Roy Briggs training notes

MBriggsR1893726-160226-02.pdf

Title

Roy Briggs training notes

Description

A notebook containing Roy Brigg's handwritten notes. It covers electrical theory, batteries, radio transmitters, radio procedures and fighter operations.

Creator

Publisher

IBCC Digital Archive

Contributor

Tricia Marshall
David Bloomfield

Rights

This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.

Format

30 handwritten sheets

Language

Identifier

MBriggsR1893726-160226-02

Transcription

[underlined] 1893726 F/S BRIGGS R [/underlined]
CLASS 61 A
NAVAL NO. s400
R.A.F. Form 619
ROYAL AIR FORCE
Notebook for use in Schools
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
[underlined] TECHNICAL [/underlined]
[underlined] MOLECULE [/underlined] Smallest part of a compound which can exist as that compound
[underlined] COMPOUND [/underlined] a combination of two or more elements.
[underlined] Element [/underlined] is one of 92 subtances [sic] making a compound
[underlined] ASTOM [/underlined] Smallest indivisible part of an element
Proton positive charge Electron is negative charge.
[diagram]
A substance with a large number of free elections is a good conductor of electricity, a substance with very few free elections is a bad conductor or insulator
ELECTRIC CURRENT
a uniform motion of free electrons in a conductor
OHMS LAW STATES THAT
the current is directly proportioned to applied force and inversely protortional [sic] to the resistance of the curcuit [sic], provided
[page break]
the temperature remains constant
[diagram]
[formulae]
[underlined] Ammeter [/underlined] always connected in series with curcuit [sic], and must have low resistance
[underlined] VOLT METER [/underlined] always connected in parallel with E M F to be measured. and should have a very high resistance
COULOMB = UNIT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITY 1019
JOULE = UNIT OF WORK
The total work done in Joules = Coulombs x volts
WATT is the unit of electrical power Joules/SEC = watts or the rate at which work is done
Amp = Colilombs/sec Coulombs = amps x Sec’s. Joules = Amps x Secs x Volts WATTS = AMPS X VOLTS
[page break]
1 horse power is equal to 746 watts
W = V x I W = 12 x R W = V2/R
[diagram] is used to vari [sic] current
POTENTIOMETER or POTMETER
[diagram] is used to vari [sic] Voltage
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CELL
Primary is dry and is only used once, Secondary cell are wet and are reused
[diagram] + Carbon – zinc
Electrolyte Sal Ammoniac 1 ammonium [deleted] clor [/deleted] chloride Voltage 1.5 Polarisation/Hydrogen film on cordon
[page break]
Manganese Dioxide is mixed with carbon powdered to depolarise, is used in pourus [sic] pot
[diagram]
1.5 VOLTS 15 M.A. (MAX CURRENT
Fuses are used to protect the power supplies to a curcuit [sic]
INERT CELL [diagram] for putting in distilled water
[diagram] inept use as Grid Bias Battery or in field Telephone
PRIMARY cell Disadvantages. cant be [deleted] Distill [/deleted] recharged, very small current [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] from it (15 min) for any time.
Local action. Advantages, portable (dry & can be stored (inert cell)
[page break]
Maxwell’s corkscrew rule [symbols]
lines of force in a Solenoid [diagram]
Electro magnetic induction or (EmI)
SECONDARY CELLS or ACCUMULATORS
Types lead acid and Nickel-Ackaline [sic]
LEAD ACID ACC [diagram] – is grey coulour [sic] + is chocolate Brown
When plates discharge they alter to lead Sulphate the discharged V is 1.8v
fully charged on charge 2.6 to 2.7
[brackets] fully charged off load 2.1V to 2.2V
on load 2V [brackets] 1.270 S.G
[brackets] Discharged on load 1.8
off load 1.85 to 1.9 V [brackets] 1.190 S G
[page break]
S.G. The weight of the volume of liquid, is the same as the weight of water
Specific Gravity 1.840 Sulphurate acid is diluted with distilled water S.G. used in the RAF 1.270
DIFFERENT TYPES OF RAF
GROU[inserted]N[/inserted]D STATION ACC lead acid
2v7AH celluloid container used with Wave meters
2v9AH Glass container for use with R1084
[brackets] 6v 80AH Black moulded composite container
12v 55AH [brackets] are M.T Accs
[brackets] 6v 180 AH
6v 230 AH
12v 100 AH [/brackets] Trolley accs aero engine starting on ground
A/c acc maximum capacity for minimum size and weight, capable of heavy discharge, and fitted with unspilable vent
[brackets] 2v 14AH 2 1/2 square
2v 20AH rectangular
6v 20AH 3 2v20 in Series
12v 15AH has wing nut terminals
12v 25AH Sleeve connections
12v 40AH [/brackets] A/c type B.
[brackets] 12v 25 lug type fitting heavyer [sic] Buss bar
12v 40 [/brackets] A/C type D
Type D capable of heavyer [sic] discharge and Heavyer [sic] S.G.1285 than type B 12.25 charged at three amps 12.40 5 amps
[page break]
initial charge, inspect acc for cracks etc very carefully, and particular attention to vent to see if seal is broken, (and saves hydration) if doing an initial charge get the makers instructions and obey them
1.840 to 1350
1840 seal distilled water, protective clothing and n[inserted]e[/inserted]utralizer for Sulphurate Acid, (Sodium [deleted] Carbate [/deleted] Carbonate and Ammonia) the mixing vessel should either be glass or glazed earthenware. or lead lined container. hydrometer & Thermoter [sic] and a mixing rod. never add water to 1840. Pour the distilled water into mixing vessel first then allow 1840 to trickle in slowly, and mix with mixing rod. temperature should be 60o Far (increased decreased S.G.) S.G goes down -001 for every 2 1/2o above Sixty
fill accs with Sulphr[deleted]ate[/deleted][inserted]ic[/inserted] Acid and allow to stand for at least twelve hours. all topping up must be done with Sulphur[deleted]ate[/deleted][inserted]ic[/inserted] acid during initial charge. plates must be covered by 3/16 of Sulphuric Acid
[page break]
[underlined] HYDROMETER [/underlined]
[drawing]
10 hr rate is the rate at which [deleted] an acc [/deleted] current can be taken from an acc to bring it from a fully charged to a fully discharged condition in ten hours to obtain maximum efficiency
Initial Supply source of Supply is a metal rectifier 36 v 50a DC rectifier 1800v type B charging board (Switch [inserted] fuse [/inserted] [deleted] Variable ammeter [/deleted] ammeter variable resistance terminals)
Type B [symbols]
Maximum number of cells on type B [deleted] be [/deleted] is twelve to a curcuit [sic], 36 2v 20 12 6v 80 6 12v 40 to a charging board. +/1 positive lead to be as short as poss. accs must be connected in Series with each other and
accs must stand on parrafin [sic] wax wooden grids, on lead covered benches, lead should be earthed. see that vare resistance is
[page break]
fully over to left. see that ammeter is in correct curcuit [sic]. switch on rectifier fully charge when cell begin to gas, when the Voltage is between 2.6 and 2.7 per cell. when the S.G is at the Value given by makers instruction and voltage and S.G have remain [sic] constant for one hour.
POSITIVE – NEGATIVE
Charged chocolate brown – Discharged lighter brown
Slate grey – Dark grey
use moving coil centre zero voltimeter centre zero moving coil double scale test each cell separately
[underlined] Sulphation [/underlined] is a formation of hard Lead Sulphate on plates of accs. (on charging acc, charge the acc until S.G is 1270 or 3)
Signs of Sulphation, when the S.G does not rise on charge, High voltage on charge. Plates have a white crystalline deposite [sic]
cause of Sulphate. By allowing the acc to stand in a discharged state to [sic] long. by persistant [sic] undercharging or by persistantly [sic] discharging to [sic] Slowly, it May be cured by a long slow charge. 1/4 to 1/3 normal rate
[page break]
[underlined] Shedding [/underlined] is the last of active material, caused by overcharging. iE charging at to [sic] high a rate, for to [sic] long a period or discharging at to [sic] high a rate
[underlined] Hydration [/underlined] is a deposit of impurities on the plates caused by exposing them to the air mainly though [sic] careless topping up. it can be cured by a prolonged charged [sic]
NICKLE ALKALI
Electrolyte caustic potash = potassium hydroxide + plate N1 (OM) 2 -ve Cd + FE
basis metal is Nickle steel container +ve plate is thickest of two. the positive plate is alway [sic] locking the container making of + potential S.G. not be below 1160 and not above 1220 S.G best S.G. is 1.170 at 60oF
V1.25 nickle alkali is stronger and more robust than lead acid cell. has much longer life. and doesnt [sic] suffer from [inserted] lead [/inserted] acc faults (sulphation hydration Shedding) recommended by makers to charge at ten hr rate. doesnt [sic] suffer so much from temperature changes (.001 for every 4o above or below)
Disadvantages low voltage, gasses as same as put on charge. only way to tell if its charged is by volt
[page break]
reading. Nickle alkali cells are clumbersome must not be discharged below 1v 7v on charged
[underlined] Milnes Unit [/underlined] is a 120 volt H.T. supply its capcity [sic] 600 m a hours. it replaces ordinary H.T. Battery on the ground. where high anode current may be required.
its [sic] the HT supply for R1084
composed of 96 nickle alkali cells are arranged in 24 banks of 4 cells in series the S.G. of the Milnes Unit should be 1190 at 60oF theres [sic] a layer of mineral oil a 1/4 of an inch thick in each of the 96 cells to protect the electrolyte from Carbonic acid gas
fully charged on charge 1.75v per cell
fully charged off charge 1.25v per cell
fully charged on load 1.1 to [deleted] [indecipherable number] [/deleted] 2v
fully discharged on load not below one [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] [inserted] 1V [/inserted]
[page break]
OSCILATORY CURCUIT [sic]
[drawing]
Carbon Microphone
[drawing]
Electro Magnetic Microphone]
[drawing]
Electro Magnetic earpiece
[drawing]
[page break]
SIMPLE RECEIVER
[diagram]
Radiations are know [sic] as Electro Magnetic Wave
Need freq of 40000 c/p/s (or 40 kc/s (approx.) and are known as Radio freq or R F
Audable [sic] freq are 30 to 16000 c/s
[diagram]
Only the audio freq comes out of the detector
HETRODYNING mixing of two freq to produce a thrid [sic] freq, which is the difference of the other two
[diagram]
[page break]
[diagram]
Super-sonic Heterodyning or Super Het getting a higher frequency from Mixer
[diagram]
You need a large number of tuned OCT as you cant [sic] use large number of controls, you change your Signal to fixed tuned CCTS
[diagram]
C.W. [symbol] RF only MCW [symbol]
R/T Radio Telephony
[page break]
[deleted] Advantg [/deleted] Advantages of Super Het. Selectivity
1084 LT is supplied from 2v90 power consum [sic] 2a, HT 120v consumtion [sic]30 m a [deleted] b [/deleted] 2 HT batteries in [deleted] par [/deleted] [inserted] parallel [/inserted] emergency or normaly [sic] a miles unit, or Mains Battery eliminator Type A [underlined] Note [/underlined] eliminator must be on and neon inside glowing befor [sic] set is switched on Grid Bias three 6v Batteries in Series giving 18v [inserted] Power supply 40 ma fuse in NT + [/inserted] Freq range 120 AAcs to 20 mes 11 sets of coils four coil in a set,
120 to 20000 Kcs
TUNE
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] insert correct coils
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] check power supplies
[underlined] [deleted] 3 [/deleted] [/underlined] Super het setting for M C W & R/T
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] Super Het switches in ([underlined] 2 switches [/underlined])
[underlined 2 [/underlined] Filter out (used for C.W.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Het osc off (used for CW on Super Het)
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] R.F osc on
5 S.F Volume con to Seven
6 RF osc Vol con to Maximum (8)
7 RF Vol con to Maximum (8)
[page break]
[underlined] 8 [/underlined] All S.F. switches except SF [underlined] 1 [/underlined] and Det [underlined] 2 [/underlined] to Standby
[underlined] 9 [/underlined] Set RF ganged condenser to chart
[underlined] 10 [/underlined] Set Second R.F trimmer to reading at Bottom of chart, first and third approx. same setting
[underlined] 11 [/underlined] /set RF osc to full line [deleted] of [/deleted] [inserted] on [/inserted] chart
[underlined] 12 [/underlined] RF osc fine tuning set at [underlined] 100 [/underlined]
[underlined] 13 [/underlined] Switch on
[underlined] 14 [/underlined]A[inserted]d[/inserted]just R/F main Tuning to max Signal
[underlined] 15 [/underlined] Tune R/F ganged condenser to Signal
[underlined] [deleted] 16 [/deleted] [/underlined] reduce S.F. volume control if to [sic] loud
[underlined] 16 [/underlined] adjust 1st 3rd & 2nd trimmers to Max Signal
[underlined] 17 [/underlined] Switch all S.F. switches to Tune repeat 14, 15, 16
[underlined] Tuning checks [/underlined] RF osc fine tuning at 100 and [underlined] max [/underlined] signal at 100, 1st 3rd & 2nd trimmers for Max [deleted] curcuit [sic] [/deleted] signal
[page break]
R1084
[diagram]
1ST SF = 40 Mcs
2ND SF = 167 Mcs
(180 Kcs on cons)
2 R.F.A.s 4 SFA and the Isolator are Tetrode
RF osc, mixer 2nd Det AF amp output
BFO are triode
[calculations]
[page break]
TUNEING [sic] R1084 straight for [deleted] WC6 [/deleted] [inserted] MCW [/inserted] & R/T coils and power Supplies as for Super Het
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] [deleted] SF [/deleted] Super Het switches out
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] filter out
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] Het osc out
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] RF osc off
[underlined] 5 [/underlined] SF vol con zero
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] F/F [inserted] osc [/inserted] vol con zero
[underlined] 7 [/underlined] R/F vol con Max 8
8 Set RF ganged condenser to chart
[underlined] 9 [/underlined] Set 2ND R/F trimmer to reading at bottom of chart first and third trimmer approx the same
[underlined] 10 [/underlined] Switch on
[underlined] 11 [/underlined] adjust RF ganged condenser 1, 3, 2 trimmers to max signal
R1188
[diagram]
[page break]
[underlined] Controls [/underlined]
X xtol gate selectivity control
[symbol] xtol phasing control should be adjusted to min back ground raise when x is in position [underlined] 1 [/underlined]
TR Transmitt [sic] receive switch when on Transmitt [sic] the remote TX is switched on RX is off
S R.F vol con max for R/T M.C.W. and used only on C.W.
left hand [symbol] Main tuning Control Dial in Mcs
(.54 mcs to 31 mcs Freq Range)
[inserted] R [/inserted] Wave change switch six ranges no [underlined] 1 [/underlined] the lowest
Y Aerial trimmer adjusted to Max Sig when Set is tuned in
[symbol] Band spread tuning used on Ranges 3,4,5,6. gives fine tuning [underlined] note [/underlined] main tuning is accurate when Band Spread tuning is at its high freq end
NFB AVC BPO Selector switch NFB – feed back gives high quality on R/T
[underlined] A.V.C. [/underlined] atomatic [sic] Volume Control used for normal R/T and M.C.W.
[underlined] B.F.O. [/underlined] Beat free osc used for C.W.
V off on off sw and Vol con operated for MCW and R/T, placed at max for C.W.
H Het osc con adjust the freq of Beat note
N noise limiter [inserted] on C.W. [/inserted] normaly [sic] off. is adjusted to a few degrees away from point at which it affects the signal – when interference and static is encountered
[page break]
Tuning to R/T switch on place vol con at 3/4 S to max TR to R
SIMPLE TRANSMITTER
[diagram]
PA is to protect MO from aerial, to increase power, and to mix RF from MO and [deleted] R [/deleted] A.F from modulator which amplifies the signal from Mic
Frequency Stability
[drawing] quartz has a Piero electric effect
El[inserted]e[/inserted]ctro Magnetic Earpiece
The diaphragm is permanently attracted by the magnet, and this attraction will be either increased or decreased according to direction of current i.e. according to the A.F current Thus it will vibrate at the freq of alternating current
[page break]
Electro magnetic Microphone
The diaphragm cut the magnetic field, or compresses it. as the diaphragm moves the Magnetic field moves and cuts the coil. we therefore get an E.M.F.
[table of Tx and Rx Diodes]
[page break]
T.R. 1196
[diagram]
Freq Range 4.3 to 6.7 mc/s
Communication Range Air to Air 35 mls and Air to ground 50
1p freq is H60 mcs
Power Supplies a motor generator input 24 output 6.3v L.T for Tx 7 Rx 275 v HT Rx) (250v Tx HT)
full A.V.C. on R.F amp and F.C. half on 9.F. amp
A.1134. is used as an [deleted] AF [/deleted] intercom amplifier on Bomber Aircraft.
Power supplies L.T. 2v20 HT 120v GB 4 1/2 v dry Battery which is kept inside the A1134.
The Af amp is a triode and fuels two output (Pentode). The two out puts are in a curcuit [sic] known as push pull which gives a large output
[page break]
[diagram]
SIMPLE GENERATOR
Strength of EMF depends on the speed of movement of conductor, strength of Magnetic field.
[page break]
V.H.F. or Very high Frequency [deleted] at [/deleted] RAF band of VHF 100 to 126 mgs
X tal Range 5.5 to 70 mgs/100 to 120 miles at 1
Advantage of VHF over H.F.
Practically no interference
Communication only over optical Range
100 miles with A/C at 1000 ft
Exclusive
1 Kc Fundamental or 1st Harmonic
2 Kcs 2nd Harmonic
3 Kcs 3rd Harmonic
[diagram]
INPUT Power supply 230v 50 c/s A/C
OUTPUT H.T. 300v & 1000v
L.T 6.3v & 7.5v
Emergency p.u: Meadows Petrol Electric Set
Power output 50 watts
[page break]
100 to 124
on Modulator unit reading 55 m g when [deleted] sk [/deleted] speaking it should go up to [deleted] 20 [/deleted] 150
G1 and G2 must not have a difference of 2 ma
[diagram]
Precautions before Tuneing
Close rear door
Switch to half power
Switch to local
see that plug Mic is out
Controls to zero except Neut
Check x tal 5.5 to 7 m c/s
Main facts
99 to 126 m c/s
40 – 50 Watts output
A.C. Supplies 230v 50 [indecipherable letter]
Remote Control
Checks after tuneing [sic]
(1) That C1YC2 = [deleted] 6 [/deleted] 170 m g (if not adjust couple)
Max dif C1YC2 = 6 MA G [indecipherable number] GR = 2 m/a
Switch to Mon 3 to 8 MA
(3) HT off and on Note mets reading
4 Local modulation quantity, quality
5 White lines on tuneing [sic] control must all be in approx. some [indecipherable word]
Loud speech 190 ma
Average 100 to 150 ma
[page break]
R1132 is a VHF ground receiver, is a Super Het
[diagram]
Pu Type 4A M.G. fun from 6v80AN acc output some [deleted] input to A1132 [/deleted] as type 3 input 6v 7 amps 220v 30ma 6.3 v 35 amps
PU type 3 used from mains input 200 to 250v
50 c/s AC output 200 to 220 v 50 to 55 ma (HT) DC
6.3v, 3.5 amps (LT)AC
R1188 (RCA – AR77E) later version R1556 (R CR, AR881)
[diagram]
freq 540 kcs 31 mgs a/c mains 105 to 250v
50 to 60 c/s power 70 watts
[page break]
TR1143A[diagram]
[page break]
type 5A test set used for tuneing [sic] Tx and Rx
[diagram]
A CE G J K are off B is Rx AVC D Tx anode
F Tx output [deleted] [indecipherable letter] [/deleted] H.T. Volts H LT volts M check oscillator
Test Set type II
[diagram] Tune for dip when you test for Modulation reading should go down
Power Supplies HT 60v DRY L.T 1.5v Dry
Test Set type 98
[diagram]
[page break]
[underlined] PANEL TYPE 4A [/underlined]
[diagram]
PANAL [sic] TYPE 3A
[diagram]
[page break]
TR 1143
TRANSMITTER
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] insert x tal & 5A meter plug – 5A to Trans anode
2 Select channel to be tuned 3 S/R switch to T
4 left P switch to release position 5 reengage P switch
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] turn meter sw to posn 1 and tune TC [underlined] 1 [/underlined] for max reading
[underlined] 7 [/underlined] repeat with 2,3,4,5, [underlined] 8 [/underlined] Turn meter sw to posn [underlined] 6 [/underlined]
9 adjust 4,3,2,1 TC for max in posn [underlined] 6 [/underlined]
10 turn TC [underlined] 1 [/underlined] clockwise to reduse [sic] reading by 10 per cent
[underlined] 11 [/underlined] If still above 50 reduce to 50, if below 35 in posn 6 u/s for air use [underlined] 12 [/underlined] left Psw to release posn
13 Turn controls fully clockwise tighten milled whales
14 Rv engage “P” sw [underlined] 15 [/underlined] Check that meter still reads the same sw off remove meter plug
Receiver
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] insert x tal 540 Kcs below Tx [underlined] 2 [/underlined] Insert Tx xtal in 50 – set 5A tuneing [sic] approx., vol con man, check osc:- minimum Reading 40 sw to Rx AVC. [underlined] 3 [/underlined] Insert meter lead select channel
4 left P sw, loosen wheels by not more than 1 1/2 5 re engage P sw, check that xtal in 5A is [deleted] 5 [/deleted] 40 Kcs above Rx
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Set TC7 at mid way put on phones. [underlined] 7 [/underlined] rotate TC6 for a slight dip or note in phones [underlined] 8 [/underlined] rotate TC7 to give dip in meter or loudest note in phones.
[underlined] 9 [/underlined] reduce TC6 for further dip [underlined] 10 [/underlined] rotate TC8 for improved dip, if no change leave it in Same posn at TC7 [underlined] 11 [/underlined] [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] release sw tighten wheels
[underlined] 12 [/underlined] re engage “P” sw and check that signal is still heard [underlined] 13 [/underlined] sw off and disconnect and sw off type 5A
[page break]
RADIO [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted [inserted] VEHICLE [/inserted] TYPE 105A
Mobile DF waggon used as fixer or homer has in vehicle [deleted] to [/deleted] Panal [sic] type 7A R1132A TR1143A six v accs 12v accs charging board, petrol electric set, [inserted] Dipole [/inserted] Aerial System, Power unit type 4A, Prismatic compass, 5 wooden poles, P.U. Type 15 60 ft steel tape measure, and Six inch ordance [sic] map
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
four strokes if the piston equals to revolution of shank shaft which equals one cycle of operation
the strokes are [symbol] 1 Induction Stroke [symbol] 2 compression [symbol] 3 expansion [symbol] 4 Exhaust the strokes in detail
Induction Stroke
1 inlet valve open
2 exhaust valve closed
3 piston moving down
4 gasses being [inserted] shown [/inserted] into cylinder
5 the crank shaft completed 1/2 revolution
[deleted] Expansion [/deleted] Stroke Compression
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] with valves closed
[underlined] 2 [/underlined] piston descending
3 gasses being compressed
4 near top of stroke spark occurs
5 the crank shaft has completed one rev
[page break]
[diagram]
[page break]
Expansion
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] both valves closed 2 gas ignited and expanding [underlined] 3 [/underlined] piston being forced down 4 near bottom of stroke exhaust valve open 5 crank shaft completed 1 1/2 revs
Exhaust
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] exhaust Valve open [underlined] 2 [/underlined] inlet valve closed
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] piston moving up [underlined] 4 [/underlined] burned gasses being forced out 5 crank completed two revs
black smoke from exhaust denotes a rich mixture blue smoke from exhaust denotes oil being burn [sic] in combustion comber, spilling at carbu denotes a weak mixtures
[page break]
[diagram] [calculations]
[diagram]
[page break]
STEEL IRON [inserted] COBALT [/inserted] ETC FERROUS METAL
(copper anti Magnetic)
Magnet have a north and South poles. Like poles repel and unlike poles [deleted] attack [/deleted] attract
Magnetic lines of force move from North to South
Permeability Soft Iron strengthens magnetic field, hard Steel lowers Permeability
Retentivity the holding of magnetic free soft Iron low, Retentivity of hard Steel is High
Flemings Left hand rule, first finger in direction of current flow 2nd finger in direction of magnetic field and thumb shows the mo[inserted]ve[/inserted]ment of conductor
[deleted] Field [/deleted] MOTORS
FIELD [symbol] PERM E. Mag
Armature
Commutator
Brushes
[page break]
if winding clockwise current in polarity South is nearest
[diagram]
Galvanometer or aglvo
[diagram]
[table]
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
[underlined] R/T [/underlined]
[underlined] PROCEDURE [/underlined]
[underlined] R/T messages [/underlined] three main parts HEADING TEXT ENDING
[underlined] HEADING [/underlined] call, Precedence Designation, Transmission Instructions, Address, Group Count
[underlined] TEXT [/underlined] SUBJECT
Vectors Direction to fly Angels height
a/s air speed 250 followed by any further instructions, and then any further information
Vector one two three angle twelve a/s two fifty
[underlined] ENDING [/underlined] Over Out
[underlined] Pilots Personal Number [/underlined]
Given to pilot on arrival at Station, always a number between fourteen and ninety nine. When under training pilots are given numbers over 100, numbers under 14 are given to V.I.P’s. Pilots relinquishes number when leaving a Station.
P.P.N is only used between Air and ground, and is [deleted] sko [/deleted] spoken as two separate numerals.
CHOICE OF R/T CALLS SIGN
O/S should have two syllables [circled 2] should begin and end with explosive consonants. [circled 3] must not be names of places or towns etc
[page break]
ACKNOWLEDGING R/T MESSAGE
[circled 1] REPEAT message back [circled 2] Roger [circled 3] Wilco
“Roger” I have received and Understood your last transmission
“Wilco” I have received your last instructions and Will comply
When pilot receives Vector Angles A/S he will always repeat back.
P pitch (pitch voice slightly higher than normal)
A accuracy (make sure you know what you are going to say
R rhythm
I intensity
S speed
D/R POSITION
is a weather report
V isability in miles
A amount of cloud in [deleted] th [/deleted] tenths
T Height of top of cloud in thousands of feet
B of cloud in thousands of feet
DARKY ORG[deleted]Z[/deleted]ANIZATION
Hello Darky (3) this is Major Dog (3) are you receiving me (2) Hello Major Dog (2) this is Darky (2) Hello Nemo (2) this is Darky (2)
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CODE WORD ABB
SCRAMBLE scr Take off and [deleted] orbit [/deleted] [inserted] circle [/inserted] Base
SCRAMBLE 234 scr 234 Take off and [deleted] set [/deleted] [inserted] fly on a [/inserted] course of 234o
ANGELS A Height in thousands of feet
ORBIT [symbol] Circle and search (usually Port or STBD)
VECTOR V Change direction to … (followed by 3 figures)
VECTOR PORT V prt Change direction left (number of degrees given
VECTOR Starboard V Sta Change direction Right (number of degrees given
Steer str Set magnetic course [deleted] indicated for home [/deleted] [inserted] (used only when homing [/inserted]
Quilt qlt above [inserted] the [/inserted] cloud
Popeye pop In the cloud
Mattress mat Below [inserted] the [/inserted] cloud
[deleted] pancake [/deleted] pk [deleted] Return to base refuel and rearm [/deleted] Land
[deleted pancake ammo [/deleted] pk ammo [deleted] I am going to land owing to shortage of ammo [/deleted] [inserted] Land and rearm [/inserted]
[deleted] Pancake fuel [/deleted] pk fuel [deleted] I am going to land owing to shortage of fuel [/deleted] [inserted] Land and refuel [/inserted]
[deleted] Pancake hurt pk hurt I am going to land because I am hurt [/deleted]
[deleted] Bandit (S) bt (S) Identified enemy a/c (usually bomber) [/deleted] [inserted] type unknown [/inserted]
[deleted] RAT (S) rt (S) Identified enemy fighter aircraft [/deleted]
[deleted] Hawk (S) hk (S) Identified enemy dive Bomber [/deleted]
[deleted] Snappers snp (S) Identified enemy fighter bomber [/deleted]
[deleted] Bogey Bogies bg Unidentified A/C, Investigate with caution [/deleted]
[deleted] Tally Ho T/H Enemy Sighted (never acknowledged [/deleted] [inserted] A/c and identified as hostile [/inserted]
[deleted] Booty bty Protected shipping or convoys [/deleted] [inserted] Convoy or protected shipping [/inserted]
[deleted] indecipherable word] tst Unidentified A/C detected by sea bound Radar [/deleted] [inserted] located ship [/inserted]
[deleted] Teamlines tls Standard [/deleted] beam approach
[deleted] liner lin fly at most economical cruising speed [/deleted]
[page break]
fly as slowly as possible without loseing [sic] height
[deleted] saunter [/deleted] san [deleted] fly at lowest speed to maintain height [/deleted]
[deleted] Buster [/deleted] bus fly at [deleted] maximum cruising [deleted] [inserted][deleted] normal full [/inserted] [/deleted] Speed
[deleted] Gate [/deleted] gat [deleted] fly at maximum speed (no of min given not more than five [/deleted] [inserted] [deleted] increase speed flat out for maximum of 5 min [/inserted] [/deleted]
Oranges Sweet osw Weather [deleted] is good [/deleted]. at Base is good
Oranges Sour osr Weather [deleted] is bad [/deleted] at Base is Bad
[deleted] Pigeons [/deleted] pig [deleted] you course from base and distance in miles is … [/deleted] [inserted] the magnetic bearing and distance of your Base from you is – o – mls [/inserted]
Base B Home Airfield
Roger R I have received and understood your last transmission
Wilco W I have received and understood your last instrucion [sic] and will comply
R Code of Signal strength
R [underlined] 1 [/underlined] Hardly perceptible – [deleted] Undr [/deleted] Unreadable
R2 Weak – readably [sic] now and then
R3 Fair – Readable but with difficulty
R4 Good – Readable
R5 Very good – Perfectly Readable
WUN
TOO
THUR – EE
FIY – IV
SIX
SEV – EN
ATE
NINER
ZERO
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rurm are you receiving me
rulc receiving you loud and clear
rur 4 receiving you Strength 4
msg message
s/off off Switching off, off
L/O Listening out
ksl Keep sharp look out
nft Night flying test
a/b Airborne
A/c Aircraft
u/c Undercarriage
A/s Air Speed
U/S Unserviceable
S/by Stand by
Imm Immediate (ly)
vic Vicinity
xmt Transmitt [sic]
xmn Transmission
T/xmn Tuning Transmission
s/a Say again
sn Section
flt Flight
sq Squadron
prt Port
sta Starboard
req request requested requesting required
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app approach ed ing
em Emergency
pr Practice
inv Investigate
r/w Runway
proc Proceed (ed) (ing) procedure
bmb Bomber
formn Formation
fr from, friendly
ech Echelon
pat Patrol
ch channel
dis disperse (ed) (ing) dispersal
rep repeat (ed) (ing)
yr your
as assist ed ing assistant
coop co-operate ed ing
ov Over (not the ending over
und understand ing understood
pos position ed ing
F/P Flare path
F/B Forward Base
F/L Flood light
H/B Homing or Home Bearing
S/L Search light
P/L Patrol line
C correct
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A/A Anti Aircraft
B/B Balloon Barrage
L/ab line abreast
L/ast line astern
L/[deleted]AH[/deleted][inserted]ah[/inserted] line ahead
SBC Signals Book Correct
N Log when no answer is received
? Logged when what is received is not Understood
SQUADRON ORG
[organisation chart]
[page break]
4 sections [organisation chart]
6 Section [organisation chart]
[inserted] Point to Point [/inserted]
Precedence (pro word) a word used to take the place of Pro-sign as used in other method of communication, [underlined] RESPonce [sic] [/underlined]
an answer is what is made by operator when a signal is sent to him
reply a message arriving out of previous acknowledgement a message to indicate that a previous message has been received and understood, Receipt indication that signal or message has been received
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Pancake pk Land
pancake ammo pk ammo Land rearm
pancake fuel land and refuel
Bogie bg Unidentified a/c approaching and investigate with caution
Tally Ho T/H A/c sighted and identified as hostile (never acknowledged
Boaty bty convoy or protected shipping
Toast tst Unidentified a/c located by ship borne radar
Tramlines tls Beam approach
Liner lin Fly at most ecomical [sic] speed
saunter san fly as slowly as possible without losing height
Buster bus fly at normal full speed
Gate gat increase speed flat out for maximum of 5 min
pigeons pig the magnetic Bearing and distance of your Base in – o – mls
Bandits bt identified enemy A/C type unknown
Rats rt identified enemy fighter A/C
snappers snp enemy fighter bomber
Hawk hk dive bomber
Priorities
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14 fighter groups split up into Sectors
TYPICAL SECTOR
[diagram]
Difficult Communications
[list of numbers and letters]
[page break]
[underlined] FIGHTER OPERATION ROOM [/underlined]
[diagram]
[page break]
[underlined] Fighter operations Room [/underlined]
The deputy controllers have panell [sic] type 4A, ([underlined] 1 [/underlined]) conducts all practic [sic] flights, (2) gives initial vectors to a/c before handing over to controller. Ops A has a telephone to group, receives all operational information from group, writes information down in form “A” which she hands to the controller.
Ops B receives form a from Controller and (one) Tannoys squadron to scramble (2) files form A (3) she gives all operational information [deleted] from [/deleted] to group (4) is in communicatio9n by landline with homer D.F. (5) she supervises the tote
D.S.O. he has panel 10A He is responsible for all radio equipment
TRUE [deleted] Magnetic [/deleted] Bearing black marking on loop used for fixing
Class 1 2o 2 4o class 3 6o
TIME QUADRANT C/S BEARING class SERIAL No
H/B read on Red scale [deleted] true [/deleted] [inserted] magnetic repisnicol [/inserted] Bearings
first fix 2 1st bearing 1st bearing 2nd fix 3rd fix if no first bearings
[page break]
VHF EQUIPMENT LAYOUT IN A FIGHTER SECTOR
[diagram]
Channel allocation of TR1143 in day & Night fighters
DAY
A offensive sweeps [inserted] opps room for /inserted] offensive sweep ops [underlined] 1 [/underlined]
B D/F Homer & flying control tower ops 2
C Groupo guard
D CONTROLLER & Fixer
GROUP SECTOR ops Room
NIGHT
A D/F Homer [inserted] Flying control [/inserted]
B GCI
C World guard 116.1 mc/s
D Controller & D/F fixer
E Group guard (1)
F Group guard (2)
G GCI adjacent sector
H 2nd (sector adjacent second)
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Priority
[underlined] Most immediate [/underlined] OU a member of air council or A.D.C.
No time delay
Emergency Air att OA any body who is in charge
no time delay
O emergency G.C. and above
15 min at each Station
O-P immediate a.c. adj can authorize
30 min at each Station
P Important S/L rank
45 min
Realtime
D [deleted] Defeff [/deleted] Deferred 48 hrs to overseas or 9 O/C next morning in this country
[underlined] Transmission instructions [/underlined]. Do not answer Read back. Relay to. [underlined] Address [/underlined] to Action [symbol] Information [symbol] [underlined] Date line [/underlined] Group Count
[underlined] TEXT [/underlined] Subject, Acknowledge
[underlined] Correction [//underlined] means when correction is being made to previous message, Correct Version
[page break]
All befor [sic] or All after used for part of messaged [sic], Disregard this xmission out (figures or numerals. I spell. Silence generally Control Station: Unknown Station c/s Verify Wait if [deleted] yo [/deleted] used alone, used for few second, long wait. Wait out. Words twice
Signals Office Organisation
Traffic [inserted] office [/inserted] clerk, signals officers, room cypher operating room. T/P room. PBX
Date place stamp. priority stamps. NODECO. Acknowledge
PERSONAL to be delivered to officer only named in address. Signal Service, not to go outside Sig organisation
For Exercise NOT W/T not to be sent by W/T or R/T along any part of journey. Not W/T secret by T/P lines only.
FORM 797 MESSAGE LOG
DATE PLACE
[table]
METHOD
OUT
W/TT/P
Signature & remarks
P cypher
[page break]
Form 2526 1A is a message form.
Security Classification
TOP [deleted] SERE [/deleted] SECRET always sent by cypher. Decoded only by officer
SECRET, Confidential, Restricted may be sent by P/L along any [inserted] land [/inserted] line, if land line is secure enough. if land line not secure enough messaged [sic] must be cypher up and sent by W/T
[deleted] Unrestricted [/deleted], [inserted] Unclassified [/inserted] can be send [sic] by P/L by any means. either so important that time cannot be spent coding or so unimportant that it doesnt [sic] matter
Originators Instructions
O.T.P. one time progress means only one cypher to be used. To provide a permant [sic] cypher to safe guard another cypher
[diagram]
[diagram]
[page break]
IN operator 1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 3
Superintendant [sic] 7
Traffic Clerk 4, 5, 6, 19
OUT
Originator 7, 8, 9, 10, 4, 11, 12, 13, 14.
Traffic clerk 18, 19, 5, 5, 3.
Superintendant [sic] 2.
operator 16, 17
If message goes by two route, operator uses 17.
A through message, if in & out by W/T
in operator 1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15
Super 7, 2
[deleted] Traffic [/deleted] out operator 16, 17.
Traffic clerk 6, 5, 19Traffic clerk in message 4,5,6,19 4 5 6 19
out 18,19, 6, 5, 3 3 5 6 1819
through message 6, 5, 19 5 6 19
[page break]
R/T GROUND TO AIR CALL SIGN
with certain exceptions noted below, the use of code names as airfield R/T ground to air call signs is to be discontinue forthwith
In futer [sic] the R/T ground to air civil call sign will consist of the Airfield place name followed by suffic [sic] denoting facility offered. Where a place name proves unsuitable a shorter version of the name [deleted] must [/deleted] may be engaged and H.Q informed
Tower – Airfield control FIXER – VHF Stn
Homer VHF D/F Homer Station
[deleted] NAVIAD [/deleted] NAV AID VHF D/F Stn providing vectors, but not suitable for use as fixer or homer
Director – GCA stacking and marshalling of A/C
Talkdown – GCA final landing
Approach VHF approach control
Caravan Air field controller caravan
Quadrant R/T Radio Range
Target Air fixing and bombing range
Marine Control surface craft in landing area at flying boat Bases
MET Transport command and VHF meteorological channel
Code name will continue to be imployed [sic] in fighter command for the control
[page break]
of aircraft in Sectors, and in flying training command for normal training purposes. In overseas commands code names will be employed at the discretion of A.O.C. But on channels used by transport, place names will be used.
Classe
Dificulty [sic] not in immediate danger
W/T OP
Emergency with help may be OK again

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Citation

Roy Briggs, “Roy Briggs training notes,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed July 15, 2019, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/5758.

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