made to a jig

[underlined] 25 [/underlined] In order to prevent any foreign matter getting into the valves a horse hair filter is fitted into the pressure inlet manifold which can esily [sic] be removed for cleaning in petrol by unscrewing a cap.

[page break]

[diagram of Vickers air brakes] [page break]
[underlined] Benedix Brakes [/underlined]

Advantages of Uses

[underlined] I [/underlined] Reduction of landing run enabling higher speeds to be used with safetfy. [underlined] II [/underlined] Control of landing run useful in cross wind landing.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Greater manouverability [sic] on the ground. [underlined] 4 [/underlined] Easyer [sic], Safer & Faster Taxying [sic]. [underlined] 5 [/underlined] Making possible use of tail wheel instead of skid.
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Useful for parking & may be used in an emergency for engine testing on ground.


[underlined] I [/underlined] Extra weight.

[underlined] II [/underlined] More maintainance [sic] required.

[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Slightly more chance of putting A/C on nose in landing. Types

[underlined] I [/underlined] Mechanically operated. [underlined] II [/underlined] Hydralic [sic] (Fluid). [underlined] III [/underlined] Pneumatic. (Air). [page break]
[diagram of Bendix brake] [page break]
Maintainance [sic] of Palmer Brakes

[underlined] Defects [/underlined] [underlined] Causes [/underlined] [underlined] Remidies [sic] [/underlined]

[underlined] I [/underlined] Air Lock.

To [sic] much travel with spongy feling [sic]


[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Non return of valve in motor. Complete renewal of affected part in motor.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Leaking joint causing loss of pressure, air in resuvoir [sic] when pedal is depressed.

Removal of faulty clips etc.

[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Sedgment [sic] damaged & worn Renewal of expansion chamber complet [sic]
5 Brake sedgment [sic] partly worn

Fitting special rubber bands of adhesive tape butt jointed in base of costlated [sic] to channel

[page break] D C R
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Resuvoir [sic] leaking

Careful tensioning of tail rod passing through base of resuvoir [sic] & renew rubber bands. [underlined] 7 [/underlined] Rubber bag in motor deflected
Change bag [page break]
[diagram of hydraulic system 1 & 2] [page break]
[diagram of hydraulic system 3] [page break]
[diagram of hydraulic system 4] [page break]
Dowdy Hydraulic System.

Consists of Retractable U/C, Tail Wheel & Flaps.

Oil for Dowdy System – “Slamavo” (DTD44B). [underlined] no other oil must be used [/underlined]. Should throttle be shut & U/C up a warning buzzer blows in the pilots cockpit to warn him his U/C is up. Oil to be maintained level by the filler plug in resevoir [sic].

[inserted] [signature] 16.3. 39 CI [/inserted] [page break]
[underlined] BASIC . CARPENTERING. [/underlined]

[diagram of wood with marking gauge] [page break]
[diagram of halved joint] [page break]
[diagram of wood joint] [page break]
[underlined] TOOLS. (FOUR MAIN GROUPS) [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Cutting. Saws.
Planes. Chisels. Spokeshave. Gauges.

Marking. Pencils
Scribing [one indecipherable word] Gauges.

Testing Rule.
Try Square Winding Batten Bevels.

Boring Brace & Bit Gimlet Bradawl

Tenon Saw used for small jobs, 7 to 10 points to an inch.

Dove Tail saw used for verry [sic] minute work [underlined] 5 to 7 points to an inch. [/underlined]

[underlined] Chisels /[/underlined] Paring. [underlined] Morticeing [sic] [/underlined] [underlined] Gouges [underlined] / Firmer. [underlined] Scribing. [/underlined]

Gauges / Marking.
[underlined] Morticeing [sic] Gauge. [/underlined] Scribing knife.

[page break]

[diagram of dovetail joint] [page break]
[second diagram of dovetail joint] [page break]
[third diagram of dovetail joint] [page break]
Sequence of Operation.

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Mark cut as in Fig [underlined] 1 [/underlined], use level for lines at 80 [degree symbol].

[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Gauge depth to half thickness from face side.

[underlined] 3 [/underlined] With Chisel cut “v” groove in shaded portion “A” to form channels for saw

[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Pare out shaded portion “A” with chisel. [underlined] 5 [/underlined] Next remove waste “C” using saw.
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Fit together & square off the end using smoothing plane only.
Mortice & Tenon Joint

[diagram and measurements of the joint]

Sequence of Operation

[page break]
[drawing & measurements]

[underlined] JW [/underlined]

[page break]

4 Main Timbers used in Aero Construction
[deleted] Sisques [/deleted] [inserted] Sitka [/inserted] Spruce

Red Deal
[deleted] This is [/deleted] Used to distinguish [deleted] ed [/deleted] the light & less resiness from those containing more turpentin [sic] & with much stronger marked anual [sic] rings.

Scotch Fir or Northern Pine.
The difference in the types of this timber is due chiefly to the soil & the altitude at which it grows

The best red & yellow fir comes from Prussia & Hemel. Height 30 to 40 ft, logs 13 to 16 inc [sic] [deleted] s [/deleted] square.

This means the submitting of freshly felled [deleted] to [/deleted] trees to the action of the weather for severall [sic] seasons. When this is done the naturall [sic] juices dry up.

Naturall [sic] seasoning has the better effect of preserving the strength.

In preserving timber the tree is looped of its branches, its trunk is skinned & squared the stacked in the open air.

Wet Seasoning
To shortening the time this method is used.

The root end is put toward the flow of a running stream but this method deminshes [sic] strength of the timber

Desication [sic] Method
This is kilne [sic] drying. The wood is submitted in closed chambers with [deleted] methods [/deleted] moving currents of warm air which ebsorbs [sic] the moisture.

Time 3 days

[page break]

[characteristics of the 4 types of wood]

[page break]

[characteristics of the 4 types of wood]

Scarf Joint [drawing of the joint]

Rebate Joint [drawing of the joint]

Classification of Joints

Joints are arranged for convience [sic] of reference in groups
[underlined] 1. [/underlined] Framing Joints. such as in doors, sashes & frame structures of all kinds.

Under this group are :-
Mortice & Tennon.
Halfing [sic] Joints

[underlined] 2. [/underlined] Widening Joint
Used for uniting the edges of 2 peices [sic] of wood or more to increase the width

Under this group we have the rubbed joint, Plough & Joint. Plough & Feather, Slotted Screw & Rebate Joint.

[underlined] 3. [/underlined] Lengthening Joints
Used to unite two members such as Longerons [sic] & Spaxs [sic] in A/C end to end.

They are the Scarf Joint, Butt Joint, (Fish Plates.)

When these Joints are used they are protected with Egypitian [sic] tape which is bound

[page break]

& glued.

[underlined] Principles Governing Construction of Joints [/underlined]
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] To cut the joints & arrange the fastenings so as not to weaken the peices [sic]of timber that they connect.

[underlined] 2 [/underlined] To proportion the area of each a butting [deleted] joi [/deleted] surface to the pressure which it has to bear so that the timber may be saved against injury [deleted] against [/deleted] inder [sic] heavyest [sic] loads & to form a fit each surface accaratly [sic] in order to distribute the stress uniformly.

[underlined] Methods of Fastening. [/underlined]
One of the most important duties is the fitting together in such a manner that the complete structure may have greatest possible strength. The methods used vary but they fall into groups acording [sic] to the principles of construction when the connection is a effected entirely by means of the timber fitted together is called a joint most commonly however the joint is strengthened & secured by bolts, iron straps, screws, nails, wedges & glue.

Wood Screws for fastening on Composite A/C are nemerious [sic]. They are used to give added strength in making a splice. In securing the skin wether [sic] Ply wood or metal to wood members the holding power is attained by the thread.

It is always necesscary [sic] to bore to some extent for a screw.

A wood screw should be twice the thickness in length at the meterial [sic] being screwed.

They can be obtained varying from 1/4 to 6” & in gauge from & 9 to 26. Heads are eighter [sic] round, countersunk or raised.

To find the gauge of a wood screw measure the diameter of the shank then subtract one 1/32 & the result is in 64 [underlined] ths. [/underlined]
Shank diameter – 3/16
Gauge – 3/16 = 1/32
= 6-1/32 = 5/32 = 10/64 = Screw No 10

When ordering screws the particulars must be given, Length, Type, of Head, Quantity in number

[page break]

ie Doz Gross.
Then screws are made mostly from Steel Brass or Dural.

If the screws are used for securing the skin of Dural or Alclad [sic] to wooder [sic] formers they must be Cadmium [underlined] coated [/underlined]

[underlined] Nails [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Wire.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Round.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Oval
[underlined] 4 [/underlined ] Square varying from 6” downward
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Tacks, small nails made from iron or copper having round flat heads.

Clout nails, iron, large round heads used for securing felt, [deleted] felt [/deleted] sheet metal,

Wire, iron, brass flat heads used for aero carpentery [sic] for securine [sic] gusset peices [sic], ribs etc.
Panel Pins & needle points.
Gimp Pin.

The holding power of nails is friction & grip.
Some nails
cut the fibre & some compress it.

[underlined] Glues [/underlined]
Glue is a very important factor in the construction of modern composite A/C so that the method of repairing it deserves some concederation [sic]. Glue is briefly gelatinous extracts from bones, hide & hornes. [sic]

[deleted] If [/deleted] It has a great affinity for water & will absorb it from the atmosphere, however old it may be.
Fish glue is the strongest & is known as [deleted] soo [/deleted] Scotch.

Cold water glue is made from dried curd of cows milk which is pounded & washed & has a small quantity of lime water.

Care must be taken in complying with the instruction on the tin.

Casein glue is also used on composite A/C

[page break]

[underlined] Composite Repa [inserted] I [/inserted] nces. REPAIRS. [/underlined]

Trailing Edge Repair. )Leading edge repair is cut opposite way.

[drawing showing trailing edge repair cut]

Joints secured by gluing & b [deleted] inding [/deleted] [inserted] ound [/inserted] with [deleted] 2 1/2 “ Brass [underlined] Brads. [/deleted] Egypitian [sic] [/underlined] Tape. EGYPTIAN.

[underlined] Ply Wood Patches. [/underlined]

Ply Frame glued to underside of skin.

[drawing showing location of wood screws]

[Fig 1 & Fig 2 drawings]

Sequence of Operation.

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Mark out on a straight & true surface a line 5 7 1/3”, scribe [deleted] & true [/deleted] an arc of that radius & on it mark the number of degrees in inches [example 3 o 9 = 3 3/20]
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Select & clean a straight piece of timber, quarter cut, & true up to size of board required.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Transfer the angle obtained in Fig [underlined] 1 [/underlined] on to timber to be used allowing enough timber to be left on for strength, cut off waste, [Fig 2 (A)]

[page break]

[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Fix a locating peg arc on Front of incidence board.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Place incidence board in position on plane to obtain length of pegs which must rest on centre of spars. The lengths are obtained by getting edge of board parallel with the chord line.
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] his board is used in conjunction with ordinary spirit length resting on board at point A1

[underlined] Plywood [/underlined]

Methods of Manufacture & [underlined] Preservation. [/underlined]

Built up of layers (or veneers)

[underlined] Methods of Cutting Veneers. [/underlined]
[underlined] I [/underlined] Rotary cut.
[underlined] II [/underlined] Knife Cut. (Slicing)
[underlined] III [/underlined] Saw Cut.
[underlined] I [/underlined] The Rotary Cut.
Log revolves against stationery knife.
[underlined] II [/underlined] Saw Cut.
Cut with a special type of circular saw.
[underlined] III [/underlined] Knife Cut.
Log is squared up & fastened to a base plate which moves forward & downwards.

Thickness of Plywoods.
[underlined] 1/16 & 1mm. [/underlined]

[underlined] Types of Plywoods. [/underlined]

a) Three Ply [3 ply]
B) Multi Ply [When 3 or more veneers are used.]

[underlined] Veneers. [/underlined]
[deleted] Is [/deleted] [inserted] ARE [/inserted] glued together with grains at different angles. [deleted] are dried to r [/deleted]
Veneers are dried to moisture content by 10%.
Glue is spread on two faced layers above & below the top of middle layers.
Preservation of Plywood.
When stored seal edges with parrafin [sic] wax to stop any

[page break]

moisture getting in or out.
Inspect at periods.
Storeroom must be well ventilated and even temperature kept.
Stack flat & weigh surface.

[underlined] Repair Schemes [/underlined]

See that correct thickness & quality is obtained.
Faults to look for in

[underlined] Plywood [/underlined]
A) Blisters.
B) Wrin [deleted] c [/deleted] [inserted] k [/inserted] les.
C) Ply Seperation [sic] &
D) Decay.

[underlined] Spruce. [/underlined]
Lightness with strength straight grain.

[underlined] Ash [/underlined]
Strong, tough & elestic [sic]

[underlined] Mahogany & Walnut [/underlined]
Strong, hard,
& straight grained.
Minimium [sic] shrinkage & has glue retaining qualities.

[underlined] Steam Bending [/underlined]

Used where continious [sic] curves of fibres is required; sometimes used for longerons,[sic] wing tips, etc. Ash generally used.

[underlined] Methods [/underlined]
Meterial [sic] is placed in steam chest to soften fibre. Duration of steaming depends on size of meterial [sic] & nature of bend.
Temperature of chest not to exceed 220 o. After steaming, work is placed in a gig.

[underlined] Laminated Components [/underlined]
Built up components are often used for wing tips bends.
They are stronger & less liable

[page break]

to alter shape.

[underlined] Types of Wood Spars. [/underlined]

[Ref. Form 1107]
[underlined] I [/underlined] Solid Spindle
[underlined] II [/underlined] Laminated Spindle
[underlined] III [/underlined] Box.

[underlined] Spars. [/underlined]
Tests for truth
Similar to iron spars.
Examination of wooden components.
Causes of any trouble
[underlined] I [/underlined] Slack wires & shrinkage
[underlined] II [/underlined] Plywood Sagging
[underlined] III [/underlined] Compression Ribs shakes I look for cracks in varnish or dope.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Crushing of fibre (overtightining [sic] of bolts etc.

Exercise II
[underlined] EXERSISE II [/underlined]

[drawing of broken rib]

Skin Ply & Stringers Brocken [sic]

[underlined] Top of ply [/underlined]
Feathered Edge
Damaged Panel to be cut out to edges of reinforcing strip and rib Booms, and new stringers fitted flush with the origonal [sic] skin.

[page break]

[underlined] EXERCIZE [sic] 2 [/underlined]

Repair to skin Plywood where trimmed hole does not exceed 4” x 4”

[drawing of damaged ply]

New Plywood Patch cut to shape at trimmed hole & inlaid & glued to margin of split patch

[underlined] EXERSIZE [sic] 4 Leading edge Ply Repair. [/underlined]

[2 drawings showing patches]

Hole to be trimmed with 3/16” R at corner and split Patch inserted.
Then glue and screw stiffeners as b [inserted] e [/inserted] low.

[2 drawings showing screws & spruce stiffener]

[page break]

[underlined] EXERSIZE [sic] 5 ) Leading edge Ply Repair. New Panel to be inlaid

[3 drawings showing damaged panel]

Damaged Panel to be cut out & new stringers fitted flush with origonal [sic] skin & new panel fitted flush with the origonal [sic] skin, glued & bradded to spar

[signature 15/6/34]

[underlined] Standard Type Rib. Stringing. [/underlined]

Knots are 3” apart. Double knot to start & finish, also one every 18”
Egyptian tape reinforcement for stringing.
Stringing cord, braided, beeswaxed.

[underlined] Reason for stringing. [/underlined]

To prevent ballooning of cover.
Preserve the aerofoil shape.
Means of attachment of fibre cover at the ribs.

[underlined] Linen fabric plain. [/underlined]

Unbleached, thus retaining its strength

[weft drawing]


[page break]

[underlined] Woods Patent Inspection Ports. [/underlined]

Celluloid frames stuck down by means of red dope

[drawing of celluloid frame]

[underlined] Hand closing or locking stitch [/underlined]

Approx. 8 stitches to the 1”. Double lock to start & finish, als [sic] one every 6”
Maddapollam cotton bleached fibre for use over plywood.
Glued or doped into position. Fibre plain, if a paint finish it must be washed.

[underlined] METAL REPAIRS
THE GORDON FUSELAGE. [/underlined]

The construction of this Fuselage is made of cold rolled steel tube of a tensile strength of 50 Tons per square inch. The secondry [sic] structure is of Duralumin & aluminium. The members of the Fuselage. [underlined] am. [/underlined] The engine ring, [deleted] cross [/deleted] front & rear cross transverse members, Pilots & Observers ring & the Stern Post.
When damaged these are replaced & [underlined] NOT [/underlined] repaired the joints being secured with AGS spares such as Spool joints. etc. These are welded into position & are all in direct avail loading.
The engine ring is a welded steel tube to which are welded [underlined] 21 [/underlined] phosphos [sic] Bronze lugs to which engine is bolted. The catipult [sic] members are of low carbon nickel chrome ste [inserted] e [/inserted] l [deleted] l [/deleted] with a tensile strength of 85 to 100 Tons per square inc.
This Fuselage is

[page break]

made up of Longerons (Top & Bottom), Side Struts, Compression Struts, R.A.F. cross bracing wires.
The Fuselage is divided into 4 sections, Front – (Engine & Fuel), Second for Pilot, Third Observer, Fo [inserted] u [/inserted] rth, rear portion for load.
When examining for damage it must be carried out systemmetrically [sic] being sometimes necessary with a magnyfying [sic] glass. Then classify the damage
[deleted] For damage [/deleted]
For tubes 1” or less .050 = 1/20 + 18
O/D or over .20 = 1/50 [underlined] NOT [/underlined] repair.
Minor :-
.150 x Dia. Length .700 x D14
By Patching
Replacments [sic]. Insuration [sic] or sleves [sic].
[underlined] EXAMINATION FOR DAMAGE. [/underlined]
[2 drawings of how to examine for damage]
[underlined] The aximation [sic] of a Major damage. [/underlined]
Clean all damaged parts & rub down with emery cloth, then clean with paraffin & wipe dry, then smear defected parts with oil & wipe dry.
With a mixture of French chalk & methalated [sic] spirit, paint the damaged with the mixture. Should a crack or fracture be in the fuselage or damaged part the oil will seap [sic] through the French chalk.
This portion will then be cut away & repaired by inserting a new length & secured by two new sleves [sic].
[underlined] Negilable [sic] Damage [/underlined]
Small a smoth [sic] dents without

[page break]

sharp corners need not be repaired providing hey are not in the middle thirds of the length between the joint & do not exceed the following depth :-
For Tubes of 1” O/D or U less [deleted] than [/deleted] .150
“ “ “ 1 1/8 “ “ or more .020

[underlined] Minor Repair. [/underlined]
These are repairable by patching. Dents of the following dimensions may be repaired.
Tubes of 1” or more, Depth .150 of the diam, Length .700. Width 15 of the circumference.

[underlined] Major Damage. [/underlined]
Repair by inseration [sic] or sleeving. Damage in excess of the above dimensions may be repaired by cutting away [underlined] part of [/underlined] damaged part of tube & inserting a new section in place.
Thes [sic] are secured by 2 sle [inserted] e [/inserted] ves & are pinned at each end.
After repair the tube must be [deleted] secured [/deleted] checked for straightness

[underlined] Formula for Head of Rivet. [/underlined]
M.S.T. Snap H 1 . 6 ‘ & 1.75 x Dia
S.S.T. “ “ 1.25 x ‘ ‘
Alm & Dural 1 . 6 & 1.75 x ‘ ‘
M.S.(T) .5 x ‘ ‘

[2 drawings showing direct axial loading]
[underlined] Sleeving Gauges. [/underlined]
The best sleeving fits are obtained with tubes of 17 standard wire gauge and 22 standard wire gauge.
The gauges allow the necessary clearance for sliding fit. The 17 S.W.G. has a wall thickness of 1/16 & the 22 S.W.G has a thickness of 1/32.
The general rule is that tubes to be sleeved should be sleeved with sleeve of the same thickness but never with a thinner gauge but all tubes of 11/8” outside diam [sic] must be sleeved with M.S. wire gauge.

[underlined] The Identification of Metals[/underlined]
Bars, Tubes & sheet metal not marked by identification colour must not be used for repairing purposes.
The identification colour will be painted on the tube or bar. The colour for sheet metal will be painted across the surface.
Tubes are stove enameled [sic] & the colour painted at each end.

[drawing captioned in red ‘Jury Rigging 22 May 1939 with a signature]
[page break]
[underlined] THE HAWKER HART FUSELAGE. [/underlined]
An all metal construction & for the greater part consists of cold [deleted] rolled [/deleted] drawn seamless steel tube of a tensile strength of 50 Tons per square inch.
The rear, side & compression struts are made of Dural tube (T4), tensile strength of 25 to 28 Tons per square inch. Stern Post & Frame are made of cold drawn seamless steel tube of a tensile strength of 38 tons per square inch. The longerons & struts are cut to length according to the specification on the drawing (BP)
These longerons & struts are again cold rolled to a size & shape at the required positioning which form points of attachments which make a [deleted] varying [/deleted] bearing
Surface for the 2 “SS” (Nickel Chrome) side plates for securing the Longerons & struts into position & held by “HT” steel furrels [sic] & M Steel Tubular rivet snapped over “HT” steel bolts and castle nuts & split pins
In event of damage the fuselage must be cleaned & wiped dry & all damage to members must be subjected to a critical examination.
When a fracture or crack in any of the members which cannot clearly be seen the following method must be used (Same method used as on Fairey Gordon).
[underlined] Negligible Damage. [/underlined]
The bow in a Fuselage member must not exceed 1 in 600 ([deleted] 1020 per ft [/deleted] .020 per ft). The Bow limit for an axle must not exceed 1 in 100 [deleted] (1000 per ft) [/deleted]A smooth dent without cracks or sharp edges are not repaired providing they not in the middle third. The length being measured between the joints.
The dents must not be 1/30 of the O/D of the strut for Dural & 1/30 O/D for steel tubes.
[underlined] Minor Damage. [/underlined]
[underlined] Repairable by Patching. [/underlined]
If the dent does not exceed 1/8 of the O/D of the tube in the outer thirds of any members a repair by patching which is composed of
[page break]
2 half round SS flange plates (DTD 166) are secured together with 4 DA & nuts, care being taken that the dents are under the flange. The patch finally being secured by drilling through the plates & member & fitting HT steel [deleted] furse [/deleted] ferruls [sic] and M.S.T rivets snapped over.
[underlined] Major Damage. [/underlined]
[underlined] By Sleeving or Inserations. [sic] [/underlined]
Should the damage be in such a position & in excess of the Diam [sic] already given in minor repair the damage is cut out & a new piece of tubing of the same Diam [sic] and specification using standard sleeves for securing each end by drilling & reaming & fitting RAF taper pins (1 in 48).
[underlined] Damage that needs replacement. [/underlined]
Any tube so badly damaged that it cannot be repaired must be replaced & it is assential [sic] to ensure that the replacements are in accordance with the drawing (BP) and specification.
[underlined] Jury Rigging. [/underlined]
In carrying out repairs suitable jury rigging must be applied to prevent distortion of the Fuselage when the damaged part is being moved. It must be carefully noted that when cutting out damaged portion the stub ends of the damaged members must be in the outer thirds & long enough to take the half length of sleeve
[underlined] Minor Repair [/underlined
[drawing showing Patch Plate. Note adjacent to drawing ‘This sketch is not complete’]
[page break]
[underlined] Replacements [/underlined]
When fitting a new member it is essential that rolling the the squares or rectangular shapes or the parts of the member which are secured by 2 SS side plates by HT steel [deleted] plates [/deleted] bolts & nuts & HT steel ferrules & MS tubular rivets snapped over. As the members are of various dimensions the forming of their respective sizes are signed to the pair of rolls & a number
The top roll is so fitted that it is adjusted in a sliding bracket & is operated by a screw the screw pressure being gradually applied forms the size and shape.
[unfinished sketch showing this technique]
[underlined] HAWKER TYPE [/underlined]
[unfinished sketch showing tubular joints] [on the page in a different hand 31 may 1939 and initials]
[page break]
[underlined] IIII TERM RAF Maintenance System [/underlined]
To every type of machine there is a set of APs for the guidance of all personel [sic] who may be detailed to work on it. The APs are divided into volumes & parts in the following way:-
[sketch showing the layout of the Air Publications for Nimrod AP 1426A]
[underlined] Handbook (Vol I of AP [/underlined]
Contains all particulars about the type of Machine, type of construction, rigging position, how to true up etc.
[underlined] General Orders & Modifications (Part I of Vol II) [/underlined]
Contains all particulars regarding modifications which are brought about periodically, how to carry out the work, parts to remove & replace etc.
[underlined] Maintenance Schedule (Part II of Vol II) [/underlined]
Contains the sequence of inspections, how to inspect a machine for defects. This is the only inspection for a machine under normal conditions. When this book is altered by Squadron Commander to cover local flying conditions it is then called “[deleted] W [/deleted[ [inserted] U [/inserted] M.O’s” Part II &I
[underlined] Repair Scheme (Part III of Vol II.) [/underlined]
This explains exactly how to carry out a repair on any part of the A/C & how to classify any damage.
[underlined] Schedule of Spares Vol III)
Contains a complete [inserted] list [/inserted] of all the parts that go to make the A/C with the stores reference & part number.
[underlined] Unit Maintenance Orders. [/underlined]
These are divided into two parts,
[underlined] U.M.Os Part I. [/underlined] These are issued by the Station Commander & contain the allotment of duties for the various people working on the unit to ensure the high efficient working of the station. It also contains the use of the Form 700 & how maintenance should be conducted throughout the station.
[underlined] U.M.Os (Part II. [/underlined]
These orders issued by the Station commander consists of the maintenance
[page break]
schedule (Part II Vol II) amplified [deleted] f [/deleted] or amendin [deleted]g [/deleted] [inserted] g [/inserted] to suit local flying conditions.
[underlined] AP 1086 Stores Vocabulary of the RAF. [/underlined]
It contains reference nos & part numbers of all [deleted] all [/deleted] general [deleted] l [/deleted] stores. All stores have a class letter to denote what should be done with them after use when worn out.
“A” Stores is makers exchange.
“B” Stores is Unit exchange.
“C” Stores is Consumable stores.
When either “A” or “B” stores are being replaced, they must be returned to stores before the new part is issued & the voucher used for this transaction is the form 637 Exchange Voucher. [underlined] (Black Print.) [/underlined]
[underlined] AP 1464 Engineering Manual (R.A.F). [/underlined]
Contains all types of engineering used for the service, of course engineering regarding any A/C is contained in its handbook. AP 1464 is divided into 2 Vols which are sub divided into parts in alphabetical order.
[underlined] Part D Vol II [/underlined]
Deals with the maintenance of aircraft in flights, such as the size of the locking wire in turnbuckles, types of lubricant to be use & how to take up wheels etc.
[underlined] AP 1574 Aeroplane Maintenance Regulations [/underlined]
Contains regulations laid down by AM governing the maintenance of aeroplane throughout its service.
[underlined] AP 1107 Rigging Manual (R.A.F) [/underlined]
Forms of publications carried in a machine when on cross country flight.
1. Handbook (Vol I of Aps).
2. U.M.Os Part 2 Maintenance schedules
3. Repair Scheme (Part II of Vol II)
4. Form 700 (Travelling copy)
5.Form 171 forced landing report)
These forms are carried on A/C to assist the personel. [sic]
[underlined] Flight Desk. [/underlined]
Contains all necessary orders, Aps Repair Schemes, Watch etc.
[underlined] Serviceability board. [/underlined]
This is a board to protect F700 & A/C Maintenance Form fitted with a flap & indicator whether machine is Serviceable or unserviceable. Posted inside are the instructions for use of the F700. This board is hung in a
[page break]
Prominent position on the A/C when on the ground & hung on a roller at the Flight Desk when machine is in the air.
[underlined] form 79 Daily flight book. [/underlined]
The flight commander makes this form out each day detailing each A/C & pilot & crew.
[underlined] Inspections [/underlined]
Each initial equipment of an aeroplane must be normally inspected .
1. Daily
2. Between Flights.
3. Periodically at intervals of 10, 20, 40 and 120 hours of flight.
An aeroplane must be placed U/S by an NCO I/C Flight for all periodical inspections. Each inspection is divided into groups.
[table of groups]
[underlined] Daily Inspections. [/underlined]
After a D/I an aircraft may be considered as serviceable to fly for 24 hours unless:-
1. A defect is reported.
2. A M/C becomes due for a periodical inspection.
3. If the A/C is carrying out night flying.
4. If the A/C is not flying D/Is can be waivered up to a period of 1 week by the authority of the Flight Commander. An inspection being done at least once a week.
[underlined] Between Flight Inspections. [/underlined]
This is not recorded in the F700 except for capacity of fuel, oil & water before carrying out BF/I the F700 must be examined for any reorts.
[underlined] Periodical inspections. [/underlined
[table showing periodicity and definitions of inspections]
[page break]
[table showing sequence of inspections as a/c flies]
[underlined] Periodical Inspection [/underlined
This may be delayed 2 hours each way on a Minor (10, 20, 400 and 10 hours on a Major (120). The delay of a minor inspection does not affect the time atn which the minor is due e.g. Should a 10 hr inspection be carried out on a M/C after it has flown 2 hours the next inspection will fall due at 12 hrs but on the other hand if that 10 hr inspection had been carried out after the M/C had flown12 hrs then it would only have 8 hrs to go to the next 20 hr inspection.
Directly a Major servicing has been carried out sequence starts again so that first major was carried out & the larger inspection includes all the work [deleted] layed [/deleted] [inserted] laid [/inserted] down [inserted] in the smaller inspections [/inserted]
If an extension of 10 hrs is required on a Major the 10 hr must be carried out before the extension is granted.
[underlined] Check Inspection [/underlined]
These are carried out by an NCO i/c [deleted] Flight [/deleted] [inserted] Trade [/inserted] & are done in any order & at any time but they must completely cover one set of DI groups & checks in one month on a periodical inspection they must completely [inserted] cover [/inserted] one set of 10, 20 & 40 hr inspections.
Pilots carry out one DI & one check per wk & one or two checks 10, 20 or 40 hr inspection groups before the next 120 hr inspection.
[page break]
[underlined]Aeroplane Maintenance Form F700 [initials and a date 15/6/39][/underlined]
This form is designed to obtain an [sic] history of the M/C & the signatures of personel [sic] that work on it for a certain period of its life. The duration of that period is layed [sic] down by CO of the station in U.M.O (Part I)
[underlined]Front Page.
Change of Serviceability & Repair Log[/underlined]
A M/C can be made U/S by any responsible person filling in columns 1, 2, 3, 4 & 6 the M/C can only be made S again by the signatures of either the Flight C or NCO I/C Flight (Pilot column 14)
The serial number [deleted] bare for [/deleted][inserted] of [/inserted]a repair is the number of repairs done since new. If an extension of flying time is required beyond the time an inspection is due authority in red ink must be obtained on this page, hour [inserted] s of [/inserted] extension in column 9 & signature of person giving extension. (Column 14) A pilot making a report of the flying affects of his M/C do so on this page but will enter word “S” (Column 9)
[underlined] Middle Page [/underlined]
Headings of this page are filled in by NCO I/C Flight before issue. The serial number of F700 is the number of period the M/C has been in it.
[underlined] Daily Inspection Certificate [/underlined]
All tradesmen completing DI on the machine signs it in the appropriate column of this page.
[underlined] Auxulary [sic] Power Unit [/underline]
All Auto controls is the robot. Condition of the tanks must be stated prior to each trip signified & the Pilot will sign each trip signifying he knows the condition of the tanks. Should a tradesman be releived [sic] for a period under 24 hrs a note is made by NCO I/C Flight in DI certificate but should the releif [sic] be over 24 hrs the releifs [sic] name is entered in the head of this page & initialled by the Flight Commander.
[underlined] Back Page
Periodical Inspection Certificate. [/underlined]
If a periodical inspection has been completely done by a tradesman he will sign for that periodical inspection by initialing [sic column 6 & NCO I/C Flight to carry on checks & fill in columns 7, 8, & 9. Minor Periodicals may be carried
[page break]
Out by groups & if an inspection is not completed, groups done are placed in Column 7 drawing dioganal [sic] lines through column 8 & 9.
[underlined] Travelling Form 700 [/underlined]
This is an ordinary F700 placed in the M/C when it is on a country flight. That is to say sending the origonil [sic] which may be lost if the M/C crashes. On return of the M/C the particulars are entered into the origonal [sic] form from the travelling copy & certified by the pilot. All entries on F700 should be in made in ink & any alterations in red ink and initialled. At the end of each period the entries of the F700 must be copied in the log book F700 is then signed by the pilot, NCO I/C Flight 7 Flight Commander at the bottom of the front page. It is then filed for 2 years.
[underlined] F700 M (Multi Engine)
Between Flight Inspections [/underlined]
See any reports on F700. See that detachments are secure & tyre pressure normal.
C/O. Examine all parts & see that loose articles are securely fastened, clean windscreen.
[underlined] Note [/underlined] If a M/C has been standing for a long period the windscreen must be protected from strong sun.
F/U Examine all panels.
T/A Examine tail wheel or skid.
P/L Examine Interplane bracing wires.
A/S Examine Airscrew for cracks.
G/E Make entries for condition of tanks on F700 & get pilot to sign before taking off.
[underlined] DI. [/underlined]
See any reports on F700 & U/C
1. Clean & examine joint and end of axle
2. Examine U/C bracing wires.[underlined] Note [/underlined] if slack find the reason before tightening
3. Examine all attachments & tyre pressure [underlined] Note [/underlined] small cracks in outer cover not U/S. Only pin holes in inner tube may be repaired by patching.
4. Check oleo legs. Rock wing tip to see they don’t stick.
C/O 1. Examine all controls & see that they move freely & in the right direction & that the C/C is not fouled by other controls.
[page break]
2. Check the trimming flaps & se [sic] that instruments are giving the correct readings.
3. Examine the fire extinguisher. (for quick release)
4. Check the windscreens. [underlined] Note [/underlined] If cracked a temporary measure is to give the crack a coat of thin varnish.
5. See that instruments are not damaged
6. See that all loose [deleted] instruments [/deleted] articles are secured.
F/U Examine fabric panels.
C/a1. Inspect tail, rudder & fin for damage.
2. Check attachment rods.
3. Check bracing wires & struts.
4. Check tail skid & shoe or wheel.
5. Check security of control surfaces.
P/L 1. Check M/P fabric.
2. Check M/P interplane bracing wires.
A/S 1. Examine airscrew for cracks.
G/E 1. See that all panels are secure.
2. Keep A/C clean. Do not wash with petrol
3. make necessary entries in F700
[underlined] 10 HR Inspection [/underlined]
This inspection comprises chiefly of lubrication A chart will be found in the hand book Vol 1
[underlined] Lubrication of Airframe [/underlined]
Types of lubrication
[table of grease and oils and their uses]
U/C. See that there is no excess of slackness on the wheels. [underlined] Note [/underlined] Any play on wheels can be taken up by fitting shims. Maximum number allowed 5. Un braked wheel fit shim on the outside. Breaked [sic] wheel fit alternately first on the outside.
[underlined] See that all [/underlined] fairings on the struts & oleo legs are not damaged. Lubricate all moveable parts [underline] Note [/underlined] Do not overoil the brakes.
C/O 1. Inspect all controls for frays at the
[page break]
Fairleads & pulleys.
2. Test C/C & rudder bar for play at the bearings.
3. Lubricate all movable parts.
F/U 1. Inspect all bearings of tanks & see that all bracing wires in these bays are secure.
T/A 1. Examine fittings of the rear bay of the fuselage for damage see that the bracing wires are in tension. Check all the levers at the king post for security
2. Lubricate all movable parts.
P/L 1. Examine ailerons for security.
2. Examine the interplane struts & attachments. [underlined] Note [/underlined] limit of bow for struts 1 in 600
A/S & GE same as for DI.
[underlined] 20 HR Inspection [/underlined]
A/C 1. Jack up U/C 7 remove the wheels & inspect the axle ends and fittings for damage.
2. See that the brake shoes were clean & free from oil.
3. inspect wheels for corrosion & see that the hub nuts are tight. [underlined] Note [/underlined] If the spokes are loose change wheel
4. Check tyre pressure with gauge
5. [underlined] Brakes Hydraulic. [/underlined]
Replenish resuvoir [sic] & check for leaks.
6. Try the brakes for correct operation & see that the shoes are not rubbing when in off position.
[underlined] Defects with Palmer Brakes. [/underlined]
A. If on compression oil rises in the resuvoir [sic] this denotes faulty return valve.
B. The brakes should be hard on about 2/3 of pedal travel & if they feel spongy this denotes an air lock. (Reprime) [underlined] Note [/underlined] use oil brake [sic] operating only (Anti freeze type “A”)
C. Examine axle and bracings limit for axle bow 1 in 100 in a strut 1 in 600.
C/O 1. Check windscreen.
F/U 1. Inspect controls in the rear bay for frays at the fairleads & pulleys.
T/A Examine actuating screw for damage
P/L 1. See that the interplane bracings wires are free from corrosion. [underlined] Note [/underlined] Clean only with paraffin and wipe dry & to reprotect [sic] give coat of varnish or lanoline.
2. Check Air speed indicator & pipe lines for leaks [underlined] Note [/underlined] Roll a piece of rubber tube unto [sic] pressure head & watch instrument.
[page break]
3. Inspect all controls & Main planes
A/S & G/E same as for 10 hr DI
[underlined] 40 HR Inspection [/underlined]
U/C Check alignment of complete U/C either trammel cross bracing wires or make diagonal & side checks.
C/O 1. See that the levers at the elevator control transveverse [sic] shaft in the cockpit are securely attached to the bar.
2. Remove and examine the fire extinguisher seal.
F/U 1. Open the fuselage cover & inspect all fittings, struts, wires & longerons & controls for cracks, corrosion, bowing & fraying. Limit of bow for fuselage member 1 in 500.
2. Inspect all stringers.
3. Inspect the Engine bearers & Engine mountings members for damage & corrosion
4. Inspect all removeable panels & doors [underlined] Note [/underlined] If Fleet Air Arm M/C examine the catapult struts, arrestor gear & flotation bags.
F/A Ascertain by external inspection that no internal cross bracing wires are loose or broken.
P/L 1. Examine the ribs and internal cross bracing wires
2. Inspect interplane struts for bow. Limit 1 in 600.
3. Inspect leading & trailing edges.
4. inspect any tanks in C/s or M/P for security & corrosion.
A/S 1. Examine the airscrew for fractures at the boss & in the region of the bolt holes.
2. Check airscrew for static balance.
G/E If Fleet Air Arm M/C test all collapseable [sic] dignies [sic] for leaks. Test all C/O 2 bottles by weighing & test all connections.
[underlined] 120 HR Inspection. [/underlined]
U/C 1. Remove and inspect all the attachment bolts
2. Inspect the oleo legs & shock obsorber [sic] for deteration [sic]
T/A 1. Remove & inspect all the attachment bolts on the tail [deleted] bolts [/deleted] bolts.
2. Inspect tail skid & shock osorber [sic]
P/L Inspect root attachment bolts & fittings
G/E Carry out complete check of the rigging of the fuselage.
[page break]
[underlined] Renewing a Control Cable. [/underlined]
A. Splice end of cable or drum.
B. Measure length cable required & allow sufficient for splice. Bind 11/4” back, cut out 4 strands & allow the remaining 3 to fray out.
C. On condemmed [sic] cable 11/2” back cut off old splice, cut out 4 strands & allow other 3 to fray out.
D. Bind frayed edge together with thread & draw new cable through pulleys & fairleads withdrawing old cable.
E. Set C/C neutral & turnbuckles half travel & cut length of splice.
F. Splice to eye end, split pin shackles and inspect.
[underlined]Inspection of Streamlined wire.[/underlined]
(AP1464) During inspection of streamlined wires tie rods, particular attension [sic] should be given to the portion of the wire under the identification tab as this is a likely place for corrosion. The tab should be moved along the wire for a short distance to facilitate inspection but great care should be taken to avoid damaging the cadmium plating on the wire.
Corrosion on the wire or rods must be removed with paraffin rag before the final application of the approved protective coating adopting by the command. The tabs should be replace on a new portion of the wire while the protective coating is wet & a liberal quantity of the protective introduced under the tab.
[underlined] Modifacations [sic] [/underlined]
“A” modification. Carried out by the makers before the A/C is accepted into service.
“B” Service.
Class 1. Immedeietely [sic] on receipt of parts.
Class 2. At first convient [sic] oppurtunity [sic] & not later than next 40hr inspection after receipt of parts.
Class 3. At first convient[sic] oppurtunity [sic] not less than the next 140 hr inspection.
Class 4. At first convient [sic] oppurtunity [sic] not less than the next complete overhaul (4804)
Class 5. When existing parts become U/S.
Class 6. At first convient [sic] opportunity [sic] on receipt of item of equipment to be installed. Will apply normaly [sic] to modifacations [sic] which are to be embodied when a new item of equipment is issiued [sic] either initially or in replacement of an earlyier [sic] type with which it is not strictly interchangeable.

[page break]
[underlined] Inspection after a bad landing. [/underlined]
1. Jack up under F/U untill [sic] wheels are free from the ground
2. Remove wheels and examine wheels & brakes.
3. Check U/C struts for straightness. Renew if bowed or damaged & inspect all points of attachments bolts & pins for partial shear & holes for elongation.
4. Disconnect oleo leg at lower end & check for alignment.
5. Remove tail wheel or skid assembly. Examine for distortion & excessive play & inspect the structure at the point of attachment & along those members of the frame through which loads are distributed. Set F/U in rigging position & check all rigging dimensions.
6. Remove all inspection covers & check internal cross bracing wires. If these are very carry out further inspections of internal fittings, spars & attachment points. Never tighten bracing wires until the cause of the slackness has been discovered.
7. Unlace F/U bag & examine internal structure for damage to longerons, struts, fairings & bracing wires.
8. Inspect all controls. If the A/C is fitted with folding wings they must be tested for correct folding & an examination made of attachments & locking arrangements.
9. Should the wing tip come into contact heavily wit the ground examine the points where interplane struts are attached to the wing.
Carefully inspect rear spar & aileron attachments also the wing root fittings, if the fabric is puckered the components affected must be opened up & checked internally, also the spars carefully inspected for fractures i.e. splitting, crushing, compression shakes. It is most important that a systematic inspection be carried out after a bad landing & to emphasise the importance of the fact it must be remembered that the load on the bottom plane spars may been transferred by the struts & bracing wires to the upper plane spars & by virtue of the lift wires may have given compressive stresses to those members. These stresses can again have been

[page break]
Reduced or increased by the tension in the front & compression on the rear spars caused by the drag component of the force applied by [deleted] the [/deleted] meeting the ground or any other obstacles.
It should be realised that damage may occur in a region remote from the point f contact especially in the locality at the wing cellule & also the anchorages of points carrying concentrated loads e.g. petrol tanks, engine mountings. etc.
[underlined] Handling Aircraft. [/underlined]
When an A/C is being moved one man will supervise & direct operations.
Care must be taken to see that no damage is caused to the aircraft.
The tail of the A/C must only be lifted at the points marked by the makers, normally under the vertical strut of the F/U. Before attempting to lift the tail of an A/C see that there are no trestles, ladders or platforms in the way & that the A/C is in the horizontal position. Care must be taken to see that the A/C does not overbalance.
The U/C must be moved by pressure on the base of the interplane struts & solid parts of the U/C & not the leading or trailing edges of planes or fairings.
A/C not fitted with tail [inserted] wheels [/inserted] should be moved in & out of hangar [sic] by means of a tail trolley care being taken to prevent wing tips striking doors.
One man should be stationed at each wing tip to guide and steady the wings & one at the tail to work the tail trolley.
Whenever possible A/C must be moved tail first as [inserted] this [/inserted] tends to keep the tail skid on the trolley. When A/C is moved nose first there is a tendency to lift the tail skid off the trolley & tip the A/C onto its nose.
If the A/C must be moved during windy weather the A/C must be lashed. Before an A/C is moved over rough ground the person in charge must inspect
the ground ahead to see that holes or any obstacles may be avoided.
a/c on soft ground may require a track formed of planks layed [sic] on the ground to assist in moving out of the mud unto a track part of the weight may be taken off the wheels by men pressing up and under the main soar directly under the interplane struts with their shoulders.
Nautical terms will be when moving a/c ÷ Ahead, Astern, port, S board, hard to port, hard to S board.
[underlined] To change on a wheel on arodrome [sic] arc under [deleted] first [/deleted] forced landing conditions E inst method [/underlined]
[underlined] Using a screw jack [/underlined]
Place screw jack under axle at base of O leo leg with wood packing blocks between jack & axle. Operate jack untill [sic] wheel is free.
[underlined] Second Method [/underlined] (Using lever jack)
Place jack in front of axle with the hollowed lever part under the axle at base of
[page break]
O leo leg, press down on lever untill [sic] wheel leaves ground.
[underlined] Third method [/underlined] (With or without the use of axle trestles.
Raise m/p on one side by lifting under the spars at the outer interplane strats & depress the opposite m/p untill [sic] the wheel is free.
Place axle trestle under axle at base of O leo leg or if no trestles are available continue to support m/p by hand.
[deleted] Chanal [/deleted]
[underlined] Changing O le leg. (Under foregoing conditions) [/underlined]
[underlined] First method [/underlined] (Equipment required).
U/c tail trestles, 2 screw jacks, tail weights, wood packing blocks & planks for soft ground.
Place u/c trestles between O leo legs under the front Fuselage jacking points, raise the tail to get the jacking points as level as possible by supporting tail, place screw jacks on front trestle, one under each jacking point with wood packing blocks between faces at jacks & jacking point, operate jack
[page break]
untill [sic] jacks are forced off ground.
Weigh down tail & secure. Planks will then be placed under the trestles if ground is soft.
Make sure jacking is safe before commencing to remove O leo leg.
Second Method
Equipment Required.
As for first method less for 2 screw jacks
Place u/c trestle between oleo legs under the front fuselage jacking points, & pack with wood packing blocks between jack and jacking point with tail [deleted] off [/deleted] [inserted] on [/inserted] the ground.
[deleted] untill [sic] the [/deleted] Raise the tail untill [sic] the weight of the a/c is taken by the packing blocks on the trestles & the wheels are clear if the ground.
Support tail by trestles at the jacking point. Weigh down tail
[underlined] Third Method [/underlined]
[underlined] Equipment Required. [/underlined]
Wing & tail trestle or other suitable supports, planks, tail [deleted] trestles [/deleted] [inserted] weights [/inserted].
Raise wheel off the oleo leg clear off the ground by lifting under the lower m/p spars at the outer interplane
[page break]
struts & depress opposite m/p
Place wing trestle under the raised plane at the outer interplane struts using felt packing between top of trestle & plane to avoid damaging the spar & fittings
If [deleted] using [/deleted] [inserted] wing [/inserted] trestles are not adjustable the tail must be raised to level the front & rear spars.
Other suitable supports may be used when trestles are not available.
[underlined] To change Undercarriage [/underlined]
Jack up F/U as described in first & second method in changing ole leg.
To change bottom plane in aerodrome.
Equipment Required.
Rigging trestles, tall steps, flat top 6’ steps, felt covered planks. u/c trestle, tail trestle. tail weights, wheel chocks & planks for soft ground.
Support the a/c as for changing [deleted][indecipherable word][/deleted] u/c, set that the weight is just taken off the wheels at the front jacking point to prevent the a/c from rocking lateraly [sic].
Place trestles or tall steps front & rear of m/ps. place felt covered planks under the top plane the ends
[page break]
of the planks being supporting on the trestles or steps & clear of the outer interplane struts
Adjust the plank untill [sic] the top plane is supported. If tall steps or trestles are not available the top plane must be supported by a man standing in steps or other suitable elevation, the oppressed plane being supported under the lower m/p spars at the interplane struts.
To change top Main plane.
[underlined] Equipment required [/underlined]
Wing tip trestles, flat top steps, planks, tail trestles tail weights & u/c trestle.
Support a/c as for [deleted] chant [/deleted] changing u/c except that the weight must be taken just enought [sic] to prevent a/c from rocking.
[underlined] To change top main – plane [/underlined]
[underlined] Equipment Required [/underlined]
Wing tip trestle. flat top steps, planks. Tail trestle, t[inserted]a[/inserted]il [sic] weights & u/c trestle.
Support a/c as for changing u/c except that the weight must be taken just enough to prevent a/c from rocking laterally.
Support the lower m/p placing a trestle under the
[page break]
spars of each lower plane at the interplane struts the top of trestles being suitably packed with felt to prevent damage to spar fittings & spars.
[aeroplane diagram]
[underlined] Tyres [/underlined]
The purpose of the aeroplane tyre is to interpose a pneumatic cushion between the ground & the aeroplane & to prevent undue shock being transmitted to the a/c. The successful use if pneumatic
[page break]
tyres depends on the maintenance whether the tyres be in service or not.
The correct pressure for the load is the most important.
[underlined] Maintenance [/underlined]
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Excessive wear may be due to the wheels not being in line. (Out of tract)
[underlined] 11 [/underlined] Keep tyres free from oil & grease.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Remove all flints & other sharp objects from the tyre.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Inspect tyres periodically for signs of perishing.
5 If conditions permit cover tyres from strong sun.
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Should a/c be stored it should [deleted] it should] [/deleted] be jacked up so that no weight remains on the tyres, if this cannot be done the machine should be moved periodically to ensure a fresh tyre area touching the ground & they should be stored in a dark room.
[underlined] Tyre Pressures [/underlined]
They should always be tested with a tyre guage.
Beaded edge type used with pattern “A” wheels maximum 70 lbs per square
[page break]
inch, minimum 60 LBS per square inch, normal 65 LBS per square inch.
Wire edge type used with “B & C” wheels, maximum pressure 60 LBS per square inch, minimum 50 LBS per square inch, normal 55 LBS per square inch.
Low pressure tyres 25 LBS per square inch, medeum [sic] 30 to 35. These pressures are obtained in VOL [underlined] 1 [/underlined] of AP & vary according to the loading of the a/c.
[underlined] Identification of Pipe lines [/underlined]
Red. Fuel. √
Black. Oil. √
Blue. Water. √
Yellow. Air. √
Green. Engine Starting √
Brown. Auto Control √
Grey. Hydraulic Services
[underlined] White. Sychronising [sic] Gear [/underlined]
[underlined] Axle Boons [/underlined]
[underlined] Transverse Horizontal Members [/underlined]
These form part of the u/c of a seaplane Troughs built in the tops or crown of floats being intrical [sic] with main structure at that point & designed to receive
[page break]
Axle boons.
[underlined] Aero Structure [/underlined]
[underlined] Equipment Required [/underlined]
[underlined] I [/underlined] One set of type “A” or type “B” sheerlegs.
[underlined] II[/underlined] Airscrew extracting tool
[underlined] III [/underlined] Trestles.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Fitters & Riggers Tool kits.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] H and saws. Ropes + padded packing peices [sic].
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Engine, Cockpit & Airscrew Covers.
[underlined] 7 [/underlined] Electric hand lamp with portable accumalator [sic] or hand torcks.
[underlined] 8 [/underlined] Empty petrol tins for salving petrol.
[underlined] 9 [/underlined] Timber as required.
[underlined] 10 [/underlined] Tentage. rations. blankets. etc.
[underlined] 11 [/underlined] Lorries & flat top trailer.
[underlined] 12 [/underlined] First Aid Box.
[underlined] 13 [underlined] Picks & Shovels.
The heavy type of sheer legs (Type “A”) lift 2 1/2 TONS to a height of 15’
Type “B” sheer legs will lift 100 LBS to a height if 20’
The weight lifted must never exceed more than 3/4 of the weight marked on the sheer legs.
[page break]
On seeing an a/c crash the first & most important thing to do is as follows:-
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Prevention of fire.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Prevention of injury to personel [sic].
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] “ “ [Prevention of] damage to Air Ministry Property.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Prevention of damage to Third Party.
[underlined] Piqueting down an Aircraft [/underlined]
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Find a sheltered spot such as a haystack, hedge or house.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Place the machine nose into wind to the leeward side of the shelter.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Chock the wheels fore & aft & place tail skid on a flat board or stone
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Climb into cockpit & ascertain that [underlined] all [/underlined] switches are in the off position, lash c/c & rudder bar & wind actuation gear wheel fully back.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Cover cockpit & place a/c in the horizontal position & cover it if it is a wooden airscew [sic].
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Drain off water if there is a lekilihood [sic] of frost if it does not contain Anti Freeze mixture.
[underlined] 7 [/underlined] Screw in piqueting screw fore of the m/p pass the rope through the
[page break]
ring to the screw aft of the m/p.
The correct angle is 45o for the screws.
[underlined] 8 [/underlined] Screw down tail skid with 2 screws on each side.
The angle is 30o on each side of the rudder.
[underlined] 9 [/underlined] Next toggle all control surfaces making sure that the toggles are secure & are not slack in any way.
[underlined] 10 [/underlined] A responsible guard must be found such as a po[deleted]el[/deleted][inserted]lic[/inserted]eman, coastguard or any person serving in the Navy or Army.
If the a/c has made a forced landing on sand the former method of piqueting will be of no use.
Plenty of sacks will be needed which will be 8 parts filled with sand. The piqueting rope will then be tied around the middle of the sack through the piqueting ring I & then tied to another sand bag where the piqueting screws would normaly [sic] be
The sacks will then be buried with sand or stones
[page break]
The petat tube, venturi head & all engine inlets & outlets [symbol] must be covered to prevent sand from blowing into them.
If the machine has been forced down on frozen ground & it has to be piqueted down plenty of sacks will be necescary [sic].
These will be 3/4 filled with lumps of frozen earth, stones etc the same method carryied [sic] out as in the preceeding one.
If a machine has been forced down on snow & has to be piqueted down plenty of sacks will be needed.
These will be 3/4 filled with snow & buried where the piqueting would normaly [sic] be & the ropes attached as before.
Snow will then be heaped up around the sacks & melted with a blowlamp. then beaten down.
This proceedure [sic] will be carried out untill [sic] it is strong enough to hold the machine
[page break]
[Night flying diagrams]
[page break]
[underlined] Airial [sic] Lighthouses [/underlined]
These will be held on a certain station. their function is to indicate a pre determined position which may or may not be an aerodrome.
They are portable & mounted on a standard trailer & they will flash a white characteristic normally visible for about 60 miles.
[underlined] Portable Landmarks or (Aerodrome) Beacons [/underlined]
These flash a red characteristic & are supplied to all aerodromes & indicate a landing ground.
They are normally connected to station electric supply with a control situated in the watch office.
[underlined] Aerodrome Beacons [/underlined]
The aerodrome beacon is the same as the landmark beacon only it gets its electric supply from portable accumulators.
[underlined] Illuminated Wind Indicator [/underlined]
These indicate wind direction & strength. On permanent aerodrome it may be situated near the watch office or near the floodlights. On temporary aerodromes it must be at the landing boundary.
[page break]
[underlined] Obstruction Lighting [/underlined]
Consists of red lights. For a temporary obstruction glim lamps should be used with red globes.
[underlined] Boundary Lighting [/underlined]
Consists of [deleted] red [/deleted] glim lamps with [deleted] red [/deleted] yellow globes to indicate extremities of safe landing ground.
[underlined] Emergency Proceedure [sic] [/underlined]
When night flying lights are required quickly in an emergency the following sequence is to be followed:-
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] The landmark or aerodrome beacon obstruction lights & illuminated landing T is to be switched on.
[underlined] II [/underlined] Flares, glim lamps, goose neck or monery flares according to weather are to be placed in the position of NO [underlined] 1 [/underlined] [underlined] 6 [/underlined] & [underlined 8 [/underlined] of a standard flare path.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] If time permits “A” The standard flare path should be completed. “B” The floodlight should be placed into position if visibility permits its use
[underlined] Night Flying Equipment [/underlined]
The aerodrome officer will have under his control + order the following vehicles & personel [sic] in charge.
[page break]
[underlined 1 [/underlined] Fire Tender
[underlined] II [/underlined] Ambulance.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Mechanical starter. (if used.)
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Trailer.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] If available a tracklaying tractor with wire cable for clearing aerodrome in event of crash.
[underlined] For Signaling [sic] Purposes [/underlined]
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] 2 Signaling [sic] cartridge pistols.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Signal cartridges of 3 colours:- red. green, & white.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] 2 signaling [sic] lamps with leads to battery with red & green screens. (aldis lamps)
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Hand electric lamps, 5 spare flares.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Red emergency lamp.
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Search light or rocket
[underlined] Cleaning of Aircraft [/underlined]
[underlined] Meterial [sic] Required [/underlined]
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Steps & planks to reach top m/p.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] Warm Water.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Worn scrubbing brush or sponge
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] Non Acid Soap.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] Clean linen rag
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Paraffin rag for rusty parts.
Rubber shoes should be worn. Cleaning should start from the top
[page break]
The Bristol Beaufighter
[drawing of aircraft by H J Warren]
[page break]
The Bristol “[underlined] Beaufighter [/underlined] I
Type – Long-range fighter
Crew – Two
[indecipherable word] – Four cannon & six machine-guns
[Details of dimensions of aircraft]
Chief Designer L.G. Frise Esq.
P.T.O [symbol]
[page break]
[drawings of aircraft]
[drawing of aircraft]
[drawing of aircraft]
[drawing of aircraft]
[drawing if aircraft]
All Drawn By H. J. Warren Aged 12 yrs 11 mths (Sept 5 1943)


Harold Warren, “Harold Warren's note book,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed March 4, 2024, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/16662.

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