Ernie Twells' notebook

MTwellsE171780-151026-07.pdf

Title

Ernie Twells' notebook

Description

Ernie Twells' engineering notebook covering metallurgy, carburettors, air screws and aircraft engines..

Creator

Coverage

Language

Format

One notebook of 62 handwritten pages.

Publisher

IBCC Digital Archive

Rights

This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.

Identifier

MTwellsE171780-151026-07

Transcription

ROYAL AIR FORCE.
Small Notebook for use in Schools.

[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
[underlined] Molybdenum [/underlined]
[indecipherable] propitys [sic] of steel similar to tungsten but 4 times more intense

[underlined] Manganese or Hadfield Steel [/underlined]
steel with 12% mang. with 1% to 1.2%. when coold [sic] slowly quite hard and brittle but if quens [sic] in water from 950c [deleted] so [/deleted] [indecipherable word] soft and ductile. magnetic when hard and brittle nonmag. in soft state
[underlined] Uses [/underlined] tran [sic] way points lys [sic] for dredge bukets [sic] and pans for ore crushes

[page break]

[underlined] Vanadium [/underlined]
ad [sic] to steel in small quantys [sic] inparts [sic] fatigue [deleted] propitys [sic] [/deleted] qualitys. [sic] Steels 0.25% vanadium pos high elastic limit and are exceedingly tough
[underlined] Uses [/underlined] valve springs also [indecipherable word]

[underlined] Tungsten [/underlined]
ad [sic] to steel inparts [sic] air harding [sic] qualtys [sic]. Enables the aloy [sic] to be hardend [sic] to a high degree. Retains its [missing word] and hardnes [sic] at dul [sic] [missing word] heat. Uses are engine [missing word]

[underlined] Cobalt and Chromium [/underlined]
ad [sic] to carbon steel produse [sic] sps [sic] car [sic] such as mon skaling [sic] at high tem [sic] non crod [sic] and air harding [sic].
Uses areo engine Valvs [sic] and Ex manifold

[page break]

[underlined] Aloys [sic] Steells [sic] [/underlined]
Steel witch [sic[ ows [sic] it distinkif [sic] cuallys [sic] to some element or elements other than carbon or jointly with carbon is termed aloy [sic] steel generaly [sic] these steels are low in carbon.
[underlined] Nickel [/underlined]
added to steel varying [indecipherable word] ° - 40° increase toughnes [sic] raises elastic limet [sic]. steel 3° - 5° nickel for parts that requid [sic] case harding [sic]. Over 27° steel is non magnetic and almost non [deleted] crodable [/deleted] corodible [sic]

[underlined] Nickel Crominum [sic] [/underlined]
added to low carbon steel inparts [sic] high [deleted] ductill [deleted] [inserted] ductility greater hardness beter [sic] wearing [indecipherable word]
[page break]
high elastic limit.
High Tensile steel used in aircraft 3°-5° nickel 0.5-1.5° chroniun [sic]
[underlined] Mild [/underlined]
0.5° - 0.8°
[underlined] Medium [/underlined]
0.8° 1%

[underlined] Air Harding [/underlined]
1% - 1.5%
Small % of chromium inparts [sic] great hardness and tenactey [sic] and confers air harding cualtys [sic] chromium is non magnet [sic] [indecipherable word] 12% known as stainless steel

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[underlined] R R CARB [underlined]
Is of the twin choke type filled with rotary controled [sic] valves by which the flow [indecipherable word] the float chamber to the defusers may be regulated from the pilots seat to suit [indecipherable word] conditing [sic] of altidude [sic]
A seperate [sic] slow running device is incorpared [sic] consisting of a pilot jet and small aug defuser. When the throtles [sic] are in slow running position the depreser [sic] on a small hole ajation [sic] to the throtle [sic] edge of right hand choke this hole is ajustable [sic] to the throtle [sic] edge ana [sic] bung partly in comication [sic] with engine side of throtle [sic]

[page break]

tranfers [sic] a low pressure to the jet and therefore draws in fuel The posion [sic] of the hole in relation to the throtle [sic] edge alows [sic] for a slow running ajustment [sic].
An accelerlat [sic] pump is connected to the main throtle [sic] lever Amey [sic] rapid opening of the latter ejects a streem [sic] of fuel into the left hand choke thereby preentin any flat spot as the throtle [sic] is incresinly [sic] opened the depresion [sic] is felt on the emulsion tube. defuser air entering a small passage in the carb behind the lip of the choke tube passes through an air bleed tube wich [sic] is partly submerged in the fuel this tube has small holes by witch [sic] the air bleed into or forms bubles [sic] with the fuel, The amount of fuel passing throu [sic] the main defuser is controled [sic] by the

[page break]

rotarey [sic] controled [sic] valves
[underlined] BRACKET [/underlined] = BASIC SETING [sic]
BUSH
DIFFERANCE x 9 + BUSH IF BUSH IS GREATER. IF BUSH IS LESS DIFF + 9 – BUSH
[calculations]

[page break]
[page of calculations relating to radiators and coolants]

[page break]

CLOCKWISE UNTIL LAMP LIGHTS THEN BACKWARDS UNTIL IT JUST GOES OUT FROM THAT POINT UNSCREW A FURTHER 230° I io° FINAL CHECK WITH 5 TEST PLUGS IN BREECH LAMP AND BATTREY [sic] CONNECTED OPERATE INDEXING LEVER 5 TIMES LAMPS SHOULD REMAIN A LIGHT CONTINUOSLY [sic]
[diagram inserted]
AFTER 75 100 CARTRIDGES HAV 1 TEASPOONFULL OF COFFMAN OIL IS PUT INTO THE BREECH AT THE SEALING PISTON BY AOLDIA THE BREECH OPEN GIVE ONE PUMP OF GRESE [sic] GUN TO NIPPLES OIL THE BARRELS SEATING AND ALL THE EXPOSED PARTS BY WIIPING OVER WITH OIL ON A CLOTH.
R. TAX HAND AND ELECTIC [sic] STARTER
[diagram inserted]

[page break]

[page illegible due to poor scanning]

[page break]
filled with the above units the electric plugs from this unit must allso [sic] be checked for securety [sic] before flight.
[underlined] [indecipherable word] [/underlined
[underlined] Take [/underlined] off clutch lever in then move controls and rudder far over full range. mam control cock [underlined] out [/underlined] so Airborne MCC to spin for 7 to 10 minutes [underlined] 3 [/underlined] [indecipherable word] altitude control and steering lever put the main Switch off 4 From the A,C to in fly as near as possible hands and feet of 5 Note the air pressure remains steady at 60 lbs per square inch and put the MCC to in. and the aircraft [indecipherable word] under George. If the nose and tail heavy gauge is [indecipherable word] the elevator brimming [words missing]

[page break]
DEGREES OF TARTANIC AND HARDNESS
[calculations and diagrams inserted]
[page break]
3 further warming expands the thermal bellows untill [sic] at 100° C the main spring tuches [sic] the ajuster [sic] plug and because the internal and external [indecipherable words] the valve in in[sic] a state of ballance [sic]
4 Further use in engine temp expands the bellows fully up the top of cage until it overcome [sic] the pressure of the main spring there upon the valve lifts and act as a relieve valve opperating [sic] at a pressure at 30 lbs per square inch.
5 On cooling the system loses pressure untill [sic] a partial vacuum is formed in the header tank the vacuum bellow now admits air through the stop plate to the [deleted] pressure [/deleted] header tank untill [sic] equal pressure is obtained

[page break]

[underlined]D.A VALVE [/underlined]

[diagrams inserted]

[page break]

[duplicate scan]

[page break]

30LBS
TADDINGTON THERMO OF HEADED TANK VALVE
[diagram inserted]
[underlined] 1 WHEN COLD THE THERMAL ELEMENT
cage is held down to its [sic] stop plate so closing the valve and depressing the vacume [sic] bellows slightly.
[underlined] 2 [underlined] During the initial warming up expansion of engine coolant caused positive pressure in vaccum [sic] compartment raising vac bellow in contract with stop plate and if pressure exceeds 2 1/2 per square inch valve will be opened lifting the cage against the 2 1/2lbs spring so [indecipherable word] the pressure

[page break]

DEGREES OF TARTANIC AND HARDNESS
[calculations inserted]
CHLORINATED WATER AD [sic] HYPOSULPHATE 1/2 OZ TO 100 GALS OF SODIUM SULPHATE
THERMOSTAT BELLOWS FILL WITH [underlined] ETHER [underlined] ETHOLEN CO2 AT 25 LBS
[diagrams inserted]
80% START 105% FINISHED IGF IT WORKS AT ANY OTHER TEMP FIGURE THE BOTTOM BELLOWS ARE FILLD [sic] WITH COM AIR
IF TWO YELLOW BANDS ON THE THERMOSTAT IT MUST NOT BE USED FOR 100% EG
[page break]

WELLINGTON 1A PAGE XVIII
ENGINE LEADING PATICULARS [sic]
MAX POWER RATING 1000 B.H.P. 3,000FT 2600 RPM + 5 1/2 BOOST MAX REV CON CRUSING [sic] 2250 REVS + 2 BOOST MAX REVS ECOMICAL [sic] CRUISI [sic] 2250 ZERO BOOST MAY FOR TAKE OFF 2600 RPM + 6 BOOST C.H. AVT 95 MB ING 2 TH 025E9 MAGS (TWIN C B) COMP RATION 6.25 TO 1 REDUCTION GEAR .5 MB TWOJ SPEED IS FITTER TO GIVE INCREASED PEFORMANCE [sic] AT ALTITUDE [inserted] LOW [/inserted] M 6.9 TO 11 [inserted] HIGH [/inserted] S 9.9 TO 11 RATED ALTITUDES M RATION 4,750FT S.R 14,750 ING TIMING A 14° BEFORE TDC 29° FROM 1200 ES TO FULL THROTAL EXCEPT AT ECONIACAL [sic] CRUISING SPEED 35 TOC E. CRUISING
RUNING [sic] AND TESTING OF ENGINES
[underlined] STARTING [/underlined] MK 13 BEFORE STARTING PORT OPEN AIR RELESE [sic] SYSTEM TO EXPELL AIR FROM STEAM PIPE

[page break]

COCKPIT
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] HBRO SELECTER [sic] LEVER DOWN
2 CHECK SWICHES [sic] OFF AND U/C LOCKED DOWN (GREEN LIGHTS)
3 COWLING GILS FULLY OPEN
4 CARB INTAKE SHUTTERS TO COLD AIR
5 S/C IN M RATIO [deleted] A/S CONTROL [/deleted]
6 A/S CONTROL FULLY FORWARD TO MAX RPM
7 TURN FUEL COCK
8 MIX THROTAL [sic] CONTROL S OPEN M/C A. R
9 SWICH [sic] ON MAGS
10 PRESS STARTER BUTTON (10 SECS)
[underlined] CREW [/underlined]
1 CONECT [sic] LEADS FROM AGOM TROLLY [sic]
2 TURN ON PRIMING COCK PRIM [sic] ENGINE
3 SWICH [sic] ON H/S MAG
4 PRESS BUTTON ON ACC TROLLEY
5 SWICH [sic] OFF H/S MAG TURN OF [sic] PRIMING COCK WARMING [underlined] 1 [/underlined] CHECK OIL PRESSURE NOR 80LBS SQUARE INCH EMERCANGY [sic] 5 MINS LIMIT 70LBS SQUARE INCH
2 RUN ENGINE 600 RPM FOR FIVE MINS
3 CHECK TEMP. MIN FOR TEST CYL HEAD 100° C OIL 5° C

[page break]

[underlined] AIR SCREWS [/underlined]
TRACTER [sic] AIRS An air screws dezined [sic] to produce tenson [sic] on the air screw shaft L.H. AND R.H. L.H is an air screw dezined [sic] to rotate Anti-clockwise to an obserber [sic] behind the airscrew. R.H.T clockwise [deleted] Angle. Blade the acute angle between the chord of an element [/deleted]
BLADE ANGLE The angle at which the blade [deleted] at wi [/deleted] the plane of rotation
[underlined] PITCH [/underlined] The distance throgh [sic] which an H/S advances along its axel throug [sic] one revolution
[inserted] diagram of a propeller [/inserted]
D/H. V/P. A/S 10° and 20° TYPES.
Purpose of V.P To enable and engine to develop max H P for take of [sic] and level flight
[inserted] diagram and calculations [/inserted]

[page break]

[underlined] OPPERATION [sic] [/underlined] OF A/S The ops is mounton [sic] on the forward end of the aps shaft and the change of pitch is effected by the Hydro pressure from the engine oil system and by counter weights which apply cent force to the blade in flight the tendency of the blade is to take up the corse poss [sic] under the cent pull of the counter weights which is allways [sic] in being when the a/s is rotating and the fine pos is obtained by admiting [sic] oil under pressure to a cylinder which then moves along a fired piston and through the [indecipherable word] of a cam motion forces the blades to take up the fine pitch poss against the pull of the counter weights.
When the pressure is released the blades are returned to course pos and the oil is returned to the crank case under the pull of the counter weights
An a/s is in station balance if on

[page break]

a knife edges it will remain at rest in all poss.
[underlined] MASTER SPLINE OPPERSITE [sic] No 1 BLADE [/underlined]
OILITE PACKING WASHER SELF LUBRICATING GETTS [sic] OIL SEAL MICARTA [sic]
[inserted] diagram and calculations [/inserted]
NO LESS THAN 1 WASHER FOR BALLANCE [sic] OR MORE THAN 12 PER BLADE OR MORE THAN 25 FOR AIR SCREW BYL MADE OF DURAL. LINER OF CAST IRON
BASIC SETING FIXES PERMENTLY [sic] THE RELATIV [sic] POSS OF THE BLADE AND THE C.W. BRACKET
TORQUE LOADING OILITE PACKING PLATES 25 TO 90 F LBS
STEEL PACKING 40 120
[page break]

MATERIALS TERMS USED IN THE STUDY OF MAT
A) [underlined] STRAIN [/underlined] ANY FORCE HOWEVER SMALL APPLIED TO AN OBJECT MAKING IT CHANGE IT SHAPE
[underlined] STRESS [/underlined] IS THE INTERSITY [sic] OF THE INTERNAL FORCE CALLED INTO PLAY WHEN AND OBJECT IS STRAINED STRESS = [calculation inserted]
[underlined] ELASTICITY [/underlined] IS THE STRESS REQUIRD TO PRODUCE A GIVEN STRAIN HOOKS LAW [calculation inserted]
[underlined] DUCTILITY [/underlined] ABILITY TO FLOW WITH OUT FRACTURE TENACITY TO RESIST FRACTURE BY STRETCHING FORCE THIS IS VERY EMPORTANT AND IS MEASURED BY THE [underlined] TENSILE TEST [/underlined]
[underlined] ELASTIC LIMIT [/underlined] UP TO THIS POINT THE STRAIN DISAPPEARS IF THE LOAD IS REMOVE BEYOND IT A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF PERMANENT SET OCCURS
[underlined] THE 1% PROOF STRESS [/underlined] STRESS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE A PERMANENT SET OF 1% AT THE GAUGE POINT YEILD POINT A SUDDEN EXTENSION OCCURS HERE WITHOUT MUCH INCREASE OF LOAD (D) [underlined] ULTIMATE STRESS [/underlined] THE MAXIMUM LOAD THAT CAN BE APPLIED (E) [underlined] FRACTURE [/underlined] OCCURS HERE

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

DISMANTLING SEQUENCE
REMOVAL OF A/S FROM AIRCRAFT
(1) CHANGE A/S TO COARSE PITCH
(2) REMOVE SPLIT PINS PISTON LOCKING PLATE
(3) REMOVE CYL HEAD CIRCLIPS AND REMOVE HEAD.
(4) REMOVE 16 PISTON HEAD SCREWS AND SPRING ASSEMBLY
(5) TAKE WEIGHT OF AIR SCREW
(6) UNSCREW PISTON (TWO TIGHT SPOTS)
[underlined] ORDER OF DISMANTLING [/underlined]
(1) LOWER A/S ON TO BASE PLATE
(2) REMOVE ALL SPLIT PINS
(3) REMOVE COUNTER WEIGHT CAPS AND NOTE BLADE ANGLES
(4) REMOVE COUNTER WEIGHTS AND PITCH ADJUSTING SCREW
(5) REMOVE COUNTER WEIGHTS SHAFTS, RACES. ECT [sic]
(6) LIFT CYLPISTON SNAP RING LOCK PLATE AND SPLIT CONE COMPLETE
(7) REMOVE BARREL [deleted] USING WEDGES [deleted] BOLTS
(8) SEPARATE BARREL USING WEDGES
(9) REMOVE BLADES
(10) REMOVE OIL SEALS, ECT [sic]

[page break]

[underlined] INSPECTION OF PARTS AFTER CLEANING [/underlined]
BLADES VISIAL [sic] EXAMINATION FOR CRACKS AND CORROSION. CHALK AND OIL TEST. CHECK SEATIN OF INER [sic] THRUST RACE ON BLADE CHECK BLADE [inserted] BRONZE [/inserted] BUSH FOR CREEP AND ROLLERS.
BARREL [sic] TEST VISIL [sic] AND MAGNO FULX TEST. FACING TEST ON SURFACE PLATE WITH FEELERS .002” LIMIT.
SPIDER VISIAL [sic] EXAMINATION DISTORSION [sic] CRACKS SPLINES FOR PICKING UP THEN CHECK FOR WEAR

OILITE RING SOAKED FOR 24HRS IN DTD 109 AT 90°C [underlined] MICARTA [/underlined] SUPORT [sic] BLOCKS EXAMIN [sic] FOR DAMAGE LEATHER WASHERS. FIT NEW ONES EACH INSPECTION [inserted] SOAK IN DTD 109 10 HRS 50°C [/inserted]
[underlined] C.W. BRACKET [/underlined] EXAMIN [sic] DISTORSION [sic]. CRACKS.
PISTON EXAMIN [sic] FOR CORROSION AND DISTORISION [sic] EXAMIN [sic] THREAD FIRS AND LAST IF DAMAGED O.K. ANY OTHER PISTON U.S.
SPLIT CONES MUST BE VERY ACURATE, [sic] [inserted] FIT [/inserted] IN CONICAL SEAT
LOW B SHAFT EXAMIN [sic] FOR CRACKS OR WEAR DAMAGE TO THREAD
CYL IF MOR THAN TWO THREADS AR [sic] DAMAGED. U.S.

[page break]

[inserted diagram and calculations]

[underlined] NOTE [/underlined]

ALL NICKS, DENTS, SCRATCHES MUST BE REMOVED WITH A SMOOTH FILE AND FINE EMERY CLOTH FROM SHARP INDENTATION INTO SMOOTH ROUNDED DEPRESSIONS
SPIDER TRANSMITS TORQUES LOADS BARREL ABSORBS CENTRIFUGAL LOADS

[page break]

[underlined] FINAL BUILD [/underlined]
(1) FIT ROUGH WASHER
(2) SMEAR ALL BRIGHT PARTS INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL WITH LANOLIN
3 FILL BLADES TO 2” FROM TOP WITH INTAVA OR EQUIVELENT [sic]
4 PULL ON BLADES TO SPIDER USING PULLER AND SLACKING GREASE NIPLES [sic]
(5) ASSEMBLE AS BEFORE PACKIN ALL RACES ECT [sic] WITH A/S GREASE INCLLUDE CONE OIL RETAINING WASHER AND PISTON LOCK PLATE (6) TEST ALL BLADES FOR FULLNES [sic] USING GREASE GUN
7 DURING ASSEMBLY CHECK TORQUE ANGLES TRACK AND BALLANCE
8 EFFECT FINAL BALLANCE USING LEAD WIRE IN HOLLOW BARREL BOLTS
9 FIT ALL LOCKING DEVICES AND SMEAR SPLINES ECT [sic] WITH WHITEMORES COMPOUND AND REFIT
[underlined] NON OPERATION OF AIR SCREW [/underlined]
(1) CHECK OIL SUPPLY CONTROL RODS AND C/O VALVE
2 LEAKING LEATHERS
3 C/W BEARING SHAFT WRONG SIDE OF PITCH ADJ NUT SCREW PITCH ADJ SCREW WRONGLY FITTED OUTER HALF OF C/WT THRUST RACE WRINGLY FITTED
4 TORQUE LOADING TO HIGH (5) CLEARANCES INSUFFICIENT
VIBRATION CAUSES
1 LACK OF GREASE IN BLADES CHECK BY G/G
2 LOOSE PISTON RMOVE A/S INSPECT SPLINES AND CONE SEATINGS ECT DRESS UP ANY HIGH SPOTS RESMEAR WITH WHITMORES COMPOUND AND REFIT
3 TRACK, ANGLES, CLEARANCES AND TORQUE LOADING READJUST AS NECESSARY
[sketch of DH constant speed unit]
ROTAL A/S 20[DEGREES]
TYPE NO R 4.5 “ “ INTERNAL RANGE “
“ R 5 OR 6 EXTERNAL RANGE 35”
“ RXF 5 OR 6 “ EXTERNAL FEATHER “ 75”
“ RS 5 OR 6 “ “ “ 65
BLADES WOOD OR MAGNESIUM DURAL ARE [two words?]
[sketch of oil flow in hub]
INSIDE OIL TUBE L/H THREAD EACH END
OUTER TUBE SPLINES TO SPIGOT OUTER END HAVE KEYWAY FOR LOCKING PISTON
PISTON TWO OIL SEAL LEATHER WASHERS
CYL ALUMINIUM ALLOY ANODIC TREATED
CYL HEAD HELD IN POS BY 15 ¼ BSF AND 3 I BOLTS
SYN RUBBER SEAL
HUB S65 HUB CENTRE DETACHABLE CONE AT F R AND SLINED TO MATCH A/S SHAFT L/H THREAD AT FRONT OF HUB FOR REMOVAL FROM A/S SHAFT

[page break]

RACES 3 FOR THRUST AND 1 PRE-LOADING
THIS IS THE TOP RACE V POINS [SIC] TOWARDS THE TIP OF BLADE
[sketches of blade ball races]
[sketch of method of fitting pin]
BLADE ASSEMBLY
1. FIT BALANCING SHIM AND COVER PLATE
2. PASS BEARING HOUSING OVER BLADE ADAPTER
3. FIT PRE-LOAD NUT (COMPLETE WIT SEAL)
4. SELECT STACK OF RACES AND PACK WITH MOBIL GREASE NOTE 2OZ
5. PRESS BEARING OVER BLADE ADAPTOR AND FIT ADAPTOR NUT COMPLETE WITH SEAL V TOWARDS TIP
6. PRESS BEARING HOUSING OVER BEARING AND FIT BEARING HOUSING NUT
7. SET BEARING PRE-LOADING 10 – 35 FT LBS
8. FIT VERNIER PLATE AND SHIM
9. FIT ALL LOCKING DEVICES

PRECAUTIONS BEFORE REMOVING OR REPLACING A BLADE ASSEMBLY FROM HUB
1. RELEASE PRELOAD NUT APPROX ½ TURN AND REFIT LOCKING TABS
2. HOLD BLADE FROM TURNING SUPPORT TIP OF BLADE TO PREVENT TIP FROM BINDING AND KEEP LINK ARM CLEAR OF HUB

TOLERANCE OF BA
3”OZ N A/S 5”OZ FOR USED A/S
[page break]

REMOVAL SEQUENCE
ROTOL EXTERNAL TYPE CYL RX AND RXF
1. REMOVE SPINNER NOSE PIECE
2. UNLOCK SPINNER AND REMOVE
3. UNLOCK AND REMOVE 3 EYE BOLTS AND 15 CYL COVER NUTS AND BOLTS AND BOLTS AND TWO CYLINDER BLEED SCREWS
4. REMOVE CYL COVER PISTON NUT AND PISTON AND KEY OR LOCATING PEGS RXF TYPE
5. REMOVE CYLINDER
6. “ OIL TUBES L/H THREAD ON INNER
7. WITH NO 1 BLDE DOWNWARDS PLACE SLING OVER NO 2 AND 3 BLADES
8. REMOVE CIRCLIP, RETAINING PLATE AND LOCK RING
9. UNSCREW HUB NUT AND FIT EXTRACTOR NUT AND RING AND REMOVE AIRSCREW
10. REMOVE DEICING PIPES, INNER RING OF SPINNER AND SPINNER BACK PLATE
FIT A/S REVERSE THIS SEQUENCE (SMEAR SPINES WITH WHITMORES COMPOUND) FIT PILOT BUSH OVER INNER OIL TUBE END TO PROTECT CYL OIL GLAND WHEN PASSING CYL OVER TUBES
THREE STEEL TABS HELD IN PLACE A CIRCLIP [DELETED] HELD IN P [/DELETED] IN PRELOAD STRAIGHT OFFSET R O/S L
LOCKING DEVISE [SIC] IS SERATED STEEL TAB BOLTED AND TAB WASHERED [DELETED] TO FRO [/DELETED] BOLTED TO FRONT SPINNER PLATE

INSPECTION
DAILY EXAMINE BLADES AND SPINNER EXTERNALLY FOR DAMAGE
40 HOURS REMOVE SPINNER AND EXAMINE BACK PLATE FOR CRACKS EXAMINE HUB FOR LOSS OF GREASE AND OIL
480 REMOVE A/S EXAMINE OUTER BEARING SURFACE OF CYL FOR WEAR OR SCORING 2. EXAMINE OIL TUBES FOR BRINELLING DUE TO CHATTER 3. EXAMINE FORK JOINTS OF OPERATING LINKS AND EYE BOLTS 4. EXAMINE SPLINES AND CONE SEATINGS IN HUB AND SHAFT FOR PICK UP OR FRETTING 5. EXAMINE BLADES FOR DAMAGE FATIGUE CRACKS AND CORROSION 6. EXAMINE SPINNER AND BACK PLATES FOR DAMAGE

C.S.U. EXAMINE FOR OIL LEAKS AND SECURITY AND ADJUSTMENT OF CONTROL SYSTEM
[page break]

960 HOURS RETURN A/S AND C/S UNIT TO REPAIR DEPOT FOR COMPLETE OVERHAUL

WOODED [SIC] BL SCHWART JABLO AND RAYOID PAINTED BLACK WITH 4” YELLOW TIP
MAGNESIUM BLADE SCREWED TO BLADE ADAPTER WITH TOFNAL BUSH AS PROTECTION FROM STEEL ADAPTER
[sketch of blade defining areas]
[table of repairs according to area]


Cylinders Examine for cracks scores fretting overheating fins for cracks. Test flange for truth on surface plate having hole slightly larger than spigot Scrape true
Dimensional Cylinder bore for size ovality & taper with cylinder gauge Take 6 readings two at top stroke 2 at centre 2 at bottom. One parallel with & one at right angles to the gudgeon pin in each position.
Cylinders Water cooled test water jacket for leaks Blank off all outer ports attach air blast to inlet port immerse in hot water at 80°C apply pressure of 50lbs/sq” for 5 minutes. Leaks indicated by bubbles. Remove from tank dry thoroughly spray with lubricating oil to prevent rust.
Cylinder Heads Examine for cracks especially between ports, valve guide houses and stud houses Studs for non alignment firmness and condition of thread. Plug adaptors for firmness and condition of thread Test seats for width max 3/32 [four words unreadable] valve seats for truth using new valve or special gauge and marking. [one line unreadable]
[page break]

to bring the pointer to zero
7. To turn with George put the main switch on and move the steering lever left or right.
8. Dive or climb by rotating the altitude control to the required angel
9. Landing Put the clutch lever and main control cock to the out position.
Ground checks
1. See that there is one pint A/F oil in bottle
2. See that air dryer has been recharged with silca gel
3. Put clutches in and move controls over the full range
4. With the port engine running check that the air pressure is steady at 60lbs/sq”
5. Put the MCC to the open position and note that the rotors are spinning
6. Replace covers securely and check that the plugs are secure in the there [sic] sockets
7. Put the MCC to the out position

[page break]

[this is on a loose page, not part of this notebook]
to make easy reading these degrees per [one word?] are rated 1 to 4

C.S.U. 1825 OF ENGINE PUMP CENT GOVENOR
PAD GOVERNOR CAN BE USED FOR EITHER L OR R HAND DRIVE PORT NEAREST SPLINE IS FINE OUTLET PORT BLANKING PLATES SMALL ONES SUCTION LARGE ONES PRESSURE BLANKING OIL ENTERS IDLER GEAR SPINDLE FITTED WITH NON RETURN VALVE AND RESTRICTER
[UNFINISHED SKETCH]
[page break]

VALVE TIMING FOR MERCURY [DELETED] iii [/DELETED]
1. TURN C/SHAFT UNTIL CONROD IN NO 2 CYL AT TDC
2. FIT THE FRONT COVER LESS THE FRONT COVER BALL RACE
3. INSERT THE TIMING ROD THROUGH LAYSHAFT CAM SLEEVE, HOLE IN FRONT [DELETED] COVER [/DELETED] WALL OF C/C CASE ON TO FRONT WEB OF C/SHAFT
4. ENGAGE C/SHAFT GEARS CENTRALISE SERRATIONS
5. FIT DUMMY RACE TO FRONT COVER AND [DELETED] RING [/DELETED] NUT
6. REMOVE THE TIMING ROD
7. FIT PUSH RODS AMS SET TAPPETS
8. FIT PPI TO NO 6 CYL (NO 6 ONLY)
9. FIT TIMING POINTER
10. SET T. [DELETED] PI [/DELETED] BY MEANS OF P.P.I
11. CHECK VALVE OPENING 29° BTDC
[SKETCH OF VALVE TIMING]
[in green ink in a different hand]
Just one point
Oliver Cromwell
Who always
asks for
[underlined] more and more [/underlined]

CNA MERCURY RADIAL ENGINE
CRANK CASE CYL HOLDING DOWN BOLTS .010” .020” .030”
[SKETCH OF STUD]
CHECK. CLEAN WITH PARIFFIN [SIC] HOT OIL AND CHALK TEST

A/S SHAFT MADE OF N/O STEEL
UNEVERSAL [SIC] THRUST BALL BEARING
REAR BEARING SINGLE THRUST BEARING
REAR SPHERICAL SEATING AL-BRONZE
ANCOR MEMBER HOUSING N/S
REAR BEVEL WHEEL CARRIER
SEALING RING IRON BRONZE


DISMANTLING
1. INSERT EXTENSION SHAFT THROUGH HOLE IN BENCH 2. REMOVE FRONT COVER PLATE 3. WITH RING SPANNER REMOVE THRUST NUT (LH) 4. LIFT OF OIL THROWER 5. WITH EXTRACTOR PRESS A/S SHAFT FROM MAIN BALL BEARING [INSERTED] SKETCH OF SOMETHING [/INSERTED] 6. TAP OUT ANCHOR MEMBER HOUSING FROM CASING 7. LIFT OF [SIC] FRONT BEVE [SIC] WHEEL AND SPHERICAL RING

[page break]

CRANK SHAFT
TO REMOVE MANETON WEB EXPAND TO .015”
“ REPLACE “ “ “ TO .040
PERMISSABLE STRETCH OF MANETON BOLT .009 TO .010
“ END FLOAT OF MASTER ROD ASSEM .008 - .012
FIT A BOLT MARKED E TO THE MANETON
BIG END BUSH IS A FULLY FLOATING STEEL SHELL LINED WITH CADMIUM NICHEL [SIC] ALLOY

REMOVAL AND FITTING OF BUSHES
DRILL AND PRESS OUT BRASS DOWEL PEGS
PRESS OUT BUSHES USING SPECIAL TOOL AND WORLSHOP PRESS

FITTING NEW BUSHES ARTICULATED RODS
IMMERSE EYE OF ROD IN CASTOR OIL AT A TEMPERATURE OF 200°C FOR 30 MINS REDUCE TEMPERATURE OF BUSH TO -60°C AND PRESS IN BUSH USING SPECIAL TOOL AND WORLSHOP PRESS. WHEN FITTING NEW BUSH TO MASTER ROD THE TEMPERATURE OF THE OIL MUST NOT BE ABOVE 150°C

REMOVE [INSERTED] F. [/INSERTED] KEYS BY 2BA BOLT. 1 KEY IN FRONT 2 IN REAR. EXPANDER JACK FOR OPENING THE MANETON WEB TAKE OUT JACK AS SOON AS MANETON WEB IS REMOVED. REAR OIL RETAINER MADE OF ALLY-BRONZE WRIST PIN NO 1, 4 HAVE
[page break]

STEEL PLUNGERS SPRING LOADED BLANKING PLUG HAS SPRING AND STEEL WASHED AND FELT RING WASHER TO MAKE OIL TIGHT JOINT BETWEEN SPLINES OF TAIL SHAFT
OIL FEED TO BIG END [DELETED] FACE [/DELETED] ALWAYS ON LEEDING [SIC] FACE
MANITON POS GAUGE FOR SUBASSEMBLY
16-12-41

CYLS AND BARRELS
1. EXAMINE FIRST FOR MAJOR FAULTS WHICH Any [one word?] the rejection of the Cyls shucl [sic] as a. louse [sic] head head joints (showe [sic] by sin [sic] of burnt or discoloured oil between the head and the barrel b. heavy bluing of the barrel c. distorted [deleted] scirt [/deleted] skirt d. cracks in cyl head e. distortion or slakness [sic] of valve seats (shown by signs of gas blowing past f. badly worn and stripped threads in [one word?] and gas starter non [one word?] valve adaptors
2. Decarbonise combustion Chamber taking care not to damage head and seals with scraper. 3 view bore of cyl barrel and work to fits and clearances and marginal notes AP 1451A Vol 2 4. Check ovality and dia with a cyl gauge fitted with (DTI) (MERCER) OR use inside mic take at least three readings in length of barrel 5. Reduction of fin cooling area of cyl head and removal of cracks from cooling fins AP 1451. G Vol 2 PART 3
NEOPRENE VIRBRATION [SIC] DAMVERS [SIC]
VALVE SEATS ALLY BRONZE LATER TYPE NGM AND NCM WITH EXHAUST STELITED SEATING SCREWED SHRUNK AND PEENED IN POSITION
SPARKING PLUG ADAPTERS EARLY TYPE ALLY/BRONZE S – S PIN IN POSITION LATTER TYPE STEEL S.S.P. HEAD HEATED IN CASTOR OIL TO 200°C ½ HRS VALVE GUIDS FITTED COLD

Removing and fitting Sparking Plug Adapter
1. Centre pop silver steel dowels
2. [word?] drilling [word missing] and drill out dowels
3. Heat head in oil at 200°C for ½ hr
4. Remove adapter with lock extractor

[page break]

5. machine a face with a face cutter
6. Test with spring loaded depth gauge
7. Machine B face with B face cutter
8. Make final check with spring loading gauge
9. Tap out (G.S .037) .009 oversize
10. It’s no3
11. Fit O>S adapter with [word?] inserting tool
12. Fit drilling jig and drill at 90° to
13. reamer holes and fit dowels
14. clean thread with 18MM tap
15. reprove inserting grove with spring loading facing cutter.


VALVE KE965 C-
STEMS NITRIDED NECK AND HEAD BRIGHT RAY TREATED ANGLE 451/2° EXHAUST SODAM [SIC] MELTING POINT 97°C BOILING POINT 883° 080MA .50 MIN FACE STELLITED INLET 45° ANGLE EXAMINE WARPT HEADS STRETCH
IF VALVE STEM FROM CYL TO WASHER AT TOP OF VALVE IS TO [SIC] LONG FIT WASHERS .050 OR .100 DISTANCE SHOULD BE 1.870 SPRING TESTING OUTSIDE 42 INT 35 INER 20LBS ALL TO PASS A GAUGE OF 1.344
TYPE OF METAL USED BY COLOUR IDENTIFICATION

[page break]

SHELTER NO 62
MECURY VIII VIII IX REAR COVER
[SKETCH OF MERCURY REAR COVER GEAR BOX]
A.P. 1491B
CROSS DRIVE SHAFT [TWO LETTERS?] OIL PUMP ON PORT SIDE ON STARBOARD TACHOMETER DRIVE THEN BTH A/COMP OR VAC PUMP THEN DUPLEX FUEL PUMP. TWO MAGS G.GEAR AUX CASING 3 AUX MARK II VAC PUMP R.A.[INSERTED] AIR [/INSERTED] COMP OR 3 STAGE H.P. OIL PUMP GENERATOR [DELETED] OIL PUMP [/DELETED] [INSERTED] CROSS DRIVE SHAFT [/INSERTED] BEARING MAGNESIUM ON OIL PUMP SIDE OTHER SIDE DEEP GROVE [SIC] BALL BEARING TAIL SHAFT BUSH BEARING PHOSPER [SIC] BRONZE W.M LINED SPRING DRIVE MAGNESIUM BUSH IN BEVEL AND ON STUB REVE MAG BEVEL DRIVE MAGNESIUM REAR BEARING PHOSPER BRONZE FRONT BEARING OF AUX MAGNESIUM REAR BEARING BALL AND BALL
HIGH INITIAL OIL PRESSURE
ON ENGINES AFTER SERIES VIII PROVISION IS MADE FOR SAFE GARDING [SIC] THE ENGINE AGAINST STARVATION DURING THE FIRST FEW MINUTES OF RUN [INSERTED] N [/INSERTED] ING. THIS CONCISTS OF A HIGH INITIAL OIL PRESSURE DEVICE INCORPORATED IN THE OIL PUMP. THE DEVICE AD TO INCREASE THE PRESSURE TO THE BEARINGS AND AT THE SAME SUPLYS OIL TO AN AUX JET MOUNTED IN THE TOP OF THE C/C AND SO POSITIONED THAT A SUPLY IS DIRECTED ON THE BIG END AND CON RODS AND PISTONS AND CYL WALLS AS TEMP RISES THE H.I.P. FALLS UNTIL THE NORMAL WORKING TEMP IS OBTAINED WHEN THE DEVICE GOES OUT OF ACTION.
VOLUTE COVER VOLUTE CASING BLOWER CASING CHECK [WORD?] CASING AND VOLUTE BY FEELERS AND BEAM GAUGES
FUEL PUMP
WITH THE GAG [INSERTED] GED [/INSERTED] DOWN AND THE PUMP RUNNING 2400 RPM CHECK RATE OF DELIEVERY [SIC] OVER A PERIOD OF 15 MIN A DEL OF FROM 200 TO 250 GALS PER HOUR UNDE SUCTION LIFT OF
[page break]

6 FEET AND A DELIVERY HEAD OF 12 FT SHOULD BE MAINTAINED. UNDER THESE CONDITIONS THE OUTLET PRESSURE SHOULD BE 6LBS/SQ” VARING [SIC] BY NOT MORE THAN A 1/4SQ” IN EITHER HALF OF THE UNIT. AFTER THE ABOVE TEST HAS BEEN MADE CHECK THE RATE OF DELIEVERY [SIC] IN EACH HALF OF THE UNIT. WITH THE PUMP RUNNING UNDER THESE CONDITIONS THE RATE OF DE NOT LESS THAN 144 [INSERTED] GALS [/INSERTED] PER HOUR SHOULD BE MAINTAINED AT EITHER SIDE OF THE UNIT. IT WILL BE [INSERTED] NECESSARY [/INSERTED] EACH HALF OF THE PUMP OF THE PUMP TO REMOVE THE DRIVEN GEAR FROM THE SPINDLE FROM THE THA HALF OF THE PUMP NOT UNDER TEST

EXTERNAL BRIGHT PARTS YELLOW GREASE AND PAPER CAMSHAFT ASSEMBLY BEFORE PACKING CLEANED AND COVERED WITH LANOLISED OIL CAM COVER BOLTED DOWN SO AS TO LEAVE [WORD?] AIR SPACE

1. ENGINES EXPECTED TO BE OUT OF USE 1 MONTH OR MORE
i. ENGINES WHICH CAN BE RUN A DRAIN THE ENGINE SUMP AND THE FUEL AND OIL TANKS FILL WITH CLEAN OIL AND D.T.D 224 B. RUN THE ENGINE AT 1,000REVS FOR 1/2HOUR C. DRAIN OIL SYSTEM AND THE SUPPLAS [SIC] FROM THE OIL SCAVENGE FROM RADIAL D. REMOVE ALL OIL AND CONDENSATION WITH SRINGE [SIC] PISTON TDC E. SPRAY EACH CYL INTERNALLY WITH ANTY [SIC] [WORD?] INHIBITER 33C/563 PISTON AT BDC ON POWER STROKE NO MORE THAN 20CC FOR EACH CYL
AS 12 TO 14 CC PER CYL
BRISTOL 16 TO 20 “
DH 6 TO 8 “
NAPIER 5 TO 6 “
ROLLS KESTREL 8 TO 10 “
ROLLS MERLIN 12 TO 16 “
PRATT AN WITNEY 12 TO 14 “
WRIGHT 16 TO 20 “
FIT DUMMY PLUGS AND BLANKING PLATES REPEAT EVERY SIX MONTHS
ii. ENGINES WHICH CAN NOT BE RUN BUT CAN BE TURNED, TURN THE ENGINE 6 TIMES BY HAND OR TEN MINS BY MECHANICAL RIG
iii. ENGINES THAT CANNOT BE TURNED PROCEED AS PAR D, E, F AND G SUCH ENGINES TO BE MADE SERVICABLE AS POS
2. ENGINES NOT OUT OF USE MORE THAN 1 WEEK ENGINES WHICH CAN BE RUN AP 1464 VOL II LEAFLET C 32
[page break]

OIL AND PETROL SYSTEM OF NAPIER DAGGER III
[SKETCH OF OIL AND FUEL SYSTEM OF NAPIER DAGGER III]
[TABLE GIVING SPECIFICATION OF AVIATION FUELS]

DISPOSAL OF FUEL AND OIL
1. PETROL SALVAGED FROM A CRASH USE IN MT
2. “ “ FROM MAC OTHER THAN A CRASH MAY BE USED FOR FLYING PURPOSE AT THE DISC OF C.O
3. “ “ SALVAGED FROM A crash at sea will be filtered and know as MT fuel grades 3 Oil taken from aircraft is sent to be cleaned or refined and is used for MT.
[page break]

RUNNING FAULTS
ENGINE FAILS TO START
IF HT SPARK CAN BE HAD IN MAIN MAG distributor IGN defective hand starter switch or circuit defective HT lead HS mag faulty contact at end of lead dirty slip ring faulty carbon brushes HS mag C/B points dirty or out of adjustment sticking rocker arm faulty or broken CB spring internal fault in mag. If no fuel can be pumped from the connection nearest the engine ineffective primer pump primer pipes broke or blocked primer jets blocked. If both sparks and priming are correct engine over or under primed
Engine starts but fails to pick up when main switch is put on defective switch or switch circuit
Fuel incorrect poss of throtal [sic] incorrect poss of fuel distribution cocks air lock in fuel supply pipe slow running jets blocked water or jet wells
Engine cut out when run on one mag defective switch defective CB faulty mag
Excessive drop in RPM when switching of one mag defective SPs defective HT leads on connection dirty worn or incorrect [word?] at CB points
Engine Vibrates Misfiring on one or more cyls from any cause due to ignition indicated by excessive drop in RPM airlock in induction system or otherwise incorrect incorrect mixture
Mechanical tappets out of adjustment uneven compressions worn reduction gear
Air screw loose on air screw shaft out of track out of balance
General Loose bearer bolts loose engine mounting loose bracing on engine bay unsteady engine R.P.M. faulty rev drive due to faulty installation sharp ends frayed drive shaft insufficient lubrication faulty RPM indicator misfiring from any cause incorrect boost reading loose breyal on gauce incorrect adjusted gate or control faulty boost control leaks in pipeline engine to control from from control to to gauge dirty filter in gauge faulty gauge
[page break]

Excessive temp incorrect poss of rad or rad shutters incorrect filling of coolant system causing air lock obstruction in pipe lines damaged water pump faulty gauge
Incorrect Oil Temp high insufficient oil in tank cooler blocked bypassed or dirty engine over heating. Incorrect oil pressure High very low temp faulty gauge Low oil press air leak on suction side of pump restriction on pipelines suction side of pump dirty oil filter pressure side of pump insufficient oil in tank oil cock incorrect relieve stuck open leck on press side faulty gauge

[sketch and calculations]
[page break]

[back cover feint drawings and calculations]

Collection

Tags

Citation

Ernie Twells, “Ernie Twells' notebook,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed November 28, 2021, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/7656.

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