Liberator - B-24 flight engineer course notes



Liberator - B-24 flight engineer course notes


Covers all aircraft systems with diagrams. Includes aircraft layout, fire extinguishers, fuel system, flight controls, hydraulics, bomb door operations, flaps, undercarriage including emergency lowering, brakes, oxygen system, booster pumps, fuel system detail and other systems. Pre-flight checks, instruments, electrics all systems, oil system, lubrication, carburettor, and many other systems. Checks: before take off, airborne, climb, power settings, landing checks, and emergency actions,






Eighty-one page notebook with handwritten entries and diagrams


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[front cover of notebook]

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[inserted][two indecipherable words] [censored] [indecipherable word][/inserted]

[underlined] Type Training Liberator (Bomber) [/underlined]

[underlined] 1896919. Cadet. Powell. N. 0/7 4 Wing. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Layout of the Liberator [/underlined]

[sketch with labels]

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[underlined] The Liberator [/underlined] is divided, into stations 0 - 10.

These stations, are made into compartments, station 0 - 1 is Nose compartment (NAV. & BOMB A).

Stn: 1 - 4 Upper half (FLIGHT DECK) housing 1st & 2nd pilot, W.O.P. & MID. UPPER

Stn: 1 - 4 Lower half (NOSEWHEEL COMPARTMENT)

Stn: 4 - 6 Bomb Bay

Stn: 6 - 10 Rear Compartment.

[underlined] Emergency Exits (Parachute) [/underlined]

(1) Thro; Nose Wheel doors.

(2) Thro; Open Bomb doors.

(3) Thro; Entrance doors in Rear compartment.

[underlined] Ditching Exits [/underlined]

(1) The astro-dome in the nose compartment.

(2) Main escape hatch forward of upper gun turret.

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(3) Waist gun windows.

[underlined] Dinghys [/underlined]

[underlined] Two type H. dinghys, [/underlined] are stored in cradles in top of fuselage, between stn: 4 & 5. The dinghy’s are liberated manually by, :-

1/ A single handle on port side of Flight Deck, near the escape hatch.

2/ By two handles in top of fuselage, behind dinghy stowage (EXTERNAL)

[underlined] Fire Hatchets. [/underlined]

3. Fire hatchets are to be found in each A/C. One in Nose compartment std. side. 1 on step between two pilots& 1 Pt:- side rear compartment Stn:- 8.

[underlined] Fire Extinguishers. [/underlined]

[underlined] 2 Fyr Fyter [/underlined] (Carbon Tetra Chloride) situated:- one in Nose compt:- port side (excessable [sic] only from outside). One at 6.2 std:- side (excessable from outside & inside.) To operate turn handle & pump. When using in confined places don portable oxygen mask, as poisonous gases are given off.

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[underlined] 3 Lux Extinguishers (Carbon Dioxide) CO.2. [/underlined]

Situated:- one in Nose compartment port side; one behind pilots left shoulder & one in rear compartment Stn:- 6. port side. To operate pull up the horn, press triger [sic] & play close to fire. (Must use gloves to prevent burning hands)

[underlined] Engine Fire Fighting System. [/underlined]

Two C.O.2 bottles situated under flight deck to supply C.O.2 to the engine when required in case of fire.

To operate:- make selection on selection panel, by Co:- pilot & pull lever if one bottle isn’t sufficient, the other lever may be pulled to operate [underlined] other bottle. [/underlined]

A blow off is also incorporated, so that in the event of the CO.2 expanding due to an hot climate, the seal will be blown off by the pressure & the C.O.2 will be released to atmosphere.

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After use always turn selector switch back to [underlined] normal [/underlined]

[sketch with labels]

[underlined] Control Cables. [/underlined]

There are 3 types of control cables, in the Lib: A/C, in the flight deck all cables are non - magnetic, in the bomb - bays all are non - flexible & in rear section, all extra - flexible.

The aileron cables are all extra - flexible but still non - magnetic in in [sic] the Flight deck.

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[underlined] Elevator Controls. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Rudder: [/underlined] RIGHT. 200

LEFT 200

[underlined] Trim tabs [/underlined] RIGHT. 100

LEFT. 100

The rudder cables, run from the cockpit, down the port side of the fuselage & up to the stabilizer [sic] unit, where they join a pull push rod. This rod, transfers the movement to bell - crank levers & so to the rudder.

[underlined] Flying Control lock: [/underlined] All controls are locked by a single movement of lever, at bottom of pedestal (right hand side). A system of cables wound around a drum, drives a pin into the elevator drum & lock pins, into the “Rudder & Elevator” torque tubes.

[underlined] Trimming tabs: [/underlined] are coloured & split up the same as the main controls, they run down the std: side of fuselage & all tabs

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besides being trimming tabs, have a certain amount of “Servo” action.

[underlined] Hydraulics [/underlined]

The system operates, Flaps Bomb doors, U/C & Brakes.

[underlined] Primary Curcuit [sic] [/underlined]

This curcuit [sic] includes 3 pumps (E.D.P. hand pump, & electric booster pump.) & two hydraulic acc’s. The acc’s provide pressure for the brakes.

[underlined] The E.D.P. [/underlined] is attached to [underlined] No:3 [/underlined] engine & will charge the acc’s thro; the main pressure line & unloading valve upto [sic] 1050 lbs [symbol]”. At this pressure the idling curcuit is formed, fluid passing thro; the selectors, thro; the ‘cumo’ filters back to the reservoir. The idling pressure may read anything upto [sic] 50 lbs due to restriction caused by the filter

[underlined] The unloading [/underlined] valve will cut in when the pressure drops to 850 lbs

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[underlined] Main Hydraulic System. [/underlined]

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& cut out when 1050 lbs [symbol]” is reached.

[underlined] The main relief valve [/underlined] in the system is set at 1250 lbs & clears excess fluid pressure to idling curcuit.

[underlined] Electric Booster Pump. [/underlined]

This will only operate when a master switch is on, its chief function is to maintain oil pressure for the brakes. With the M. Switch. on pressure operating switch will automatically control the booster pump, that is switch it on if the oil pressure drops below 975 lbs & off when it reaches 1125 lbs. Iff [sic] the emergency hydraulic valve is open it can be used to operate any of the services thro the selector but if it is open the P.O.S. will not control the B.P. it must be controlled manually by the master switch.

The [underlined] M.S: [/underlined] must be on for landing take off & taxying.

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[underlined] Emergency Change Overlock. [/underlined]

In an emergency the operation of this cock from the horizontal to the vertical position, allows the E.B.P. to draw fluid from the bottom of the reservoir.

[underlined] Hand Pump [/underlined]

The hand pump is fed by a line, leading from the base of Resr:- & directly conected [sic] into the main pressure line.

[underlined] Reservoir [/underlined]

Contains [underlined] 5 1/2 [/underlined] imperial galls of fluid.

[underlined] USA. 3580. [/underlined]

[underlined] DTD. 44.D. & DTD 585. [/underlined]

[underlined] To fill the reservoir:- [/underlined] first close the bomb doors, secondly raise the flaps & thirdly charge the accs by switching on the E.B.P. & fourthly make sure the u/c is down. When all the above as [sic] been completed & P.O.S.

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cuts out booster pump, fill the RES:- to the red line on the guage. [sic]

[underlined] Methods of Bomb Door Operation. [/underlined]

1/ EDP. & a normal selection

2/ Electric Booster Pump; open the emergency hydraulic valve, switch on the booster pumps & select.

3/ Hand pump & normal selection

4/ [underlined] Utility Selector. [/underlined]

5/ Hand winding mechanism; To open select engage handles & comence [sic] winding. To shut select, engage handles, lift off mechanical locks & comence [sic] winding.

6/ Bomb Jettison in the cockpit. The first pull operates bomb doors open, thro:- cam slide & utility selector, at the same time it withdraws a pin, thus disconecting [sic] the bomb-aimers

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[underlined] Hydraulic Bomb Door Curcuit. [sic] [/underlined]

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selection lever, the second movement operates the Bomb Release.

[underlined] Method of Flap Operation. [/underlined]

1/ E.D.P. & make normal selection.

2/ E.B.P. Open the emergency hydraulic valve, switch on booster pump & select.

4/ Flap emergency procedure; 1/ Select flaps down, then open front cock [indecipherable word] & close rear cock, operate hand pump & fluid will be sent to top of flap - jack, via shuttle valve. After this method, leave both cocks open, for approx:- half an hour, to allow shuttle valve to return to its normal position. When it is returned the rear cock is then closed. (Flaps cannot be lowered when speed exceeds [underlined] 155 mph.) [/underlined]

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[underlined] Hydraulic Flap Curcuit. [/underlined]

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[underlined] U/C. Retraction; [/underlined] Incorporates 3 jacks. The main wheel jacks extend to retract the main wheels, the nose wheel jack extends to lower the nose wheel. A main wheel restrictor valve set at 800 lbs [symbol]” is incorporated in U/C up lines to ensure that the nose wheel retracts before main wheels.

A nose wheel restrictor valve, prevents possible structural damage during final stages of retracting of nose wheel, fluid flows from the end of the jacks, thro; a funell [sic] restrictor, thus slowing down the movement of the piston on the final stage of the nose wheel assembly.

[underlined] Method of U/C Operation. [/underlined]

(1) E.D.P. & normal selection. (2) Emergency B.P. (Electric) & open E.V. switch on B.P. & select.

(3) Hand pump, & normal selection.

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[underlined] Landing Gear Circuit. [/underlined]

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(4) Emergency hand winding gear, for lowering main wheel & manual lowering of Nose Wheel.

(a) Select U/C down (B) Commence winding, 30 turns, (first turnings break the lock & the last turnings make the lock. Check Main Wheels, locked down visual means.

(C) Visit Nose Wheel compartment & remove the protective curtains.

(D) Disconnect the lock breaking link, by removing the spring loaded pin. (E) Break the lock. (F) Heave out the Nose Wheel. (G) Remake the lock. (H) The pin is left out. (I) All locks must now be checked, including the green light on the instrument panel.

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[underlined] Brake Curcuit [/underlined]

The brakes are hydraulic operated, pressure being supplied by the two acc’s. The Hayes Brake assembly contains 4 expanding chambers, 2 forming the outboard brakes & 2 forming the inboard brakes. The outboard brakes are fed by the port acc. The inboard brakes are fed by the std:- acc:-

Between the acc’s & the expansion chambers are brake control units, which are operated by the foot pedals in the cockpit. Here functions are (a) To control the flow of fluid to the brakes. (B) to reduce the acc:- pressure to a max: working pressure of 200 [symbol]”. The 1st and 2nd pilots pedals are interconnected by linkage, when the brakes are off the pressure lines to the brakes, are open to the return line which bypasses the filter on its way to the reservoir. (To avoid building up a back pressure)

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[underlined] Bleeding Brakes. [/underlined]

(1) Unscrew the bleeder screw in the oleo leg.

(2) Disconnect the brake pedal linkage at No:- 3 & 4 control unit, thus leaving the pressure lines open to the reservoir.

(3) Switch on the electric booster pump.

(4) Operate each pedal in 1st pilots’ position in turn untill [sic] the spongeness of brakes disappears.

Fluid is carried to the reservoir, where it is vented.

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[underlined] English Oxygen System. [/underlined]

It is stored in bottles 24 or 30 at 1800 lbs [symbol]. 15 bottles are situated under the Flight Deck port side & the remaining 9 or 15 are situated in the loft.

The main line or master cock is situated in the cockpit by the 1st:- pilots knee & a MK. II XA. regulator a few ins:- from it.

2, in the Nose Compartment 4 in the Flight Deck, 1 in front bomb bay & 1 in rear bomb bay, 1 at the loft & 1 at the Elson. WC. 2. for the beam gunners 1 for mid - upper, 1. for ventral, & 1 for tail end gunner.

When flying at 15.000 ft set oxygen regulator at 25.000 & after that, set at 5,000. ft above actual height.

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[underlined] Pre - Flight Check on Oxygen System. [/underlined]

Turn on master cock & contents guage & slowly open or turn the knob controling [sic] the oxygen flow.

Watching the pointer gradually increase the flow upto 40.000 ft ensuring that the valve is fully open, gradually close down to 30.000 ft & check all the oxygen stations, by lifting out the bayonet connection, letting thro: the oxygen. After inspection, return the bayonet connection to its clip. (PS. you should get 5 - 9 pulsating breaths).

To turn on the entire system the [underlined] line valve [/underlined] in the [underlined] loft [/underlined] must be turned on as well as the master cock.

[underlined] Portable bottles. [/underlined] 10 mins: duration, they are to be found all over the A/C. Always several near the escape hatches.

They are used for baling out from great heights & for moving around the A/C. Must be used not more than 1/8 empty & then recharged.

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Incendiary Bomb. Used to give pilot a brief view of ground. Used for destroying your own A/C after landing in enemy territory. (Place on firm base remove cap & strike plunger. DO NOT APPROACH AFTER OPERATION.

All Verey cartridges must be loaded & fired from the “Firing Point”. All Verey cartridges that are [underlined] “red” [/underlined] have a knurled edge, so that they can be found in the dark & are only used in an emergency.

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[underlined] Booster Pumps [/underlined]

The 4 fuel booster pumps are there to supply positive pressure to the fuel system for “priming” tale OFF. landing, over 10000 ft & when the pressure drops by 2 lbs [symbol]”.

Tank Capacity’s

Main Tanks:
No: 1 498 IMP: GAL’S.
No: 2 482 IMP: GAL’S.
No: 3 482 IMP: GAL’S.
No: 4 498 IMP: GAL’S.

Wing Tanks.
Port 187 IMP: GAL’S:
Starboard 187 IMP: GAL’S:
Bomb Bay
Port. 335 IMP: GAL’S:
Stbd: 335 IMP: GAL’S:

[underlined] Total 3004 IMP: GAL’S. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Fuel System. [/underlined]

The main fuel system consists of 12. self sealing cells installed in the main planes between No: 2 & 3 engines.

These cells are interconnected in sets of threes to form 4 main tanks. One engine curcuit consists of a tank a fuel booster pump a selector cock a fuel strainer & a engine driven pump. The A/C is provided with a fuel ventilation system.

[underlined] Cross Feed: [/underlined] A cross feed pipe line interconnects 4 main fuel cocks It permits the operation of anyone or all the engines, on the fuel in any tank, normally each tank is feeding its own engine. for example No: 2 tank feeding No: 2 engine (selector set tank to engine).

The Cross feed generally comes into operation during an emergency. Example, No: 2 tank U/S.

[underlined] Auxillary. [sic] Wing Tanks. [/underlined] Six auxillary [sic] cells are installed 3 in each

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outboard N/Plane, forming 2 auxillary tanks.

The fuel from these tanks must be transferred into the main tanks before it can be used.

[underlined] Bomb Bay Tanks. [/underlined]

For long range overload tanks are fitted in the forward bomb bay, incorporated in the bomb bay curcuit is a selector cock & a E.B.P. both situated in the centre of the cat-walk.

[underlined] Transfer of fuel from one main tank to another. [/underlined]

From No: 1 tank to No: 4.

1. Connect flexible U tube from No1. connection to the inlet of the fuel transfer pump.

2. Connect the second U tube from the outlet of the fuel transfer pump to No: tank connection.

3. Switch [underlined] on [/underlined] the fuel transfer pump, & check the guages for rise

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in contents in No: 4 tank. (10 IMP:- GALL’S = 8. BRITISH GALL”S)

4. Remove all tubes when transfer is completed. (Transfer pump delivers 7 imperial galls per min:)

[underlined] Transfer from Wing Auxiliary Tanks [/underlined]

1. Connect an odd-leg tube, from conn:- B on the auxiliary to the inlet of the transfer pump.

2. Connect, the outlet of the pump to the desired tank.

3. Make a selection on the wing auxillary selection cock.

4. Switch on the transfer panel pump, the fuel will flow thro; connection B.

[underlined] Transfer of Bomb Bay Tanks. [/underlined]

As for transfer from wing auxiliary tanks except that the bomb bay B.P. must be switched on first then the pump on the transfer panel, this time the fuel will not pass the visual flow indicator

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[underlined] Procedure for One Main Tank Damaged [/underlined]

Depends entirely on extent of damage & quantity of fuel in tank at time of damage. Example:- medium

1. Imediatly [sic] commence transfer of fuel from damaged tank thro transfer panel.

2. By making the appropriate selection on the fuel cock, run one or more engine from damaged tank, ensuring that fuel pressure is maintained.

3. When the level in the damaged tank as [sic] dropped to approx 100 galls select on a serviceable tank, tank to engine cross feed, & change the damaged tank to cross feed engine, if the fuel pressure drops turn on the E.B.P. & - or switch one other main tank selector to tank engine cross feed.

Field Service Holes.

For use in the field, for enabling A/C to be refueled [sic] from drum’s or can’s. (1) Connect the pipeline to the inlet of the transfer

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pump & (2) opposite end of the line in the fuel container. (3) Connect, U tube from outlet of pump to the tank to be filled (4) Switch on transfer, fuel pump.

[underlined] New Type Transfer Pump. [/underlined]


[underlined] Transfer of Fuel from Wing Aux:- by New Type Panel. [/underlined]

1/ Set the aux:- (wing) selector cock to the tank to be drained.

2/ Set the panel selector to the tank to be filled.

3/ Turn Transfer Pump switch “ON”.

4/ When main tank is nearly full switch “OFF” fuel pump, repeat with other tanks as required, until Wing Aux:- Tanks are empty, when transfer as [sic] been completed all selection cocks must be turned “OFF.”

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[underlined] Caution:- [/underlined] Do not turn fuel switch “ON” untill [sic] selector cocks are set acording [sic] to above instructions.

Do not change the setting whilst fuel pump is in the on position. Place all selector cocks in the “OFF” position when transfer as [sic] been completed.

[underlined] Bomb Bay Tanks: [/underlined] The same as for above, except that the “booster pump” on the catwalk must be turned “ON” & “OFF” with each selection. Note: Fuel cannot be transfered [sic] from one main tank to another thro; the new type panel. With this panel fitted it must be transferred “via” the cross feed.

[underlined] To transfer [/underlined] fuel via the cross feed. Example No. 1 tank U/S. Select tank engine cross feed on No:1 & 4 selector cock, switch on No: 1 tank booster pump & make sure No: 4 booster pump is “OFF.” This can only be done when flying under 8,000 feet.

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[underlined] Jettison Of Bomb Bay Tanks. [/underlined]

Disconnect pipe lines to the selector, (2 of them). Ensure that Bomb Doors are open. Then pull the two handles at station 4 inwards & tanks will fall away. Ensure that bomb bay selector os OFF.

[underlined] Goodrich De - icing System. [/underlined]

Consists of Boot Assembly’s containing air cells fitted to the M/P & tail unit (leading edge.)

These cells are connected by pipelines to a distributor which is supplied with pressure & or suction, by 2 vacuum pumps situated on 1 & 2 engine. One of these pumps supply the instruments with suction. The distribution unit contains ten ports five at either end. (4 to port M/P 4 to stbd: M/P & 2 to tail unit.) It also houses two rotary valves, one at either end there [sic] function being to distribute pressure to each of the ports in turn.

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[underlined] Goodrich De-icer System. [/underlined]

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They complete 1 revolution in 40 seconds ((IE) 1. Port every 8 sec:-) The suction line from both pumps meet at a four way suction valve, either pump may feed the instruments depending on the selection on this valve.

The pump not feeding the instruments will supply suction to the de-icing system. When the system is switched off, all the cells are under suction. This is acomplished [sic] by the control valve allowing suction to enter all parts of both rotary valves, so placing all ten ports under suction. The pressure from the pumps at this time will be discharged overboard.

When the system is switched on the pressure is redirected to both rotary valves thus placing two ports under pressure & the remaining ports under suction. The movement of the control lever also sets into operation the electric motor which operates the rotary valves.

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[underlined] Pressure Type Oil Seperator. [sic] [/underlined]

Incorporated in this filter is a relief valve set to operate at 7 lbs [symbol]”. This valve controls the working pressure of the de-icer, in the event of its failure an emergency relief valve set at 9 - 12 lbs [symbol]” will relieve the system.

[underlined] Suction Relief Valve:- [/underlined] Used to relieve the suction line if the suction exceeds 4 1\2 H.G.

[underlined] Non-Return Relief Valve:- [/underlined] Incorporated between the return line of the de-icer & the discharge overboard line.

This will operate if the vacuum pump providing suction to the de-icing system fails. A pressure would then be created in the suction line & the N.R.R.V would relieve into the the discharge over-board line. Thus the de-icing system will operate with one vacuum pump U/S & the other pump feeding instruments. (Operation will be 50% efficient.)

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Note:- The de-icing must not be switched on at Take - Off or Landing (Because it spoils aerofoil section).

Vacuum Pumps behind respective engines.

Oil Separator 9 to 12 [symbol]“ R.V. & N.R.V. also behind respective engines. The 4 Way Suction Valve Below Generator panel Stn:- 4 (port side) The Control Valve & Pressure Type oil separator & distributor behind bulkhead, Stn:- 4 Stbd: side. On & Off control Co-pilots.

1/ Flap Control Valve. Cockpit Starboard side.

2/ Unloading Valve: Nose Compartment. Port sie Stn:- 3.

3/ Hydraulic gauges:- Cockpit. Port side.

4/ Acc’s : Port & Starboard, Nose Compartment. Stn 3.

5/ Emergency Flap Valves - Cockpit second pilot

6/ Emergency Relief Valve. Stn 4. 1 Starboard side.

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7/ Emergency Change Over Cock - Stn:- 5.1 Starboard side.

8/ Reservoir:- Stn:- 5.1 Stbd side. Relief Valve Stn:- 4.2

9/ E.D.P. Stbd:- inner engine. E.B.P. Stbd:- side Stn:- 4.2.

10/ P.O.S. Bomb Bay Stn:- 5. Stud:- side.


[underlined] Anti - icing System. [/underlined]

A fluid container under the Flight Deck gives a supply of “alcohol” & glycerine for anti - icing Pilots & Co-pilots & Bombadier [sic] windscreen. The control box, situated at right - hand side of

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Co-Pilot, it as a pump & a 1st & 2nd:- Pilots selector cock. Pump forces fluid thro; a perforated pipe line & sprays upon windscreen. The Bombardier’s control is entirely remote from the 1st & 2nd pilots controls & incorporates an on & off switch for an electrical Wind screen wiper, with this is also a fast & slow running control. Windscreen wiper should never be used when windscreen is dry.

[underlined] De - Frosters [/underlined]

This is done by pulling out two switches on the instrument panel or in the case of the bombardier position a switch under the heater box. This diverts the heat that is being supplied by the two Stuart Warner heaters for the cabin heating into 2 tubes which can then be played on the inside of the windscreen.

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[underlined] Towing:- [/underlined] A/C are towed by means of ropes or cables attached to towing rings or the base of the oleo leg & to a tractor out in front. Guidance is given by guiding bar, inserted into the left side of the nose wheel axle & locked into position by giving the locking bar & a clockwise turn.

A snubber strap on the towbar is connected to a [indecipherable word] fitting on the fuselage, thus limiting the turning angle to 300 & by hand 450.

[underlined] Picketting Points. [/underlined] The towing rings on each main landing wheel, the retracting mooring loops in main planes & nose wheel axle.

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[underlined] Pre - Flight Check. [/underlined]

1/ Remove the pitot head covers.

2/ Open the Bomb doors, by means of the utility selection.

3/ Turn on the main fuel tanks.

4/ Check the contents in the tanks.

5/ Remove the Control Lock.

6/ Check the movement of all controls, with another member of the Crew to watch the control surfaces.

7/ Switch [underlined] on [/underlined] the hydraulic E.B.P.

8/ Check the contents of the reservoir.

9/ Operate the Goodrich de - icer system.

10/ Place the de - icer controls in the [underlined] off [/underlined] position.

11/ Check the operation of the Flaps using the E.D.P.

12/ Check the kick - out pressure of U/C lever in the [underlined] DOWN [/underlined] position 850 L.

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13/ Release the Parking Brake.

14/ Switch [underlined] ON [/underlined] the fuel booster pumps.

15/ Check of the “Fire Extinguishers” (On the Engine)

16/ Check the Fire Axes.

17/ Check the Oxygen System.

18/ Check Tyre pressures. Main Wheels 60 [symbol]” Nose Wheel 38 [symbol]”. Unscrew Schrader Valve 2. complete turns to ensure that you are getting a correct reading.

19/ Check for Tyre Creep.

20/ Check the length of the Shimming damper 9/16 protrusion.

21/ Check the Nose wheel strut extension. 4 3/8”. protrusion.

22/ Check the Main Wheel strut extension 3 7/8”. protrusion.

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R.A.F. Form 700.A carried on cross country trips, in case of landing on another drome.

For use in maintenance, to be forwarded on to parent drome.

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[underlined] Instruments. [/underlined]

[underlined] Ball Type Compass. [/underlined]

N. To N. (Red to Red) read against luber mark. To change direction put magnetic coarse against luber line, lock grid ring & bring North back to North.

[underlined] Deviation; [/underlined] The compass error, due to installing in A/C. A compass must have deviation chart.

[underlined] Gyroscopes. [/underlined]

1/ Must be Spinning at correct speed.

2/ Must be Balanced.

3/ Freedom.

1/ Gyroscopes of the pilots flying instruments are kept spinning by at their correct speed by impinging a jet of air of constant strength into the [indecipherable word] cut in the purefory [sic] of

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the brass rotor. On the Auto Pilot & D.R.C. the spinning rotors are armatures, of A/C motors. To keep them spinning at correct speed a constant flow of current is provided to the field windings

2/ In addition to the gyroscope being statically & dynamically balanced they also have to have their balance adjusted to allow for the earths rotation & curvature.

Compensating weights will have to vary according to the area on the earth, on which the “gyro” is going to be used. Never touch the balance weights.

3/ So that the gyroscope can exercise its properties of stability, we mount a rotor in “gimble” [sic] rings the design & position of the gimble [sic] rings depends upon the use to which the “gyro” is to be put. Should a manoeuvre be carried out call for more freedom than the gimble [sic] rings allow, the gyro will be toppled.

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[underlined] The Parts of a Gyroscope. [/underlined]

(a) The spinning rotor

(b) The outer & inner gimbal rings

[underlined] Precession; [/underlined] The movement of a gyroscope, resulting in a change of its plane of spin

[underlined] A Torque [/underlined] on the inner ring is said to precess the outer ring.

[underlined] A Torque [/underlined] on the outer ring is said to precess the inner ring.

[underlined] Pilots Flying Instruments [/underlined]

(Directional Gyro Artificial horizon & Turn & Bank Indicator) Gyroscopic (Air Speed Indicator, rate of climb & altimeter) Aneroid.

Directional Gyro; A card marked with compass bearings is attached to a gyroscope as part of its balance system. Due to gyroscopic stability the card will stay still when the A/C turns. The D. G. Is not a navigational instrument on its own it as [sic] to be used

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in conjunction with a compass. The caging lock when pushed in enables the card to be set with the compass in flight, the D.G. is checked against the compass at 15” min:- intervals, should the gyro have wandered more then 50 in 5 min:- it is U/S. (Rotor 10,000 R.P.M.)

[underlined] Artificial Horizon; [/underlined] A gyroscope controls the relationship of a movable horizon, to a fixed unmarked image, the gyroscope being arranged so that its axis of spin is always perpendicular. The angle of bank should be shown around the top. There should be no caging or setting devices on the instrument.

The instrument self erecting & after a gyroscopic topple it will correct itself in 3 - 6 minutes.

[underlined] Turn & Bank:- Indicator. [/underlined] (Rotor 6,000 R.P.M.)

This is simply two instruments in one both being entirely separate.

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[underlined] Turn & Bank Indicator [/underlined]

[underlined] Turn Indicator:- [/underlined] This instrument is gyroscopically controlled, it gives the A/C angle & rate of change of direction.

[underlined] Bank Indicator:- [/underlined] A ball in a banana shaped slot, on a turn the pilot aims to keep the ball in the centre of the slot, since when the ball is in the centre of the slot the A/C is correctly banked. The number of degrees under or over - banked is shown on the calibration over the slot.


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[underlined] Instruments [/underlined]


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[underlined] Minneapolis Honeywell A.F.C.E. [/underlined]

The equipment consists of:-

1/ [underlined] Stabiliser:- [/underlined] Gyro unit for control of direction. [underlined] (Rudder) [/underlined] has Secondary clutch on top of it.

Bomber A/C - L.H.S. Bomb Aimer. Coastal A/C. Behind pilots seat.

2/ [underlined] Flight Control Gyro: [/underlined] (FCG): Gyro unit for [underlined] level flight [/underlined] (Aileron & Elevator) in L. Shaped box port side rear of Nose Compartment.

3/ [underlined] Servo Motors: [/underlined] 1/25 H.P. D.C. Electric Motors complete with solenoid. Clutches:- Three in all, one each (Rudder & Elevator) in Tail. Aileron - in L shaped box.

4/ [underlined] Inverter: [/underlined] Changes aircraft D.C. to A.C. for use of A.F.C.E only (in L shaped box)

5/ [underlined] Amplifier: [/underlined] Valve type in in L shaped box.

6/ [underlined] Pilots Control Box: [/underlined] Behind Pedestal.

7/ [underlined] Pilots Direction [/underlined] Indicator:- (PDI) Acentric reading voltmeter. (On Pilots Instrument Panel.)


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Pilots Control Box.


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[underlined] The Minneapolis Honeywell:- [/underlined] Is an [sic] mechanical electric pilot it as [sic] two gyroscopic units

1/ Stabaliser, [sic] or directional unit

2/ A Flight control gyro for pitch & bank control.

The gyros are driven electrically & control electric “Servo” motors thro; an electronic system. The A.F.C.E. is supplied by the ordinary D.C. supply of the A/C. It is equiped [sic] with its own inverter for changing D.C. to A.C.

[underlined] A Pilots Direction Indicator [/underlined] (centre reading voltmeter) shows any departure of the A/C from the heading defined by the stabiliser gyro. The basic principle of automatic pilot lies in the balancing & unbalancing of a Wheatstone cur curcuit, [sic] in a disturbance the resistance on the “gyro” case will move under the gyro brush, thus unbalancing the bridge. Control is wound on by movement of the Servo pulley, untill [sic] the bridge is balanced.

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As the A/C answers the applied control the bridge is again unbalanced in the opposite direction.

This, causes control to be taken off. The bridge will balance again only when the A/C is again in level flight.

[underlined] Pilots Control Box. [/underlined] A/ Centering [sic] knobs:

These are used for alignment of A/C for level flight, when engaging the A.P. the tell tale lights are extinguished by the manipulation. Turn knob away from light.

B/ Sensitivity knobs; these are adjusted to suit flight conditions. If bombing under the A.P. use maximum sensitivity. For navigation in rough weather decrease sensitivity, too much sensitivity, may cause controls to hunt.

C/ [underlined] Ratio knobs; [/underlined] A.F.C.E. is used in different types of A/C the setting of these knobs determines that the correct amount of control

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surface shall be applied when a disturbance is met. Ratio set too high; over control Ratio too low; sloppy control.

D/ Turn compensation; different A/C. have different turning properties. By setting these knobs, the correct amount of rudder aileron & elevator will be applied in a turn so that the A/C does a perfectly banked turn: With change of load, it will be necessary to change or readjust these settings.

[underlined] Action of the Switches [/underlined]

A/ The linked master & stabiliser switches put the DC to the AFC, ON starts the inverter; sets the gyro spinning, feeds the amplifier & sets the 1/25 H.P. “Servo” motors running.

B/ The P.D.I. & servo switch, A/ brings the P.D.I. into action & also, B/ energises the “servo” device in the stabiliser which errects [sic] the stabiliser “gyro”.

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C/ Control is finaly [sic] engaged when the individual aileron, rudder & elevator switches are thrown “ON.” These switches bring into curcuit [sic] the solenoids of the “servo” motors.

The pilots second station switch will only be in use, if a second control knob is fitted for use of the navigator.

[underlined] Flight Engineer’s Ground Check:- [/underlined]

1/ On P.C.B. all switches “OFF.” knobs upright lights out, turn controls to neutral. Secondary clutch on stabiliser engaged (turn knob clockwise) Take Off (as ground check)

To engage A.F.C. in flight; 1/ When engaging for the first time not below 2,000 ft 2/ Master & stabiliser switch “ON” for 10 min:-

3/ Trim A/C manually, to fly hand & feet off.

4/ After 10 min:- put on master & stab:- switch. Tell tale lights “ON.”

5/ Centre P.D.I. [deleted] & A/C [/deleted] by turning [inserted] a/c [/inserted] manually.

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7. A/C straight & level P.D.I. “zero”, with rudder centering [sic] knob extinguish T.T lights, throw on Rudder switch.

8/ Same procedure Ailerons

9. Same procedure Elevators

To Take Over from A.F.C.E.

(A) It can be manually overpowered.

(B) Switch off main switch bar, thus knocking all switches “OFF.”

(C) Knock “OFF” individual R.A.E. switches

[underlined] To Turn Under A.F.C.E. [/underlined]

The turn control is spring loaded into the neutral position. To carry out a turn, choose the required bank angle, by turning control knob slowly the A/C will gradually take up the required bank angle, so long as the bank angle is kept selected the A/C continues to turn. To straighten out on the new course, take the knob back to “zero”

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& hold it there untill [sic] the A/C is level & steady on the new course. Now put the “Turn Control” to neutral.

Before landing; all switches “OFF.” Do not;

(A) Use manual trimming tabs when A.P. is engaged.

(B) Do not run up on ground on A/C batteries.

[underlined] Air Speed Indicator: Principle:- [/underlined]


Three Errors; Position Error, Instrument Error, Cockpit Broken glass, instruments (temp:- changes reads, OK. but slightly [underlined] high. [/underlined]


[underlined] Rate of Climb Indicator [/underlined] D.I. If instrument + or - 200 ft it may be adjusted by the screw. (Broken glass renders inst:- U/S reads, [symbol]

[2 sketches]

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[2 sketches]

Altimeter MK XIV. (+/_ 30 ft on D.I.) 14.7 [symbol]” = 29.92 H.G. = 1013 milli-bars. 1/2 [symbol]” = 1 H.G. = 34 M.B.

Cross country trips, the alti:- is set to the days equivilent [sic] pressure at sea level (set on sub sale) & the height is that above sea level. Before Take Off & landing, reset on “sub scale” to the AT.P. reading for the day.

Engine General Instruments.

Manifold Press:-
Oil Press:-
Fuel Press:-
Tachometer. Autosyns

Oil Temp:-
Free Air Temp:-

Cyl Head Temp:-
Flap & Wheel Indicators. Thermo Coupling Selsyn.

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[underlined] Oil Pressure Autosyn [/underlined]


[underlined] Manifold Pressure [/underlined]

[two sketches]

The Autosyn inst:- consists of two units; A/ The Transmitter & B/ The Indicator. The transmitters are situated on the engine nacelles. The inds are on the panel in the cockpit & the two are joined together by electrical wiring.

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The tranr: itself & and can be split into two parts, the mech:- unit & the electrical transmitter. The design of the mech:- unit, there the subject to be measured, (ie) (tach:- centrifugal governor system; Fuel pressure; capsule system; Oil pressure; bourdon tube; Manifold pressure; capsule system.) The purpose of the mech: system, is to hold the rotor of the transmitter in relationship to the pressure etc; in the engine.

The rotor, in the indicator, has to follow every movement of the rotor of the transmitter. The design of the electrical transmitter & the electrical indicator is almost identical. The indicator mech; are mounted in tandem, so that the pointers which are attached to the rotor shaft work in pairs (left & right) & work over a common dial.

To work the [missing word] a supply of A/C current is required, two

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invertors [sic] which change the A/C [underlined] ac [/underlined] to [underlined] DC [/underlined] are fitted below the Flight Deck. Only one invertor [sic] runs at a time. A switch on the pedestal (AC Power) enables either No:- 1 or No:- 2 invertors to be selected. In flight a practise should be made to use each invertor for thirty minutes at a time.

Fuses are in the “Co Pilots” fuse box.

Ground Check on Autosyn.

Engines not running, batteries [underlined] ON [/underlined] check that both invertors; manifold pressures show B.P. of day, Oil pressures are [symbol] Tach: [symbol] & Fuel pressure [symbol]. The fuel pressure can be made to work by flicking on booster pump.

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[underlined] Air & Oil Temperature Ratiometers. [/underlined]


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[underlined] Distance Reading Compass. [/underlined]


[underlined] Compass Direction Gyro. [/underlined]

1/ Start all 4 engines

2/ Switch on keep on from chock to chock.

3/ NORMAL / SETTING. First 5 MINS. of temp also before, during or after manoeuvre.


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[underlined] Electric’s [/underlined]

[underlined] Wiring System; [/underlined] Is open consisting of single core cables bunched together & secured to the airframe at regular intervals by clips & are always marked thus.


First No:- denotes size of cable.
Second No:- denotes curcuit reference.
Third No:- denotes No:- of wire in that particular curcuit.

Size of Cable:- No:- 0 is very large cable. No:- 20 is very small cable.

[underlined] Curcuit Reference Letters.[/underlined]

A/ = Heating System B/ = Bomb release & Indicator light system

C/ = Prop:- control & Fast Feathering.

D/ = De - icer Anti - icer Pilot Heater, Fuel Transfer, Fuel Booster & Hydraulic Booster pumps.

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E/ Exterior Lights (except recognition lights, upward & downward.

G/ Insruments; (Autosyns & Temp guages, [sic] (identity lights

H/ Ignition - HT = Leads HT.

FL; Automatic Flight Control.

L/ Interior & Recognition Lights.

M/ Landing Gear, Flap Indicators & Oxygen Indicators.

P/ = Power. R/ Radio & Intercom.

S/ Engine Starter Controls.

T/ Engine Controls. (IE) Cowl Flaps Intercooler shutters Oil Dilution & Primers.

V/ Instrument lights, Alarm bells, Cameras & Fluorescent Lights.

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[underlined] Sources of Power. [/underlined]

1/ 4 EDGs:- 1 at the back of each engine. Output 200 [symbol] Max: at 27.5 V.

2/ APU. A two stroke petrol engine, directly coupled to a 27.5 V. 200W. (Approx:- 70 [symbol] ) generators. Situated below the Flight Deck, in Nose Wheel compartment on [underlined] Port Side. [/underlined]

3/ [underlined] Batteries (INTERNAL) [/underlined] 2, each 24 Volts & approx:- 34 to 35 amps, hours capacity. Situated in Nose Wheel compartment, port side, between A.P.U. & port hydraulic Acc:-

4/ [underlined] Trolly Acc; [/underlined] An external supply, from large capacity batteries. Plug situated, starboard side, by utility selector.

[underlined] Auxiliary Power Unit: Uses [/underlined]

1/ As an emergency generator in flight

2/ When Taxying

3/ Battery charging on the ground.

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4/ Engine Starting 5/ Ground testing of heavy duty equipment.

[underlined] Starting. [/underlined]

1/ Turn all Battery switches [underlined] ON. [/underlined]

2/ Put A.P.U. Master switches ON.

3/ Open Fuel cock (situated on top of fuel container).

4/ Operate fuel Primer Pumps (on top of air cleaner)

5/ Press Starter button (By Volt - meter).

Note * When running the A.P.U. in paralel [sic] with the E.D.G. put equliser [sic] switch to [underlined] ON [/underlined] position.

[underlined] Stopping, [/underlined] Turn fuel [underlined] OFF [/underlined]

[underlined] Emergency Stopping; [/underlined] Press “Red Button” on magneto starter plate.

* (This method can be used when restarting soon to save re - priming).

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[underlined] Emergency Starting. [/underlined]

Use a rope around the flywheel pulley, only use when A/C batteries are flat.


[underlined] Trolly Acc; Adaptor. [/underlined]

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[underlined] (G.E.) Voltage Regulator. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Voltage Regulator Function. [/underlined]

To keep GEN:- voltage constant at 27.5. V over a wide range of engine speeds above 1500 R.P.M.

Location; On the forward face station 4 Nose Wheel Compt; two on the stb:- side & two on the port side.

Adjustment; To increase the GEN:- voltage turn the milled nut in a clockwise direction (ie) Increase spring tension. To lower voltage turn nut in opposite direction.

* GEN:- must be switched [underlined] OFF [/underlined] before any adjustment is made.

Spare The V.R. on top of the A.P.I. may be substituted for a damaged or otherwise u/s one if necessary.

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[underlined] Reverse Current Relay. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Reverse Current Relay. Function. [/underlined]

To connect the batteries to the GEN:- when the GEN:- voltage is higher than the batteries (27.5.) so that the batteries will be charged. Also to disconnect the batteries from the GEN:- when the battery voltage is below that of the GEN:- this prevents the batteries discharging thro; the GEN:- (so becoming flat.)

Location; On rear face, front spar accessable [sic] thro; the wheel well. The RCR current limiting & ammeter shunts for the two GEN:- on the engines in that, M/Plane are located here.

Note; this is most important when taxying, the GEN:- must be “OFF.” thus the main contacts can not close. This prevents them opening & closing, due to the engine changing speed

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Put Generator switch [underlined] ON [/underlined] when at the end of the runway ready for “take - off run.”


[underlined] Generators Control Panel. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Generator Control Panel. [/underlined]

To enable GEN:- to be checked.

[underlined] Location; [/underlined] Port side of Flight Deck.

[underlined] Operation; [/underlined] To check GEN:- voltage switch [underlined] OFF [/underlined] GEN:- in question & select volt - meter for that GEN:-

Bus position gives the voltage accross [sic] the system & is mainly used for checking the batteries.

When airborne check GEN:- every 1/2 hour for voltage by switching “OFF” each “GEN” in turn & selecting V.M.

[underlined] Pre - Flight Check on GEN:- [/underlined]

(1) All “GEN” switches OFF. (2) Run No:-1 engine at 2000 R.P.M. (3) Volt - meter select switch to No.1. (V.M. should read 27.5) adjust if necessary. (4) Put No:-1 GEN:- switch ON & note current reading.

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To test R.C.R. reduce engine speed to below 1500 R.P.M. ammeter needle should fall to “BELOW” zero & then return to zero as the main contacts open (6) Repeat for engines 2. 3. & 4.

[underlined] Testing Gen:- in Flight; [/underlined] (1) Note 4 ammeter readings should be equal to a [symbol] 10% of average reading tolerance. (2) Check reading each ammeter independently. (3) Repeat as for 2. 3. & 4.

[underlined] Generator Balancing; [/underlined] If in flight one or more GEN:- are found to be out of balance, switch [underlined] OFF [/underlined] the affected one & leave [underlined] OFF [/underlined] for ten minutes, switch ON again & it is quite possible everything will be OK.

If not adjustment must be made on the voltage regulator. No adjustment must be made untill [sic] A/C as [sic] been air-borne for at least 20 min:-

Generator Voltage must be between 27.5 & 28.5 V in flight.

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It must be set at 27.5. V. on the ground.

A tolerance of [symbol] 10% of the average readings is allowed on the ammeter.


[underlined] Battery Curcuit [sic] [/underlined]

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[underlined] Main Line Switch; [/underlined] Is a dual purpose switch, acting as a master switch for ignition & batteries.

It is situated under a perspex, glass cover on the Co - Pilots panel. The forward & rear battery switches are used to control the batteries independently.

Master Switch; In negative lead only fitted on early MK. V. A/C When fitted it is always locked on & is located on the port wall behind the A.P.U.

[underlined] Trolly Acc; [/underlined] Both individual battery must be [underlined] OFF [/underlined] when plugging in trolley acc:- to prevent any curculating [sic] current thro; the batteries. Note, If batteries get hot in flight, check the cooling tubes for breakage or obstruction, if cooling is OK then switch [underlined] OFF [/underlined] the affected battery or batteries.

If a battery is U/S switch [underlined] OFF [/underlined]

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[underlined] Power Distribution. [/underlined]


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[underlined] Fuse List. [/underlined]

Panel lights 2 [symbol] Bomb indicator lights 5 [symbol] Astrograph 2 [symbol] Bomb fusing Nose 20 [symbol] Bomb fusing Tail 2 [symbol] Bomb F/S heater 20 [symbol]. Interval Control 15 [symbol]. Camera reseptical [sic] 15 [symbol]. Bomber extension A.F.C. lights. 15 [symbol]. Navigation table light 5 [symbol]. Air Temp 2 [symbol] Glide Bomb Attachment 5 [symbol]. Navigators F/S Heater 20 [symbol]. Bombers Windshield wiper 15 [symbol]. Slo’ Blow, AFC & PDI. 20 [symbol].

MK IV Bomb Sight 15 [symbol].

[underlined] Heater Fuse Box. [/underlined]

Heater Solenoid No:-2 Engine 10 [symbol].

Heater Solenoid No:-3 Engine 10 [symbol].

Co-Pilots Fan 5 [symbol] Pilots Fan 5 [symbol] Pilots Heater 15 [symbol] Co-Pilots Heater 15 [symbol]

Bombers Forward Heater 15 [symbol] Co-Pilots Aft Heater 15 [symbol] Bombers Aft Heater 15 [symbol] Pilots Aft Heater 15 [symbol]

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Radio Floor Heater 15 [symbol] Heater Solonoid [sic] No:- Engine 10 [symbol]. Radio Operators Heater 15 [symbol].

[underlined] Pilots Fuse Box (All 10 [symbol] Fuses) [/underlined]

Propellor governor, Nose & Tail alarm Bells.

Pilots F/S Heater 20 [symbol]. Recognition lights 10 [symbol] Landing gear Safety switch solonoid [sic] 10 [symbol] Landing lamps 10 [symbol]. Formation Running & Passing Lights 15 [symbol] Pilots Compass lights 2 [symbol] P.9. Compass light 5 [symbol]. (Disconnected on RAF A/C)

[underlined] Co-Pilots Fuse Box. [/underlined]

Fluorescent light auxillary [sic] box 10 [symbol].

Radio Compass Power 5 [symbol]. Oil Dilution Solonoid [sic] 10 [symbol] Intercooler shutters 20 [symbol]. Fuel Booster 1. 2. 3. & 4. E. 10 [symbol] each. Cowl Flaps 1 2 3 & 4. E. 15 [symbol] each Priming Solonoids 10 [symbol] Slo’ Blow A.C. power Invertors [sic] 30 [symbol]. Anti - icer pumps 10 [symbol].

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Pitot Head Heater 15 [symbol]. Start & Mesh solonoids [sic] & Booster Coils 20 [symbol] Co-Pilots F/S. Heater 20 [symbol]. Radio Opp’s F/S. Heater 20 [symbol]. Autosyn Transmitters 1. 2. 3. & 4. E. 2 [symbol]. Oil temp. 2 & 3 Engines 2 [symbol]. Carb Air temp 1. 2. 3. & 4 E. 2 [symbol]. Oil temp. 1 & 4 Engines 2 [symbol]. D.C. Flouresceant [sic] lights 10 [symbol]. D.R. Compass 10 [symbol].

[underlined] Station 3.1 Fuse Box. [/underlined]

Pilots Oxygen Indicators 2 [symbol]. Radio OPP’S Oxygen Indicators 2 [symbol]. Co-Pilots Oxygen Indicators 2 [symbol]. Radar OPP’S Oxygen Indicator 2 [symbol]. Auxillary [sic] Bomb - bay & Transfer pumps 10 [symbol]. Bomb Bay Oxygen Indicator 2 [symbol].

[underlined] Station 5.4 Fuse Box Tunnel [/underlined]

Tunnel Gunner & Radio 5 [symbol]. Compartment Lights 5 [symbol].

Radio Compartment (LIGHTS) 2 [symbol]. Bottom Turret Heater Recepticle [sic] 20 [symbol].

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Tail Turret Heater Recepticle [sic] 20 [symbol] Bottom Turret safety switch 5 [symbol]. Bomb Bay Heater F/S 20 [symbol].

Auxiliary Bomb Bay Fuel transfer Pumps 15 [symbol].

[underlined] Station 4 Fuse Box. [/underlined]

De - icer Motor 10 [symbol]. Bomb Door Indicator lights 15 [symbol]. Wheel compartment & Flight Deck Lights 5 [symbol]. Flap position & IND, Transmitter & Landing gear warning 5 [symbol]. Fuel Guage Light 5 [symbol]. Bomb Bay lights 5 [symbol].

[underlined] Station 6.1 Fuse Box. [/underlined]

Tail Turret trouble lights 2 [symbol]. 2 [symbol]. Tail Turret Heater 20 [symbol]. Lower Turret trouble lights 2 [symbol]. Camera F/S Heater 20 [symbol]. Left hand Gunners F/S Heater 20 [symbol]. Right hand Gunners F/S Heater 20 [symbol].

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[underlined] Tail Turret Fuse Box. [/underlined]

Tail turret power 20 [symbol]. [underlined] Landing gear & Horn relay Box. [/underlined] Landing gear warnings & horn 5 [symbol]. Top Turret Gunners F/S. Heater 20 [symbol].


[underlined] Fast Feathering Curcuit. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Fuse Box Location. [/underlined]


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[underlined] Fast Feathering Curcuit. [/underlined]

Motor drives pump to build up oil pressure for feathering. 400 lb [symbol]” Prop:- feathers 410 lbs [symbol]” Pressure switch OPEN’S. 600 lbs [symbol]” Prop:- unfeathers.

If feathering push fails to cut out, when prop:- is fully feathered it must be pulled out manually. If feathering push cuts - out before prop:- is fully feathered it must be held in until feathering is completed. If the curcuit breaker trips out on a test feather, wait 30 secs before resetting.

If the curcuit breaker trips out on an emergency feathering hold it in untill operation is completed.

C.S.U. Control.

An electric motor is fitted to the C.S.U. to compress or decompress the spring acting on the governor flyweights, & so increase

[page break]

[underlined] C.S.U. Curcuit. [/underlined]


or decrease the R.P.M. at which constant speeding takes place. The motor is controlled by a three position switch mounted on the pedestal, they are marked increase R.P.M. & decrease R.P.M. & [underlined] OFF. [/underlined] When the switch is operated current passes thro; the motor & magnetic clutch to

[page break]

earth. The motor rotates & clutch connects the armature with a gear train, which causes a plunger to compress or decompress the spring acting upon the governor flyweights. When the magnetic clutch is de-engaged it acts as a brake on the gear train. A green light on the pilots panel indicates when motor as [sic] reached the end of its travel. When changing REV’s, if one engine goes out of balance with the others it indicates it indicates [sic] a C.S.U. motor running too fast (IE) Burnt out DI.VERTOR resistance. The motor should be [underlined] inched [/underlined] to bring it back in line.

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[underlined] Start & Mesh Curcuit. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Method 1/ [/underlined]

Put the switch to Accel; this energises relay & causes the motor to rotate. Hold the switch for 15 sec:- during which time the flywheel will have built up to max R.P.M. (16 - 1700) Release the Accel switch & close the mesh. This engages the flywheel with the engine causing it to turn & at the same time operating the booster coil.

Method 2. Close the accel switch & hold for 15 sec;- & then still holding the switch, close the mesh switch, the two switches must not be held on together for longer than 10 sec:- Note * Provision is made for hand meshing & hand starting Before hand cranking is carried out, a small (cranking lever on the starter motor, must be put to the crank; position a Bourden wire connected to a T. handle is used for hand meshing.

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Precaution. If the prop turns when the prop; is put to accel, release the switch immediatly. [sic] Put the mags off for that engine & turn the prop 1/2 turn forward, put mags back on & carry on with normal starting.

A.C. Power; There are two invertors [sic] on the starb:- side of Nose Compartment, which change a D.C. supply into a A/C output for use on autosyns & certain Radio equip:-

The Invertors are controlled by a 3 way position switch marked A/C power. No:-1 OFF. No:-2. OFF. which is mounted at the front of the pedestal. There is a main fuse, in the Co-Pilots F/B. & two fuses, one for each invertor in the relay box; at the side of the rear invertor. During flight the invertors should be changed every half hour. 26.V. 400 cycles for Autosyn. 110V. 400 cycles for Radio.

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Heater Master switch on Co-Pilots side panel controls all heaters.

[symbol] Pilots Co-Pilots & top turret heaters. Supplied by No:-2 ENG:- operated by a 3. position switch marked Heater, OFF. Fans. which is mounted on the Co-Pilots panel.

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[underlined] Heaters; Normal operation of Heaters. [/underlined]

Put on the heater master switch & switch on the required heaters. [underlined] De-Frosting; [/underlined] Put on heater master switch, switch on required heaters, close the deflector plate on the heater unit, remove de-froster tube from its storage & play the stream of air

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over the window - screen to be de - frosted.

On the pilots & co-pilots heaters & deflector plate is controlled remotely by a knob in front of the pilot & co-pilot. The de-froster tube can be can be clipped in a bracket on the windscreen. If thew heaters should start smoking, after being switched off, reduce M.P. on that engine to 15 in:- & switch on the heater. When the heaters have stopped smoking, switch off again & return M.P. to normal.

Battery Testing; With all GEN:- off switch on the batteries turn the voltmeter selector switch to the bus position switch on a load of approx:- 10 amps (A.C. Power convenient) After five min; with the load still on check the voltage is should be at least 24 Volts.

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Bomb Jettison Alive; From bomb - aimers compartment No:1 Nose or Tail fuse 2/ Open Bomb doors 3/ Put bomb gear selector to salvo.

Pilots Position; 1/ Nose or tail fuse on the B/A panel (2) Give two pulls on the Jettison Handle.

Note * To Jettison safe, Nose & Tail fuses must be [underlined] OFF. [/underlined]

To Fire the B.7. Rack (Bombs upto 1100 lbs) singly,

1/ Put the D.5 B7. switch to the B.7 position.

2/ Put the select train switch on the interalometer [sic] to select.

3/ Switch on the bomb indicator lights

4/ Select the Bay or Bays required

5/ Nose or Tail Fuse. (According to target & type of bomb)

6/ Open the Bomb Doors.

7/ Put the bomb gear selector lever to select.

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8/ Press the firing button (each press drops one bomb) B.7. Racks in Train; Set up the intervalometer:-

Bomb Aimers Panel.


(A) Dial No:-1 Set the no:- of bombs to be droped [sic]

(B) Dial No:-2 Set the Ground speed against the distance between bombs.

(C) Put the “train select” switch to train.

Note * The intervalometer must be pre-set at least [underlined] one [/underlined] minute before attempting to drop bombs.

2/ Put the D.5. B.7. switch to B.7. 3/ Put on the indicator light switch. 4/ Select the bay or bays required.

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5/ Nose or Tail fuse. 6/ Open the bomb doors. 7/ Put the bomb gear selector lever to select. 8/ Press the firing push, one press releases the set No:- of bombs, the button must not be held in. If it is desired to stop dropping the bombs after one or two are gone, put the select train switch to select. To Release D.5 Racks Singly;

N.B. The D.5 Racks must be fired one at a time (never in train)

1/ Put the D5. B.7. switch to D.5.

2/ Put the select train switch on the intervalometer to select.

3/ Switch on the bomb indicator lights.

4/ Select the bomb to be dropped

5/ Nose or tail fuse (if American bombs fitted fusing is done by the arming lever; which is mounted at the

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side of the bomb gear selector).

6/ Open the bomb door.

7. Put the bomb gear lever to select.


[underlined] U/C. Curcuits. [/underlined]

If a bomb hangs up it can be released manually, by pushing the release lever on bomb rack, thro; the spring gate on the release arm of the Electro Magnetic release units. After the bomb has been released fire the release unit by means of a screwdriver in the top screw & so complete the curcuit for the other bombs.

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[underlined] Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp. R. 1830/43. [/underlined] [inserted] Compression 6.7 - 1 [deleted] Blower [/deleted] Ratio [/inserted]

14 Cyl:- 2 Bank Reduction Gear 16 - 9. Blower Ratio; 7.15 - 1. B.H.P. at Take Off. = 1200, using 48”:- H.G. & 2700. R.P.M. Military Power. (5” min:- or 1000ft) Rated Power 1100. B.H.P. 46. H.G. at 2550 R.P.M. (1 Hour). 75%. 35.5” H.G. at 2325 R.P.M.

(Firing Order) 1. 10. 5. 14. 9. 4. 13. 8. 3. 12. 7. 2. 11. 6.)

65%. 32”. H.G. at 2200. R.P.M.

Cyl; 2. Banks clockwise from the rear 1 - 14. Odd; No:- in rear bank. Even; No:- in front bank.

Direction of Rotation - Clockwise from rear; Prop & Crankshaft. Master Cyl:- 5 & 12. Temp; Guage connection, from No 5 cyl:- (Thermocouple

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Mag. Timing; 250. B.T.D.C. fixed. Checked on No:-1 Cyl:- Bosche type Mag. Stromberg Pressure type Carburettor. (Injection) Starter Electraly [sic] Energised Enertia: [sic]

Top, 8 Cyls; are primed - (4 on each bank.)

Tappit clearance; .010” cold, inlet & exhaust.

Left Hand; Mag fires all rear plugs.

No:- 1 & 2 Engines Vacuum pumps.

No:- 3. Engine Hydraulic pump.

[underlined] Oil Type; D.T.D. 472. [/underlined]

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1/ Starter 2/ Generator. 3. Magneto’s 4/ Oil pump assembly 5/ Fuel pump. 6/ Oil strainer. 7/ Gen; idler shaft 8/ Relief Valve 9/ Side drives. 10/ Tach; drives 11/ Oil tank vent. 12/ Breather. 13/ Idler shaft bearings. 14/ By-pass valve for strainer chamber.

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[underlined] Oil Lubrication Layout. [/underlined]

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Thermostatic Control Valve.

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[underlined] The Regurgitation Tube or Volute Drain. [/underlined]

When Engine starts depression in C. acts on top of valve A. Combined with atmospheric pressure underneath A. is lifted preventing excess fuel from draining to atmosphere. Fuel is drawn past B into D. by depression in eye of impellor. [sic] When throttle opens depression in C. is changed to a pressure. The depression at D lifts valve B thus retaining A. Fuel is still drawn up in the same way. When engine stops A & B fall down hereby allowing any excess fuel to drain to atmosphere.

[underlined] Range of Carb. [/underlined]






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[underlined] Lubrication; [/underlined] Oil is curculated [sic] thro; the engine by means of two pump assemblies which consist of 1 pressure & two scavenge housed at left hand bottom rear cover, & two scavenge pumps in nose section. Oil from the pressure pump is conveyed thro the pressure filter & spring loaded check - valve, into two main passages described as first & second branch.

[underlined] No:-1. Branch; [/underlined] This oil is directed into a anular [sic] groove which encircles the rear bush of the Gen; idler shaft. There the pressure is broken down by means of an intermitant [sic] feed brought about by two holes in G.I.S. (approx 40 [symbol]”) The compensating relief valve in in communication with this feed [underlined] before [/underlined] the intermitant [sic] feed take place, & while the oil temp is below 400 C. maintains H.I.O.P.

When the oil reaches 400 C the thermostatic valve operates

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& bypasses low pressure oil to the compensating piston, cutting out the 200 lb [symbol]” spring & reducing the oil pressure to its normal working pressure of 65. to 90. lbs [symbol]”

High pressure oil is also conveyed to the inside of the main access:- drive shaft, lubricating blower bearings then into the tailend of the C/shaft, then via’ drilled passages in the C/S. to the master & articulated rods.

It then continues, to lubricate the reduction gear (up the six drilled stub arms) 3 jets are provided to help lubricate the two bevel pinions, the oil then continues thro; the prop, shaft (Centre to provide oil pressure to the prop). Front of the piston. Note; there are two jets in the crank - webs to ensure an adequate splash feed for, the 3 roller bearings, piston rings, & cyls; walls & gudgeon pin bushes.

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[underlined] 2nd Branch; [/underlined] directs oil from the pressure filter to a hollow bolt, right hand side of the engine, from there an internal pipe line conveys oil to rear cam ring, tappet gallery into hollow tappets up drilled push rods to valve gear of rear cyls; From the hollow bolt, an external pipe conveys oil to the front section, where it does exactly the same as the rear. A small pipe conveys oil to C.S.U.

[underlined] Scavenge; [/underlined] Drain oil from rocker & valve boxes of each cyl:- drains to a small sump on No:- 8 cyl:- thro; a system of connecting pipes of cyl:- heads. This sump is scavenged by one of the pumps in the nose section. The other nose section pump scavenges oil from reduction gear & C.S.U. Both pumps discharge into a common outlet, into an external pipe line. back to rear cover & so to the tank. Oil from the moving parts of C/case & rear

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cam compartment, drains to the main sump between No:- 7 & 9 cyl:- This sump is scavenged by centre pump in the rear cover. The top section of this pump assembly, scavenges by means of a small pipe the rear cover.

[underlined] Stromberg; advantages; [/underlined]

Freedom from icing owing to the fact that fuel is injected after the throttle butterfly not affected by gravity or inertia, “fully automatic.”

[underlined] Consists of 5 Units; [/underlined] 1. [underlined] Throttle unit [/underlined] consisting of; throttle body & throttles impact tubes leading to chamber A. boost venturi connected to chamber B. Chamber A depending on carb; inlet pressure, chamber B on position of throttle 2. [underlined] Regulator Unit; [/underlined] Consists of two main diaphragms, A & B Air, C metered fuel at nozle [sic] pressure, D

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unmetered fuel. A bleed between A & B (Mixture Control Bleed) enables mixture control to function. A poppet valve mounted on the diaphragm, with its head in chamber D, regulates the fuel. The difference in pressure between A & B depending upon throttle opening is termed A.M.F. Fuel pressure in D is termed F.M.F. opposes this. The two pressures are equal at any given throttle opening & only vary when the throttle is being opened or closed. At slow running the A.M.F. is negligable [sic] therefore the small spring in chamber D, termed the idle spring holds poppet valve off its seat ensuring enough fuel for idling. A small float with tapered needle situated in fuel receiving chamber, ensures that any vapour brought in by the fuel is relieved back to the tank. A fuel screen is also in this chamber, which receives,

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fuel from the tank at approx:- 15 lb [symbol]”.

[underlined] Fuel Control Unit; [/underlined] Houses the three jets idle needle, fill valve, manually operated mixture control selector, power enrichment valve, & in all controls the amount of fuel allowed to the spray nozzle.

[underlined] Fill Valve; [/underlined] Spring loaded sitting in the channel to chamber C, it is [underlined] only [/underlined] closed in the idle cut-off position. Its purpose is to allow metered fuel (at spray nozzle pressure) to chamber C & on selecting idle cut off, to prevent this fuel to chamber C, thereby preventing any pressure being built up on the spring nozzle & ensuring a clean cut off to the engine.

[underlined] Idle Needle; [/underlined] Operated by the throttle working in the passage between chamber D, & the jets it meters the fuel upto [sic] the first 100 of throttle opening.

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[underlined] Stromberg Carburettor P.D. 12. F.25. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Fuel Control Unit. [/underlined]

Two vents in clover plate 1 to chamber D & 1 to the fill valve, & chamber C is vented to the spray nozzle. Auto - lean the largest Jet and Auto - rich the smallest.

[underlined] Power Enrichment Valve; [/underlined] Consists of a spring loaded poppet valve, mounted on a diapragm. The spring loading holds the valve on its seat. Metered fuel spray nozzle pressure also assists this. The other side of the diaphragm is in communication with

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unmetered fuel from chamber D. When the throttle is opened the pressure of D will rise this is felt behind the diaphragm, & when it exceeds the metered fuel pressure plus the spring loading the valve will open, this will be a progressive movement.

Power enrichment Jet discharges thro; the same opening in the plate valve as the auto - lean jet. It comes into operation at the top of the cruising range approx 65% power.

[underlined] Acceleration Pump. [/underlined]


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[underlined] A.M.C. [/underlined] (Nitrogen to compensate for temp:- & altitude changes. Oil to stop vibration or flutter.)

[underlined] Acceleration Pump; Operation. [/underlined]

At small throttle openings, a depression is felt in chamber z drawing back the diaphragm & thus allowing more fuel to enter chamber Y. which results in [indecipherable word] chamber x & y being filled with fuel to nozzle pressure. As the throttle is opened the depression existing in Z is reduced allowing the spring to force the diaphragm in the opposite direction forcing the poppet valve off its seating & ejecting fuel into the manifold, at the same time flowing thro; bleed holes in the poppet valve diaphragm, thus delaying the closing of the valve & giving a delayed supply of fuel.

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[underlined] Bleeding Carburettor; [/underlined] Remove the two vent plugs, from chambers C & D. Open throttle slightly & turn on fuel booster pump, move mixture control out of idle - cut - off this lifts fill valve off its seat & allows fuel to chamber ‘C’. When fuel emerges in a full flow, replace vent plugs mixture control to auto - lean switch off booster pump.

A quick means of priming carb, & during flight may be carried out by simply, switching on booster pump & moving mixture control smartly from [underlined] I.C.O. [/underlined] to [underlined] A.R. [/underlined] & back two or three times.

[underlined] Idle Adjustment; [/underlined] Start & warm engine, set eccentric throttle stop to give 900 - 1000 R.P.M. Centralise quality screw, & adjust it to give max:- RPM. & min:- boost. Test for acceloration [sic] & full throttle. Take - off power should

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be obtained within 5 seconds. If satisfactory readjust throttle stop to approx: 500 RPM.

[underlined] Trouble Shoot; [/underlined] No:- 1. Engine will not run after firing on priming charge. A/ Low fuel pressure B/ Linkage incorrect (not out of I.C.O.). C/ Air trapped in regulator unit. E/ Idle setting incorrect E Discharge nozzle sticking open.

2/ Mixture too Rich or to lean at altitude, but O.K. at sea level;

4/ Needle or float stuck closed in strainer chamber: B/ A.M.C. malfunctioning. C/ Emergency full rich by - pass valve open or leaking (linkage incorrectly set)

3/ Will not accelerate on rapid throttle openings; A/ discharge nozzle leaking B/ Accelerator pump not functioning. C/ Leak in air chamber, to fuel chamber.

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[underlined] Distributor Valve Assembly During Constant Speeding. [/underlined]


[underlined] Feathering. [/underlined]


[underlined] Only Moves For Feathering [/underlined]

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[underlined] Hamilton Fully Feathered Propellor. [/underlined]


[underlined] Constant Speed Unit. [/underlined]


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[underlined] Oil System Diagram. [/underlined]

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[underlined] Turbo Supercharger; [/underlined] Sea level efficiency upto 25000 ft Increased power output for take - off & heavy loads. Increased volumetric & thermo efficiency due to low percentage of HP. absorbed in driving. Control of all Carb: temp:-

[underlined] Rated Speed; [/underlined] Max; permissable [sic] speed for continuous S/C. operation determined by the working mechanical efficiency of the S/C.

[underlined] Rated Height [/underlined] 25,000; ft Highest altitude at which sea [underlined] (21300 [/underlined] level atmospheric pressure can be maintained at Carb:- inlet with the bucket wheel operating at rated speed.

[underlined] Pressure Altitude; [/underlined] The altitude at which rated speed is obtained with the power outlet of less than full power.

[underlined] Combat; [/underlined] 57” H.G. 5 min:- limit to be reported on landing. upto 20,000. ft Max:- Climbing Continuous, 43.5” HG. 30,000 ft 30 HG. 34000 ft.

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Max; Weak Continuous 31” HG. upto 31,000 ft. Reduce H.G. 1 1/2” per 1000 ft. above these altitudes Boost must always be reduced, 1 1/2 HG per 1000. ft above all pressure altitudes.


Front Section

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[underlined] Turbo-Supercharger Flow Diagram [/underlined]

[underlined] Handling; Ground Test. [/underlined] Start & warm up engines exercising turbo’s by moving the levers to “ON” & back several times leaving in the “OFF” position. This curculates [sic] the oil in the regulator unit, getting rid of any old viscous oil. After testing pump, & ignition, advance throttles to give approx 30” H.G. boost.

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bring in the turbo, to give 1 - 2” H.G. rise. This should hold steady & not fluctuate, take out turbo; & close throttle (note turbo levers should be always as near as possible in alignment with one another. To test take-off boost put throttle to stop, advance turbo to give 44” HG. pause, allow boost to steady & carefully bring in turbo untill [sic] 48” HG is obtained set turbo stops.

Flight; Power should be obtained by the throttles wherever possible when this becomes impossible, bring in turbo’s to maintain required boost. At altitudes where the required boost for cruising can be obtained by throttles, it is esential [sic] that the turbo is operating. To prevent mechanical damage (IE sudden changes from cold to hot temp:-) imposed on the bucket wheel. To do this obtain desired power on throttles, & air-screw prop switches bring in turbo to give 1 - 2” H.G, rise & reduce on throttle to original boost.

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[underlined] Note; [/underlined] It is ill-advisable to have the turbo producing more than 2” HG. against a partially closed butterfly as this results in high carb; inlet temp & subsequent detonation.

The inter coolers should be fully open for all conditions of flight, & only closed for small periods when carb; icing is suspected. The carb; inlet temp should never exceed 380 C.

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[underlined] Trouble Shoot; Causes of high carb:- inlet temp:- [/underlined]

1/ Free air temp:- above 300 C 2/ Incorrectly operating or operation of inter-cooler shutters. 3/ Obstructed free air passage thro; inter-cooler 4/ Miss handling (NB) Turbo producing more than 2” HG. against a partially closed butterfly.

[underlined] Regulator; High manifold pressure; [/underlined] 1/ Waste gate incorrectly set for open position or seized. 2/ Sticking pilot valve. 3/ Punctured Syphon bellows.

[underlined] Low Manifold Pressure; [/underlined] 1/ Broken tension spring 2/ Broken toggle mechanism 3/ Leak in exhaust or pressure system. Fluctuation; 1/ Miss alignment of servo piston 2/ Faulty connection of balance line at regulator end. 3/ Dirt or swarf on pilot valve. 4/ Badly worn toggle mech:- 5/ Stiff waste gate or linkage 6/ Leaky tension rod housing seals.

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7/ High pressure oil.

Sluggish Operation; 1/ Sludged bellows or pilot valve. 2/ Oil or excessive moisture in pressure balance line. 3/ Low oil pressure. (Leakage).

[underlined] Engine Handling. [/underlined]

Pre-Flight Checks

1/ Check from 700 & loading 2/ Examine external brake pipe lines for leakage. 3/ Check exposed portion of Oleo leg. 4/ Check conditions of tyres (creep & inflation) 5/ Check spring loaded fairing & U/C up lock. 6/ Spin turbo, bucket wheels & examine nozzle box & exhaust system for damage. 7/ Check movement of waste-gate, & leave open. 8/ Check cowling buttons fastened.

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9/ Check A/C visually & generally & remove pitot head covers. 10/ Chocks under wheels & Fire Extinguishers ready. 11/ Check ignition switches [underlined] OFF [/underlined] & pull props thro; at least 2 Revs. 12/ Check that nose wheel door emergency opening handles & cables are safely wired & that trip levers are engaged on both doors, also check lock (Nose Wheel). 13/ Check fuel & oil 14/ Check correct closing of hatches and bomb doors. 15/ Enter A/C & check all cables pipe lines etc:- working from tail to nose. 16/ Check hydraulic reservoirs contents and spare fluid. 17/ Check anti-icing tank. 18/ Check fuel cocks [underlined] ON. [/underlined] 19/ Check A.P.U. 20/ Check fire extinguishers & rations. 21/ Tools fuses & instruments. Check Dinghys Type. H.

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[underlined] Engine Starting; Remove Tail Support. [/underlined]

1/ Gen:- switches [underlined] OFF [/underlined] 2/ Battery switches [underlined] OFF [/underlined] 3/ External trolley acc:- [underlined] ON [/underlined] 4/ Mixture control at I.C.O. 5/ Wing & Prop:- de-icers [underlined] OFF. [/underlined] 6/ Fire Extinguishers set to engine to be started. 7/ Turbo’s [underlined] OFF. [/underlined] 8/ Auto Pilot [underlined] OFF. [/underlined] 9/ Throttles approx 1/5 open. 10/ AC power switch on. 11/ Inter-cooler shutters open. 12/ Cowl flaps OPEN. 13/ Props increased rev’s green light on. 14/ Main line switch & ignition switches [underlined] ON. [/underlined] for engine being started. 16/ Fuel pressure approx:- lbs [symbol]” 17/ Power 12 sec: in 2 sec: bursts for cold engine. 18/ Starter (Old Type) energize for 25 sec:- pause & then mesh. Starter New type energize 12 sec sec:- & mesh still holding energizer, ON. 19 Mixture Control out for ICO, as soon

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engine starts [underlined] not [/underlined] before, if engine stops return to I.C.O. 20/ Oil pressure should register almost at once. 21/ Booster pumps [underlined] OFF [/underlined] 22/ Fuel pressure 14 - 16. Note order of starting engines (by starter) By hand

[underlined] Engine Warm Up & Ground Test. [/underlined]

Remove external Battery plug & switch [underlined] ON. [/underlined] A/C acc:- do not exceed 1400 R.P.M. in A.L. on deck, excercise, [sic] turbo. At 1,000 RPM.

1/ Check Vacuum guage on each engine 4 1/2 to 6” HG No:- 1 & 2. 2/ Check Opening & closing of waste gate visually from ground. 3/ Check De-icing Guage 9 [symbol]” & watch boots for inflation. 4/ Function test Magneto. 5/ Check hydraulic acc:- pressure 1050. E.D.P. 6/ Check Main hydraulic guage, select flaps down pressure,

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builds up & dies away, when selector returns to neutral, return flaps up. When oil temp reaches 400 C. 850 C max & cyl:- head temp:- 1200 C min:- & 232 max:-

1/ Check mixture control H.R. 2/ Props increase revs open to 2000 R.P.M. 3/ Oil pressure 75 to 90 [symbol]”. 4/ At 25” of boost check operation of C.S.U. Decrease revs to fully coarse, rev’s drop boost rises, when limit light comes on fully increase again & then decrease oncmore [sic] to approx 1800 - 1600 R.P.M. Open throttles to give 2” H.G. rise & then close them to give 4” HG drop. rev’s should remain constant. 5/ Fully increase rev’s & check GENS:- 6/ Open throttle to gate (turbo OFF) should read 38” H.G. & approx:- 2500 R.P.M. bring in turbo to give 48” HG. 7/ Take out (turbo) close throttle to 25” H.G. & check mags.

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max:- permissable 75 R.P.M. [underlined] Caution. [/underlined] when going from left to right mag, always come back to both. Do not remain on one mag, for any length of time. 8/ Check Turbo, regulator, throttle 30 HG. turbo in to give 1 - 2 H.G. boost should remain steady. 9/ Turbo [underlined] OUT [/underlined] & back to slow running, repeat for each engine in turn.

[underlined] Taxying:- [/underlined]

Cowl Flaps:- Open. Brake Pressure:- OK.
Mixture Control:- Auto Lean. Fuel Boosters:- OFF
Controls:- Locked. Hyd:- Booster:- ON.
Props:- Fully Fine. A.P.U. ON
Gens:- OFF. Wing Flaps. UP.
Turbos:- OFF.
Intercoolers OPEN.

Don’t exceed 1500 RPM. Don’t Turn from a standstill. Don’t turn Nosewheel more than 300 off centre. Don’t use sudden bursts on throttle. Taxi, on inboard engines.

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[underlined] Before Take Off. Checks; [/underlined]

These checks are carried out, at end of perimeter & edge of runway, when bomb doors & all hatches are closed & crew in position for take off. 1/ Pitot head covers [underlined] OFF [/underlined] (seen from cockpit) 2/ Props:- fully increased (green lights) 3/ Intercoolers open 4/ Mixture control A.R. 5/ Fuel Boosters ON. 6/ Hyd; boosters ON. 7/ Brake pressure OK. 8/ Trimming Tabs set as required. 9/ Fuel pressure 14 - 16 [symbol]” 10/ Wing flaps 1/2 to a 1/3 Down. 11/ Controls Unlocked & tested. 12/ Auto Pilot & De-icers OFF. 13/ Gens:- All [underlined] “ON” [/underlined] 14/ A.P.U. OFF. 15/ Turbos set, throttles to gate turbos 48” H.G. leave turbos set & pull back throttle to a 1000 R.P.M. Note. A quick check of mags at 25” HG. May be made. One at a time. 16 Cowl flaps closed.

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Take Off; 1/ Taxi forward a few yards on to runway to straighten Nose Wheel & apply brakes.

2/ Open throttles together untill engine are responding evenly & Nose Wheel is compressed. (Approx 25” HG) 3/ Release Brakes & [underlined] open [/underlined] throttles to stops commencing take off run. Boost may increase owing to ramming effect on air intake, but no need to reduce, unless the boost exceeds 50” HG. then reduce carefully on throttles.

Take Off Speed 110 MPH to 130 MPH according to weight.

[underlined] On Becoming Air - Borne:- [/underlined]

1/ Brakes [underlined] ON [/underlined] & U/C [underlined] UP. [/underlined] 2/ Retrim if & as necessary. 3/ Flaps [underlined] UP [/underlined] slowly 4/ Maintain take - off power untill flaps are up & speed is approx:- 150 IAS. 5/ Reduce power to 43.5 H.G. on turbos, 2550 R.P.M. on prop switches.

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6/ Switch [underlined] OFF [/underlined] fuel & hyd:- boosters. 7/ At approx:- 1000 ft make curcuit of drome.

[underlined] Boost obtained by Engine driven S/b No Turbo. [/underlined] at:- Full throttle at the following altitudes:-

[table of altitudes, pressures and temperatures]

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[underlined] Climb:- [/underlined] M [inserted] C [/inserted] in A.R. at correct I.A.S. for weight. For a high altitude climb, use max:- climbing power. This also gives a high rate of climb. When climbing to low altitudes, use any power that gives good rate of climb. (Note max:- climb may also be used) 43.5 HG. 2550 R.P.M. If Cyl:- head temps rise in climb, they can best be lowered by reducing rate of climb slightly; put nose of A/C down a little, this increases I.A.S. & gives added climbing. If cowl flaps are opened, or power reduced, rate of climb will be much less. Max:- cyl:- head temps for climbing 2600 C. Remember to reduce boost, on turbos 1 1/2” H.G. per 1000 ft. above pressure altitudes. Fuel boosters on at 10,000 ft or when fuel pressure drops 2lbs [symbol]” & hydraulic booster pumps on at 20,000 ft.

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[underlined] Rules for Changing Power. [/underlined]

When changing [underlined] from a high [/underlined] to a [underlined] lower power - first reduce boost, [/underlined] on turbos & then on throttles & second reduce [underlined] R.P.M. on prop switches. Lastly change mixture control. [/underlined] When changing [underlined] from a low, to a higher power, [/underlined] first, move [underlined] mixture control, [/underlined] then [underlined] increase R.P.M. [/underlined] to what is required & [underlined] lastly increase boost. [/underlined]

Levelling Out; When levelling out, after climb, do not change into auto - lean, untill cyl:- head temp:- permits:- (2300 C Max:-) at altitudes above 20.000 ft, it is not practical to operate under 1800 R.P.M. or turbos may stop, with a result of drop in boost, & loss of altitude. At low altitudes where turbos are not required, care should be taken that they are only in 2” H.G.

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[underlined] In General - Under 5,000 ft. [/underlined]

1/ Level Out.

2/ Reduce boost by taking out turbos & reducing to required boost on throttles.

3/ Reduce R.P.M. to required.

4/ Put turbos in 2” H.G.

5/ Reduce the 2” H.G. on the throttles.

6/ Mixture Control Auto-lean.

[underlined] Above 5000 ft; [/underlined]

1/ Level out.

2/ Reduce boost on turbos (throttles always be at gate above 5000 ft.)

3/ Reduce R.P.M.

4/ Move Mixture Control to Auto-lean.

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[underlined] Powers. [/underlined]

Military: 48.” & 2700 R.P.M. for 5 min:- limit, 1000 ft. on T.O. Rated; (100%) 46” HG. At 2550, - for 1 hour.

75% - 35.5 at 2325.
65% - 32” at 2200.

Max: level continuous:- 34” at 2230.
Max: weak cont:- 31 at 2230.
Max cont; climb 43.5 at 2550.
Combat 5 min:- 57” & 2700 upto 20,000ft.

[underlined] Endurance: [/underlined]

To give min:- fuel consumption, means staying longest possible time in air. Fly at lowest safe altitude at min:- A/S for comfortable & safe flight IE:- approx:- 8 - 10 MPH above your stalling speed.

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Climb to desired altitude (approx:- 3,000 ft)

1/ Level Out.

2/ Reduce boost to 31” HG

3/ Reduce R.P.M. to give desired I.A.S. not coming below that at which Gens:- charge (about 1500 RPM.) If when reaching that [underlined] R.P.M. [/underlined] I.A.S. is still too high, reduce boost to give correct I.A.S. 4/ Turbos in 2” H.G. & take out 2” on throttles.

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5/ Mixture Auto-lean.

[underlined] Range. [/underlined]

At high altitude approx:- 20,000. Object being max:- AMPG. Fly at recommended I.A.S. weight & altitude. (IE The heavier the A/C the faster the I.A.S. Usually outboard journey, (loaded) at one I.A.S. & return journey (unladen) at a slower I.A.S.

At 11,000 ft range speeds for all weights are the same 150 I.A.S. Over 60,000 lb weight the I.A.S. remains 156 I.A.S. upto any altitude. Under 60,000 lb the I.A.S. drops as we climb to 148 I.A.S. at 23,000 ft. Average range speeds; 150 - 165 I.A.S.

1/ Level out & Trim A/C.
2/ Reduce boost on Turbo’s to 31. HG.
3/ Reduce R.P.M. on switches to give desired I.A.S.
4/ Mixture Control to Auto-lean.

[underlined] Care [/underlined] must be taken that R.P.M. is not reduced so far that the boost fades, particularly at high altitudes

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[underlined] Landing: Action before Landing. [/underlined]

1/ Capt:- orders crew to landing stations.
2/ Fuel & Hyd:- Booster pumps, ‘ON’
3/ Check A.F.C. & all De-icers ‘OFF’
4/ Check Hydraulic pressure.
5/ Select U/C [underlined] UP [/underlined] to test kick-out pressure. [underlined] 1000. [symbol]” [/underlined]
6/ Cowl Flaps closed.
7/ Mixture Control A.R.
8/ U/C [underlined] Down [/underlined] at less than 170 I.A.S.
9/ Check for locked [underlined] Down [/underlined] position. (Warning horn, green lights & visual) Nose Wheel also visualy [sic] checked down.
10/ R.P.M. increased to green light.
11/ Turbo’s [underlined] IN 3” [/underlined] ins:- Note All I.A.S. & attitude of A/C controlled by throttles from now on.

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12/ Flaps 3/4 Down at not more than 155 I.A.S. approach, call out altitude & I.A.S. every 3 sec:- 13/ Approach between 120 & 130 I.A.S. according to weight. Touch Down. Immediately after touch down lower flaps right [underlined] DOWN [/underlined]

[underlined] After Touch Down. [/underlined]

1/ Hold throttles closed
2/ Lock controls on capt:- orders.
3/ Cowl flaps OPEN.
4/ Turbo’s out. Note; after stopping wing flaps UP fuel boosters OFF. Gen, OFF & Taxi away.

Note do not apply parking brake if drums are hot.

[underlined] Baulked Landing; [/underlined]

Up to 47,000 lb sufficient power will be obtained by opening up the throttles. Above 47,000 lbs open throttles

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to gate & bring in turbos as evenly as possible. In the event of an expected baulked landing, the turbos may be in more than the usual [underlined] 3 [/underlined] ins, & care taken when manipulating throttles.

[underlined] Decent; [sic] Cruising Decent. [/underlined]

A/ Put A/C into decent & maintain the same power setting (IE) boost & revs as in level flight with this decent an increase in I.A.S. will be noticed & maintained. [inserted] AS ABOVE [/inserted] B/ except this time the level flight I.A.S. is maintained, power being reduced. Below 5,000 ft turbos must still be in 2” ins

[underlined] Slow Decent; [/underlined] not to be used in danger zones, use lowest possible power

[underlined] Power Decent; [/underlined] Trim A/C into decent, Nose heavy rather than Tail heavy, limitations being, 3060 R.P.M. max for 30 sec:-

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Up to 60,000 lbs 310 I.A.S. Over 60,000 lbs 275 I.A.S. Set R.P.M. comparatively high approx:- 25000. Turbo in to give 40 - 45” HG. Control by means of throttle only [underlined] Note [/underlined] Boost pressure will be low in this instance.


[underlined] Landing Graph [/underlined]

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[underlined] Emergencies; Engine Failure on Take Off. [/underlined]

If necessary to continue Take Off.

1/ Trim A/C rudder first then aileron, increase power to maintain I.A.S.
2/ Start A/C up as soon as possible.
3/ Gain speed as rapidly as poss:- & maintain 135 I.A.S. min:-
4/ Feather dead engine.
5/ Flaps up 30 - 40 a time, at low speeds A/C will handle better if a few degrees of flap is maintained.
6/ Jettison if necessary on captains orders.
7/ Trace trouble.

Note:- No:- 3 engine failed, have aux:- booster pump ON & emergency valve open. No:- 1 & 2 have good engine to instruments.

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[underlined] Engine Failure During Flight. Indications. [/underlined]

Loss of I.A.S. yaw to one side probably drop in altitude. [underlined] Action; [/underlined] First increase power on all 4 engines, retrim. The one that does not respond readily is the dead engine. A falling off of C.H.T. & oil temp:- will not be immediately noticed.

[underlined] Feather; [/underlined] 1/ Press feathering button.
2/ Close throttle.
3/ Mixture Control to I.C.O.
4/ Turbo out.
5/ Ignition [underlined] ‘OFF’. [/underlined]
6/ Fuel Booster [underlined] ‘OFF’. [/underlined]
7/ Cowl Flaps closed.
8/ Generators [underlined] ‘OFF’. [/underlined]

Transfer fuel if & as necessary. * Note:- If in doubt about dead engine, do not feather untill certain.

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[underlined] To Restart Engine. = (Feathered) [/underlined]

1/ Fuel [underlined] ON [/underlined]
2/ Throttle slightly OPEN.
3/ Props decrease revs & ignition ‘ON’.
4/ Press feathering button & hold in untill 1000, to 1300. R.P.M. is reached, then pull out.
5/ Mixture Control Auto-rich, when prop is turning.
6/ Line up boost & revs with other engines. Gens [underlined] ON [/underlined]

[underlined] If Engine is Cold. [/underlined]

As above for 1. 2. & 3. then:-

4/ Press feathering button, & hold untill R.P.M. = 200. & then pull out. Allow prop to turn over at this for a minute to curculate the oil.
5/ Fuel boosters [underlined] ON [/underlined] & prime if necessary.

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6/ Ignition [underlined] ON. [/underlined]
7/ Press button again untill 1000 - 1300 R.P.M. then release.
8/ Mixture Control to Auto-rich fuel booster [underlined] OFF. [/underlined]
9/ Allow to warm up to correct temps:- (cowls closed).
10/ Bring in line with other 3 Engines. Gens:- [underlined] OFF. [/underlined] * Iff curcuit breakers pop out during feathering push it in immediately, except for practise feathering, when you wait for 30 sec:-. If it pops out during unfeathering, wait 30 sec:- in any case.

[underlined] 3 Engine Control. [/underlined]

For continuous flight use 150 I.A.S.

If same I.A.S. is required as for 4 engines, power must be increased by 50%. Range & Endurance on the 3 engines will be the same.

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Fly at the highest altitude for Auto-lean (normally).

[underlined] 2 Engines on One Side. [/underlined]

At low speeds, about 1/8 flap is advantagous, [sic] & I.A.S. of approx:- 140 min. Use full rudder tab, to relieve rudder pressure necessary for level flight. Trim to keep the dead engine wing high.

[underlined] Carb:- Icing. [/underlined]

Indications; A drop in H.G. [underlined] not [/underlined] necessary on all four engines at once, giving a loss of power, with consequently a drop in I.A.S. & altitude.

Remedy; Close intercooler shutters for a brief period. Open & check boost.

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[underlined] Oil Dilution; [/underlined]

When air temp is below 50 C. or ‘ON’ station orders. Idle engines at 800 R.P.M.

Oil Temp, 400 - 500 C never above 500 C or fuel will evaporate (fire risk). If oil temp cannot be [inserted] brought [/inserted] to below 500 C idling, stop engines & restart when oil temp is 300 C & cyl head temp:- 120 - 1500 C.

Hold dilution ON; 3 - 4 min:- & stop engines, [underlined] before [/underlined] switching it off.

[underlined] Rich Mixture; [/underlined] Rough running - high fuel consumption, & if very rich, black smoke from exhaust. Check fuel pressure guage. If on A.R. try H.L.

[underlined] Weak Mixture; [/underlined] Vibration - backfiring - high cyl:- head & oil temp. On ground weak mixture indication with,

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100, octane, a bluish white flame approx 7” in long.

[underlined] Very weak [/underlined] mixture - a greenish flame.

[underlined] A few Donts; Don’t; [/underlined]

? Fial [sic] to carry out all Pre-flight checks
Fail to check fuel & oil before Take-Off.
Fail to check nose wheel shimmy damper protrusion.
Fail to check de-icer & A.F.C. or Gyro pilot OFF before T.O. & landing.
Fail to use A.P.U. if starting with A/C batteries.
Fail to turn OFF aux:- booster pumps after T.O.
Fail to check landing gear latches engaged, before landing.
Start engines before turning them by hand.
Start engines with waste gate closed.

[underlined] Dont [/underlined] Use A/C batteries for starting if possible.
[underlined] Dont [/underlined] Transfer fuel when using radio.

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[underlined] Dont [/underlined] fail to study intercooler.
[underlined] Dont [/underlined] use intermediate positions on mixture control.
[underlined] Dont [/underlined] forget log.

[underlined] Cowl Flaps; [/underlined]

Open cowl flaps have a definate [sic] effect on speed & climb, the added drag & disturbance of airflow, reducing cruising speed approx:- 8/10 of a mile per degree of flap opening at normal speeds. The max height will also be much less with cowl flaps partly open.

Settings between 1/3 & 2/3 open, cause tail buffeting especially on inboard engines. This can be suppressed by increasing speed, or by opening cowl flaps fully, but is not recommended, especially opening them more - increased drag etc: agian. [sic]

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1824678 Sgt FORSYTH
Lenzie Brae

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1/ 1570 - 1830
2/ 335 417
3/ 577 743
4/ 918 1242

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[rear cover]



N I Powell, “Liberator - B-24 flight engineer course notes,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed June 21, 2024,

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