Ernie Twells' notebook

MTwellsE171780-151026-08.pdf

Title

Ernie Twells' notebook

Description

Ernie Twell's engineering notebook covering aircraft type, machine gun and gun turret operation.

Creator

Coverage

Language

Format

One notebook of 48 handwritten pages

Publisher

IBCC Digital Archive

Rights

This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.

Identifier

MTwellsE171780-151026-08

Transcription

Form 714.
ROYAL AIR FORCE.
Rough Notebook for use in Laboratories and Workshops.
[page break]
[inside front cover]
[2 deleted words] — C [one indecipherable word] — 2 ME 110 X — BEAUFIGHTER ✓ — FORTRESS ✓ — STIRLING ✓ — DO 217 ✓ — MARTLET ✓ — TYRHOON [sic] ✓ — ME 109 ✓ — MUSTANG ✓ — DO 117 X — BEAUFIGHTER X — KITTYHAWK X — DO 117 X — TYPHOON ✓ — MUSTANG ✓ — JU 88 X — HALIFAX ✓ — TYPHOON ✓ — [underlined] ME 110 ✓ [/underlined]
[page break]
[underlined] Single Engine Fighters [/underlined]
1/ Spitfire — 2 Huricane [sic] — 3 ME 109 30 FT — 4 [one deleted word] Typhoon — 5 Mustang — 6 FW 190 30 FT — 7 Martlet — 8 Hen 126 50 FT — 9 JU 87D 50 FT
Four Engine Aircraft Single Fin and Rudder
1 Stirling — 2 Fortress — FW 200 K 110 FT
Four Engine Twin [inserted] FIN [/inserted] and Rudder
HALLIFAX [sic]
2 Engine A/C TWIN FIN AND TAIL
1 ME 110. 50 FT — DOR 217 60 FT — 3 L Lighting
[page break]
Twin Engine Single Fin an [sic] Rudder
1/ Beaufighter — 2/ JU 88 A6 70 FT — 3 Heinkel 111 70 FT — 4 Heinkel 177 100 FT — 5 Boston — 6 Mosquito — 7 FW 187 50 FT — 8 Henchel 129 50 FT — 9 ME 210 50 FT
1/ STIRLING ✓ — 2/ ME 110 ✓ — 3/ HALIFAX ✓ — 4 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ X — 5/ MARTLET X — 6 ME 109E ✓ — 7 FW 190 ✓ — 8 TYPHOON ✓ — 9 KITTYHA [sic] ✓ — 10 JU 88 X
1 BEAUFITER [sic] ✓ — 2/ JU 88 ✓ — 3/ MOSQUITO ✓ — 4 JU 88 ✓ — 5/ FORTRESS ✓ — 6 MUSTANG ✓ — 7 TYPHOON ✓ — 8 DO 217 ✓ — 9 MARTLET ✓ — 11 ME 109E ✓ — 12 ME 110 ✓ — 13 MARTLET ✓ — 14 HURICANE [sic] ✓ — 15 STIRLING ✓ — 16 FW 190 ✓ — 17 MUST ✓ — 18 MARTLET ✓ — 19 KITTYHARY [sic] ✓ — 20 DO 217 ✓
[page break]
1 ME 110 ✓ 40 — 2 HALIFAX X ✓ — 3 TYPHOON ✓ — 4 ME 210 ✓ — 5 JU 88 ✓ — 6 KITTYH [sic] ✓ — 7 ME 117 * — 8 ME 109 ✓ — 9 MOSQUITO ✓ — 10 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ X — 11 KITTY ✓ — 12 ME 110 ✓ [deleted] 200 [/deleted] — 13 FS FW 187 [deleted] 250 [/deleted] — 14 TYPHOON ✓ — 15 DO 217 ✓ 550 — 16 FORTRESS — 17 FORTRESS ✓ 400 — 18 HURICANE [sic] ✓ 350 — 19 MOSQUITO ✓ 400 — 20 ME 210 ✓ 800 — 1/ JU 88 ✓ — 2 HE 111 ✓ — 3 HE 177 X — 4 STIRLING X — 5 MARTLET ✓ — 6 DO 217 ✓ — 7 MOSQUITO ✓ — 8 [one indecipherable word] ✓ — 9 HE 177 ✓ — 10 ME 110 ✓ — 11 MOSQUIT0 ✓ — 12 TYPHOON X — 13 FW 190 ✓ — 14 ME 110 X — 15 [deleted] ME 210 [/deleted] BENU ✓ — 16 BOSTON ✓ — 17 FW 200 ✓ — 18 HURICANE [sic] ✓
ME 210* — MOSQUITO ✓
1 FORTRESS ✓ — 2 HURICANE [sic] ✓ — 3 LOCKHEED LIGHTING ✓ — 4 HE 111 ✓ — 5 [one indecipherable word] ✓ — 6 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ * — 7 111 HE ✓ — 8 ME 110 ✓ — 9 SPIT ✓ — 10 HE 111 ✓ — 11 MUSTANG ✓ — 12 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ * — 13 ME 109 X — 14 MOSQUITO * — 15 JU 88 ✓ — 16 FU [sic] 190 ✓ — 17 ME 177 * — 18 KITTYII [sic] ✓ — 19 JU 88 ✓ — 20 HE 177 — 1 BOSTON ✓ — 2 STIRLING X — 3 JU 88 ✓ — 4 FW 187 ✓ — 5 [one deleted word] FORTRESS ✓ — 6 HURICANE [sic] ✓ — 7 HURICANE [sic] X — 8 ME 110 ✓ — 9 KITTY ✓ — 10 MARTLET ✓ — 11 HE 177 10 * — 12 BOSTON ✓ 13 MUSTANG ✓ — 14 BEAUFIGHTER ✓ — 15 BOSTON ✓ — 16 BEAU ✓ — 17 DO 217 X — 18 HALIFAX ✓ — 19 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ — 20 109
page break]
ME 109 ✓ 30 — 2 ME X — 3 BEA X — 4 MARTLET ✓ — 5 BEAU ✓ — 6 HE 111 70 ✓ — 7 JU — 8 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ — 9 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ 111 70 — 10 FW 200 ✓ 110 — 11 FW 190 30 — 12 TYPHOON ✓ — 13 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ — 14 H — 15 TYPHOON ✓ — 16 ME 110 70 — 17 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ — 18 109 ME — 19 TYPHOON ✓ — 1 [deleted] HE 111 70 [/deleted] — 2 BEAUF — 3 FORTRESS ✓ — 4 BOSTON ✓ — 5 HURY ✓ — 6 FW 187 X 50 — 7 HE 177 ✓ 100 — 8 SPIT ✓ — 9 BOSTON ✓ — 10 FORTRESS ✓ — 11 JU 88 ✓ 70 — 12 MARTLET ✓ — 13 [deleted] HE 111 70 [/deleted] — 14 TYPHOON ✓ — 15 HE 111 ✓ 70 — 16 FW 190 ✓ 30 — 17 ME 210 X — 18 KITTY ✓ — HE 111 ✓
1 HURY ✓ — 2 DO 217 60 ✓ — 3 KITTY X — 4 H 177 ✓ 100 — 5 STIRLING ✓ — 6 HURRY ✓ — 7 HS 126 50 ✓ — 8 ME 109 ✓ 30 — 9 BOSTON ✓ — 10 FW 200 ✓ 100 — 11 FW 190 ✓ 30 — 12 FORT X — 13 FORT ✓ — 14 L LIGHTING ✓ — 15 HE 111 ✓ 70 — 16 JU 870 ✓ 50 — 17 MARTLET ✓ — 18 [deleted] ME 210 [/deleted] 1111 ✓ [deleted] X [/deleted] — 19 FW 187 [deleted] X [/deleted] — 20 DO 217 60 — 1 HALIFAX ✓ — 2 BEAU ✓ — 3 JU 88 ✓ 70 — 4 FW 200 X — 5 DO 2 [deleted] 17 X [/deleted] — 6 ME 110 ✓ 50 — 7 BEAU ✓ — 8 TYPHOON ✓ — 9 MUST ✓ — 10 MUS ✓ — 11 BOSTON ✓ — 12 HALY ✓ — 13 ME 110 X — 14 STIRLING ✓ — 15 FW 200 ✓ 110 — 16 STIRLING X — 17 HURY ✓ — 18 SPIT ✓ — 19 STIRLING ✓ — 20 HS 126 ✓ 50
[page break]
FW 190 150 YDS ✓ — FW 190 150 YDS ✓ — FW 190 300 YDS ✓ — HE 177 500 YDS ✓ — H 111 700 YDS ✓ — ME [one indecipherable word] 600 YDS ✓


1 HENCHEL [sic] 129 ✓ 50 — 2 TYPHOON ✓ — 3 HE 217 * 70 — 4 DO 217 * 90 — 5 HALIFAX ✓ — 6 FW 190 ✓ 30 — 7 JU 88 ✓ 40 — 8 DOR 214 ✓ — 9 ME 210 ✓ 56 — 10 MUSTANG ✓ — 11 FORTRESS ✓ — 12 HE 111 ✓ — 13 BOSTON ✓ — 14 [one indecipherable word] ✓ — 15 MUSTANG ✓ — 16 MOSQUITO ✓ — 17 — 18 HE 177 * — 19 ME 110 ✓ — 20 FORTRESS ✓ — HE 177 ✓ — SPIT ✓
FW 300 YDS ✓ — JU 88 600 YDS — HE 111 600 X — FW 187 350 ✓ — FW 190 150 ✓ — ME 210 300 X — FW 190 200 ✓ — FW 190 250 ✓ — FW 200 1000 YDS ✓ — FW 190 150 ✓
1 BEAU ✓ — 2 HE 111 ✓ — 3 MARTLET ✓ — 4 MOSQUITO ✓ BEAU X — 5 MUSTANG TYPHOON X— 6 FORT X — 8 JU 87 ✓ — 9 SPIT X — 10 FW 187 ✓ — 11 DO 217 X — 12 ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ X — 13 MUSTANG ✓ — 14 BOSTON ✓ — 15 — 16 F 190 ✓ — 17 HALIFAX ✓ — 18 MARTLET ✓ — 19 BOSTON ✓ — 20 DO 217 ✓
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
[underlined] Browning Gun [/underlined]
1 Make sure gun is unloaded
2 Remove flash elinmator [sic]
3 Remove Back leg
4 Remove [one indecipherable word] spring
5/ Remove locking stud
6 Breach Block
7/ Rear fear Release Unit
8/ Lock Frame
9/ Barrel and Barrel extension
[underlined] D T Reflector light [/underlined] (3 A X)
1/ Check Bulb for serviceability and alingment [sic]
2 Check mounting for security, leads Fuse (allso [sic] spare)
3 Check cleanlyness [sic] and dryness of glass surface
Check sun screen for operation
4 Bulbs must be changed every 30 flying hours or upon signs of blacking are seen
5/ Three spare bulbs are carried in the turret. Advantages of Reflector light on to target. Both eyes can be kept open when using sight alows [sic] for head movement and [one indecipherable word] is focust [sic] on
[page break]
[underlined] Safty devices on Browning Gun [/underlined]
1/ Locking of breach block. Ensures that the breach block is locked to the barrel extension for 5/6” movement before the round is fired preventing blow back.
2/ [underlined] Unlocking of the Breach block [/underlined]
Ensures that the bullet and excessive gases have left the barrel before the breach block is unlocked
3/ The fire and safe mech
Ensures that the recoiling portions are fully forward before the gun can be fired.
4 The cocking lever during the forward of the breach block the nose of the cocking lever is not clear of firing pin untill [sic] the breach block is fully forward. In case of broken bents on firing pin or a broken point on the rear causing [one deleted word] the firing pin to go prematurly [sic] the cocking lever takes the main force of the spring rendering the blow on cartridge [two indecipherable words] to fire it.
5/ The near rear prevent a round being cooked by the heat of the barrel.
[page break]
[underlined] No 1 Stopages [sic] [/underlined]
[numbers 1 - 7 deleted at side of page]
Locking stud fully forward imedate [sic] action is to cock the gun and fire watching the feed if gun fires. Stopage [sic] is due to Dud ammo. Feed takes place but gun does not fire stopage [sic] due to broken firing pin or faulty Fire and safe mech. Feed does not take place stopage [sic] due to either defective retaing [sic] paul [sic] or spring. Feed paul [sic] and/or spring broken claw on transporter or misalindge [sic] belt.
[underlined] No 2 Stopages [sic] [/underlined]
Cocking stud [inserted] between [/inserted] fully forward and half way back imediate [sic] action cock and fire. Gun does not fire stopage [sic] due to broken [deleted] sp [/deleted] transporter spring or weak loose link jambed [sic] in feedway cross feed due to misalingded [sic] belt or separated case due to undo breaching.
No 3 Stopagse [sic]
Cocking stud half way to fully back. Imediate [sic] action Cock and fire if gun fires stopage [sic] due to insufine [sic] recoil due to dud cartriage [sic]
[page break]
Gun does not fire stopage [sic] due to weak or broken ejector broken or damaged cartridge rim guides Note friction.
Note weak barrel return spring broken transporter guide spring will give stopages [sic] in any position.
[page break]
[underlined] Fraser Nash Layout
Working Pressure 300 lbs sq” [/underlined]
[2 diagrams of hydraulic systems]
[underlined] Engine Driven Pump [/underlined]
Drives oil round circuit. Output 7/9 Galls per min. One pump per circuit.
Volkes Filter Fitted on exhaust pipe line and filters 99% of dirt.
Recuperator Fitted on exhaust pipe line
[underlined] Functions [/underlined]
1/ Means of filling system
2 Means of bleeding system
3 Prevent EWP starvation
4 Conpersats [sic] for temp change
5/ Conpersats [sic] for leakages
[page break]
[underlined] Rotating servis [sic] Joint [/underlined]
This brings the oil from the fixed part of the AC to the moving part.
[underlined] Valve Box [/underlined]
This consists of 4 valves
1/ Master valve 2/ Elevation and depression Rotation and Poppet valve. Poppet valve to prevent gun sinkage
[underlined] Hydraulic Jack [/underlined]
This elevates and depresses the guns
[underlined] Vane Oil Motors [/underlined]
This rotates the turret
Palmer Firing Gear
An hydraulic means of firing the guns
Accumalator [sic] this is a means of firing the gun should a pressure pipe line get broken Fire gun about 7 8 times
Release valve Safty [sic] device if pressure is above 300 lbs sq”
External Rotation valve
When valve is opperated [sic] turret can be rotated from out side [sic]
[page break]
[diagram of the layout of components in turret]
1/ Reflector light — 2/ Rotating servis [sic] Joint — 3/ Palmer firing gear — 4/ Valve Box — 5/ Vane Oil motor — 6 Manual Rotation Handle — 7 Intercom — 8 Other Mean of [symbol] — 9/ 3 Spare Bulbs — 10 3 Fuses Cockpit 5 light fuse 5 Camera 10 — 11 Seat — 12 Safty [sic] Belt — 13/ Safety Device — 14 Oxygen — 15 Handles for moving seat — 17 Tool Bags 1/ Toggle 2/ Aiming wire 3/ Cleaning Tool 4 Combination Tool 5/ Drifts — 18 Ammunition Boxes — 19 Guns — 20 Cockpit Lamp — 21 Jettonson handles — 22 Camera Switch
Oil used in Fraser Nash system
Summer time NO % antifreeze 30 eng oil
Winter time 100 % antifreeze
[page break]
[underlined] Means of entry to Fraser Nash Turret [/underlined]
1/ Make sure recuperator spindle is up 5 ins — 2/ Open turret doors — 3/ Climb in feet first — 4/ Plug in I/C — 5/ Close Doors — 6/ Fix safty [sic] Belt — 7/ Check Tools Spare Bulbs — 8/ Check ammo — 9 Check Fuse — 10/ Switch on light — 11/ Load Guns — 12/ Make sure Manual rotation handle is free — 13 Unlock turret and opperate [sic] [deleted] and [/deleted] for elevation and rotation — 14 Inform pilot turret O.K
[underlined] Means of Exit [/underlined]
1/ Lock and centrise turret — 2/ Unload Guns — 3/ Switch off [deleted] shight [sic] [/deleted] sight — 4/ Undo Safty [sic] belt — 5/ Unlock doors — 6/ Take out I/C — 7/ Slide out of turret head first — 8/ Close doors
[page break]
[underlined] Boulton and Paul Turret
Electric Hydraulic Layout 1200lbs sq” [/underlined]
[diagram of electric hydraulic system]
[underlined] Engine Driven Electrical Generator [/underlined]
This generates and supplys [sic] the electricity to the turret
[underlined] Electrical Distributor [/underlined]
This brings electricity from the fixed part to the moving part of A/C
[underlined] Electric Motor [/underlined]
This drives the hydraulic [deleted] motor [/deleted] [inserted] generator [/inserted]
Hydraulic Generator
A means of filling the system and allso [sic] supplys [sic] the oil to hydraulic jack and hyd motor
[page break]
[underlined] Hydraulic jack [/underlined]
This elevates and depresses the guns and is a ballance [sic] type
[underlined] Hydraulic motor [/underlined]
This rotates the turret
[underlined] Pressure regulator box [/underlined]
To prevent gun sinking
[underlined] Gun Fire interuptor [sic] [/underlined]
Prevents us shooting our own tail
[underlined] Inter lock mech [/underlined]
This prevents is from fouling our own Fuselarge [sic]
[underlined] Fairing Switch [/underlined]
This prevents us from fouling [word missing] fairing
[underlined] High speed button [/underlined]
This should never be used for more than a few seconds
Normal speed 3,000 R.P.M high speed 3,400 RPM.
[underlined] 9 Fuses [/underlined]
4 Gun fuses (10 AMPS) 2 Cockpit Fuses (5 AMPS) 1 light fuse (5 AMP) 1 Solinoid [sic] fuse [inserted] 5 AMPS [/inserted] 1 motor fuse ([corrected] 10 [/corrected] AMP)
[underlined] Oil used [/underlined] 80% antifreeze 20% engine oil
[page break]
[paper with list laid over the next page which would be diagram of turret layout]
[list of aircraft with ticks and crosses by them. Many are undecipherable or deleted]
[page break]
[underlined] Hydraulic jack [/underlined]
This elevates and depresses the guns and is a ballance [sic] type
[underlined] Hydraulic motor [/underlined]
This rotates the turret
[underlined] Pressure regulator box [/underlined]
To prevent gun sinking
[underlined] Gun Fire interuptor [sic] [/underlined]
Prevents us shooting our own tail
[underlined] Inter lock mech [/underlined]
This prevents is from fouling our own Fuselarge [sic]
[underlined] Fairing Switch [/underlined]
This prevents us from fouling [word missing] fairing
[underlined] High speed button [/underlined]
This should never be used for more than a few seconds
Normal speed 3,000 R.P.M high speed 3,400 RPM.
[underlined] 9 Fuses [/underlined]
4 Gun fuses (10 AMPS) 2 Cockpit Fuses (5 AMPS) 1 light fuse (5 AMP) 1 Solinoid [sic] fuse [inserted] 5 AMPS [/inserted] 1 motor fuse ([corrected] 10 [/corrected] AMP)
[underlined] Oil used [/underlined] 80% antifreeze 20% engine oil
[page break]
[lists of aircraft types]
[page break]
[lists of aircraft types]
[page break]
[list of aircraft types]
[indeterminate drawing]

[page break]

[Diagram of Cockpit Controls]

1 SIGHT
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] [ditto symbol] SWITCH
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] COCKPIT SWITCH
4 POG [ditto symbol]
5 MOTOR [ditto symbol]
6 FAIRING [ditto symbol]
7 OXYGEN
8 OXYGEN REGULATOR
9 COCKPIT LAMP
10 40 AMP MOTOR FUES [sic]
11 MANUAL ROTATION HANDLE
12 FREE ANGAGED [sic] LEVER
13 HIGH SPEED BUTTON
[underlined] 14 [/underlined] CONTROL COLOUM [sic]
15 FIRING BUTTON
16 INTER.COM
17 ELECTRIC MOTOR
18 HYDRAULIC GENERATOR
19 MANUAL ROTATION
20 BIMMER [sic] SWITCH
21 COCKPIT LAMP
22 OXYGEN PLUG IN
23 FUESE [sic] GGGG 10AM
24 CCSC 5 AMP
25 SPARE BULBS
26 TOOL BAG
27 PARACHUTE PACK

[page break]

[underlined] Entry to Boulton and Paul turret [/underlined]

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Open Doors
2 Put in parachute
3 Climb in feet first
4 Plug in I/C
5 Close doors
6 Fix safty [sic] belt
7 Check bulbs
8 Check fuses
[underlined] 9 [/underlined] Check ammo
[underlined] 10 [/underlined] Check tools. locking toggle) Drifts Combinations [inserted] Cleaning tool [/inserted]
11 Load Guns.
12 Switch on light
12 [Turn on light
13 Use Cockpit lamp if necessary
14 Push fairing switch up
15 Switch on Motors
16 Put POG to gunner
17 Free and engage lever to engage
18 Operate controls for elevation and depression
19 Inform Pilot turret OK.
[underlined] Exit from B.P [/underlined]
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Turn guns to beam
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] [deleted] Unlock [/deleted] Unload guns
3 Switch off reflector sight
4 [ditto symbol] [ditto symbol] master [ditto symbol] switch
5 [ditto symbol] [ditto symbol]cockpit switch
6 [ditto symbol] [ditto symbol] Motor
7 Pull down fairing lever

[page break]

8. P O G to off
9 Free and engage lever to free
[underlined] 10 [/underlined] Unlock doors
[underlined] 11 [/underlined] Undo safty [sic] belt
[underlined] 12 [/underlined] Take out intercom
13 Climb out head first
14 Take out parachute
15 Close doors

[page break]

[underlined] LOADING FRASER NASH WITH AMMO [/underlined]
[diagram]
[underlined] BOULTON AND PAUL [/underlined]
[diagram]

[page break]

[underlined] R/T PROCEDURE [/underlined]
Tail gunner to Pilot – Over
Say again & say again

[diagram and explanatory notes]

[page break]

R Rythm [sic]
S Speed
V Voice
P Pitch
[underlined] Not [/underlined]
There is not repeat not
A Gerry in sight

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[unreadable]

[page break]

[underlined] tracer bullets [/underlined]

[partially obscured explanatory notes]

[page break]

[miscellaneous list]

[page break]

[blank page]
[page break]

Using a 849 does away with using capsules it has a selling [sic] indicator as also 28B

[page break]

[underlined] SIGHTING [/underlined]

[underlined] Rules of aiming [/underlined] for curve of pursuit

[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Bead aircraft
2 Estimate range
3 Make [indecipherable word] zone allowance towards aim [indecipherable word]
4 At 600 yds fire a burst and note the end of the tracers
5 Keep firing with target at end of trace
6 At 400 yds bring tagget [sic] ½ way along trace
7 Keep firing till 150 yds then fire point blank till breakaway
8 on break away deflection one rad in direction of breakaway and fire continusly [sic]
Rules for aiming target holding off [underlined] 1 [/underlined] to [underlined] 4 [/underlined] the same. After that corrections can be made with trace

[page break]

[underlined] Smoke Float [/underlined] MK II
Fitted with type No23 Tail pistol before launching remove safty [sic] pin an spring [indecipherable word] clip flying above 200ft launch tail first.
[underlined] Aluminium MK V [/underlined]
Used to mark position of subs lifeboats ect [sic] and air to sea gunnery exercise
[underlined] Fuses [/underlined]
Type [underlined] No 42 Static operated [/underlined] 2 safty [sic] devices [underlined] 1 [/underlined] safty [sic] pin 2 spring [deleted] sutter [/deleted] shutter Used for all types recco [sic] flares [underlined] Type 848 Air operated [/underlined] Has three safty [sic] devices [underlined] 1 [/underlined] and 2 same as fuse 42. [underlined] 3 [/underlined] Vane cover Used for all types recco [sic] flares and photo flash
[underlined] Capsules MK 2 [/underlined]
No stamped on each side reversible 3.4.6.8.10.12.14.16.18.20
[underlined] Rules for fusing [/underlined]
When using Mk 1 and 4 flares and flying at even no of feet use same no capsule when flying

[page break]

od [sic] number of ft use capsule 1 below
[table of capsules]
When using Mk V flares – at even [indecipherable word] of feet use capsule 2 below when flying odd number of feet use capsule 3 below
[table of capsules]
[underlined] Recco Flares [/underlined]
MK I to IV Contains parachute and candle ¾ [indecipherable word] CP. ejection and ignition take place together
No V MK 2 Sinalar [sic] to MK I to IV but 2 minute delay on candle ejection takes place first followed 2 mins later by ignition
PHOTO FLASH
Fuse 848. 849. 28.B 2000 4000FT CAPSULE No 4 2000 [indecipherable notations]

[page break]

[underlined] SAA [/underlined]

[drawings and notations of various ammunition types]

[page break]

1 ½ “ [underlined] SIGNAL CARTRIDGES [/underlined]

[drawings and notations of various signal cartridges]

[underlined] SIGNAL ROCKET [/underlined]

[drawings and notations of signal rocket]

[page break]

[underlined] Curve of Pursuit [/underlined]

[drawings, notations & tables for deflection, aiming & distance when firing tracer]

[page break]

Positioning for curve of pursuit allow 600 to 400 yds end of trace 400 to 150 ½ way on trace 150 Point Blank
[underlined] Breakaways [/underlined] Downwards rear gunners one rad ahead fire continusly [sic] Mid upper the same. Front gunner 2 rads ahead (usely [sic] over outside shoulder of pilots) Breakaways upwards rear gunner one rad ahead fire cont [sic] mid uppers and front gunners point blank.
[underlined] Head on attacks [/underlined] If any attacks head on open fire 1200 yds point balnk and if he breaks away upwards increase deflection as much as possible fire contin [sic] [indecipherable word] action if he break away downwards If enemy attack shallow dives ahead aim one rad above un till break away in shallow climb one rad below break away up full deflection break away down no action Point Blank shot at [indecipherable word] the two banks at begining [sic] of curve of pursuit [underlined] ground [/underlined] straffing [sic] Front gunner two rads short and increas [sic] rear gunners 3 rads over and decrease

[page break]

[drawings & notations for bullet patterns, gravity drop & bullet trails]

[page break]

[table of speed and distance]
More guns towards our aircraft.
[underlined] Gun deflection [/underlined]
Allow 1 rad for ever [sic] 50 miles faster or slower. I e alway [sic] in the front of the [indecipherable word] the aircraft appears to move. Correct with tracers Traveling [sic] same speed [indecipherable word] band allowance only (FROM TABLE) Traveling [sic] slower aim point blank correct with tracers
[underlined] Typical types of attack on Bombers Converging course [/underlined]

[diagram]

[underlined] Astern Attack [/underlined]
Usely [sic] from 10˚ to 45˚ attack from above or below mostly from above to gain speed
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
[underlined] Sighting [/underlined]
KEY Ranges
600yds Limiting Range Small Expenditur [sic] Am [sic] 400 [ditto symbol] Effective [ditto symbol] Larg [sic] amount Ammo 150 [ditto symbol] Point Blank Range Fire point blank continuisly [sic]

[underlined] Rang [sic] Estermation [sic] [/underlined]
[diagram, table & notes]

[page break]

[blank page]

Collection

Tags

Citation

Ernie Twells, “Ernie Twells' notebook,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed August 14, 2022, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/7657.

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