Harold Wakefield's instructor training notebook



Harold Wakefield's instructor training notebook


Covers RAF top level organisation, list of all home commands and scope of aircrew training. Continues with description of structure of air council, and detailed description of bomber command structure. Followed by two training analyses with diagrams, how to compile timetables, principles of organisation. administration, instructional method, example lectures, how to use blackboard and colour, how to learn, lecture criticisms, assessment of instructional ability and development. Continues with the practice of instruction, effective speaking, further example lecture and hints on lecture.






Multi-page notebook with handwritten entries


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[front cover of notebook]

32 COURSE [underlined] F.T.I.C. [/underlined] WAKEFIELD P/O.

Form 619.


Notebook for use in Schools.

91/5074. Wt. 2037. 200M. 6/43. P. & T.

[page break]

[inside front cover]

[underlined] P.L. [/underlined]

[underlined] 10 mins [/underlined]

Telephone System,

Thousand Isles,



Motor - Cycle Trials.

Newspaper printing

Holiday in France.


Cartridge Making

Journey across Africa

Ledrs. Sandtoft, Wickenby, Kershaw, Rook

[page break]

A Flight, Flying Training Command

Training Organisation 11 1/2 hrs

Law & Admin. 13

Organisation 12

Visiting Lecturers 4


81% & over = ‘A’

71% to 80% = ‘B’

60% to 70% = ‘C’

59% & under = FAIL

A Excellent — B Very Good — C Avr. — D B. Avr. — E Very weak

B Flight. [underlined] Bomber Command. [/underlined]

[underlined] 1st day [/underlined] :- Summary by C.I. Preparation of Instruction, Preparing lectures. Practise Lectures, Use of Blackboard. Organisation.

[underlined] 2nd day [/underlined] :- Organisation, Admin. P.L. Organisation. Inst. Method. P.L. Critiscisms [sic] of lectures, & how to assess lectures.

[underlined] 3rd day [/underlined] :- I.M. Organisation. P.L. B.B. Inst. I.M. P.L.

[underlined] 4th day [/underlined] :- Training analysis I.M. P.L. Disc. groups. P.L. Law & Admin. Training Analysis.

[underlined] 5th day [/underlined] :- P.L. I.M. T.O. Admin. Visiting Lecturer. Law & Admin.

[underlined] 6th day [/underlined] :- T.O. I.M. P.L. B.B. ADMIN. I.M. T.O.

[underlined] 7th day [/underlined] :- ADMIN. I.M. org. I.M. P.L. ADMIN. ORG.

[underlined] 8th day [/underlined] :- ADMIN. Training [one indecipherable word] P.L. Unit Talks. Visiting Lecturer. Speech Training.

[underlined] 9th day [/underlined] :- P.L. Org. P.L. I.M. Court Martial

[underlined] 10th day [/underlined] :- Org. P.L. Org. I.M. Org. Ad. P.L.

[underlined] 11th day [/underlined] :- T.O. T.O. Exams. Exams. C.O’s address.

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[underlined] R.A.F. SUBJECTS [/underlined]

Training Organisation



[underlined] TRAINING ORGANISATION [/underlined]

T.O. (1) [underlined] R.A.F. Organisation. [/underlined]

[underlined] Air Council [/underlined]

R.A.F. Governed by Air Council, founded 1917.

Sec. of State for Air.


[underlined] Sec. of State [/underlined] :- Responsible to the King for all R.A.F. affairs. His work is largely parliamentry. [sic] Presides over Air Council

[underlined] Parl. u/s of S [/underlined] :- Deputises for S & S in Parliament & Air Council, specialises in all training matters, personnel admin. accidents & civil aviations.

[underlined] Parl. u/s of S (L) [/underlined] :- Specialises in works, contracts, welfare,

[page break]

publicity, Royal Observer Corps, Met. Parl. S of S (C) is the senior.

[underlined] Chief of Air Staff [/underlined] :- Operations, Signals & intelligence. Serves on Chiefs of Staff committee.

[underlined] Vice Chief of Air Staff [/underlined] :- Merely understaff to C.A.S.

[underlined] Air Member to Personnel [/underlined] :- Responsible for manpower, recruitings, postings, chaplains, medical service, Provost Marshall & S.P’s.

[underlined] Air Marshall of Supplies & Organisations [/underlined] :- Supplies, works directorate, airfields, organisation & establishments.

[underlined] Air Marshall for Training [/underlined] :- Flying & Ground Training, O.T.U. & C.U. under him, also responsible for all Technical Training.

(All in charge of departments which are split into various directorates)

[underlined] Addisional [sic] Civilian Member [/underlined] :- Financial Adviser

[underlined] Permanent U/S of State [/underlined] :- Secretary to council, controls R.A.F. Accounting, Publicity & Met.

[underlined] HOME COMMANDS. [/underlined]

[underlined] A.E.A.F. [/underlined] Allied Expeditionary Air Force.

[underlined] BOMBER COMMAND [/underlined] - 8 ops. groups.

3 training units.

American Bombardment Divisions

[underlined] COASTAL COMMAND [/underlined] - 4 Reconnaisance [sic] Groups

1 Training Group.

[underlined] BALLOON COMMAND [/underlined] - 3 Barrages.

TRANSPORT COMMAND - 5 Groups (3 England, 1 Eygpt [sic] 1 India. 1 Canada.)

[page break]

[underlined] Maintenance Command [/underlined] - 4 Groups + 2 Wings.

Responsible for [deleted] shop keepers [/deleted] all crashed ‘planes

53 Wing Packed a/c pools

54 M.T. Companies.

[underlined] Flying Training Command [/underlined] - 7 Groups

[underlined] Technical Training Command [/underlined] - 4 Groups

[underlined] Works Directorate [/underlined] - comes under A.M.S.O.

(TO 2) [underlined] Scope of Aircrew Training [/underlined]

Estimates for aircrew are presented two years in advance

Variable’s affect estimates


2) Shipping

3) Change of aircraft.

4) Availability of aircraft

5) Enemy interference

6) Changes in syllabus.

7) Shortage of airfields & groundstaff.

8) Course of War.

[page break]

[flow charts]

[page break]

[flow charts]

[page break]

[flow chart]

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

Org. 1 [underlined] TRAINING ANALYSIS I [/underlined]

1/ Object of Research is to ascertain the truth by scientific inquiry.

2/ To find out what is happening & why it happens.

3/ Research substitutes conclusions based on facts for personal opinions.

4/ Research enables correct decisions to be taken instead of relying on trial & error.

Department at Air Ministry called Department of Research, covering Flying Training & Technical Training.

[box of text]

Deductions must not be made from small samples.

[box of text and numbers] [calculations]

[underlined] TRAINING ANALYSIS II [/underlined]

The backbone of report on training is the statistical tabulation.

A tabulation is facts arranged in columnar form with top & side headings. 2 sets of facts can be arranged in 2 ways

3 sets of facts can be arranged in 12 ways

5 sets of facts can be arranged in 200 ways

[page break]

[underlined] Points to watch when tabulating facts. [/underlined]

1/ Every tabulation should have an explanatory heading or caption.

2/ The tabulation should be self explanatory.

3/ Headings to columns must be understandable.

4/ Give tabulation a number.

5/ Use double lines to indicate major divisions.

6/ State basis.

Charts have 2 uses 1/ a record 2/ to clarify tabulations


[underlined] Pie chart [/underlined] (circle chart)

[3 pie charts]

Bad for comparing different figures.

[page break]

2. [underlined] Pictogram [/underlined] (Do not use)


3. [underlined] Bar Chart [/underlined] (Vertical or Horizontal)

[bar chart]

4. [underlined] Compound Bar Chart. [/underlined] (nearly always vertical)

[compound bar chart]

5. [underlined] Component Bar Chart [/underlined] (nearly always vertical)

[component bar chart]

[page break]

[circled 6] Histogram (or Distribution Charts)

7. LINE CHART (Historigram)

[line chart]

[circled 8)

[bar chart]

[page break]

[underlined] Timetable Compilation [/underlined]

1/ Obtain syllabus & master it, length of coarse in weeks Subject & hours on subject Total hours Frequency of intake No. of bodies.

2/ Prepare general plan consulting those affected C. I. & specialist instructors & messing officer & obtain agreement.

3/ Accommodation available

4/ Make a table of hours allowed on each subject

5/ Prepare time - table blank. Decide on layout Fix precise lecture hours. Leave gap between lectures & arrange break in 4 hr period. Days of the week Hours of the day Units

6/ Filling in blank form grid:-

Consider instructors with other duties (SMO, Met officers etc)

b) Alternate doing & listening periods. Last period am & pm. Should be active such as P.T.

c) consider instructors (day - off, common room)

d) accommodation

e) time - table for special [deleted] inter [/deleted] equipment.

f) evening instruction

g) reproductions (stencilled 10 letters to 1” [one indecipherable word] hectograph typewriter 12 letters to 1” (elite) handwritten photographed vertically 6 lines to 1”

[page break]

[underlined] PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION. [/underlined]

Organisation is a skill which can be acquired.

Organisation deals with the division of work & and its subsequent co-ordination.

Every undertaking has two divisions or aspects 1) LINE - PURPOSE.



P = Prévoyance (forseeing [sic] your objective & laying plans to achieve it.)

E = (Establishing the structure of the undertaking)

Principle of span of control.

There are 2 forms (1) LINE (disciplinary)

(2) FUNCTIONAL (technical)


5 Forms.

Organisation charts can show


2. Relationship

3. What YOU do.

4. What OTHERS do.

S = Staffing. (Engagement & training)

D = Directing (making descisions [sic] & giving orders)

Co = Coordinating.

R = Reporting (keeping oneself informed - i.e. research.

Keeping ones superior informed.

Keeping ones subordinates informed.

[page break]

[underlined] ORGANISATION [/underlined]

[underlined] Servicing Wing [/underlined]

[underlined] Non - Routine [/underlined] - (I) Variable opportunity

(II) Fleeting opportunity

[underlined] Routine [/underlined] - O.T.U. Training Schools

Object of Servicing Wing - To get maximum flying from minimum servicing personnel & a/c.

Achieved by - 1/ Centralising all technical resources

2/ Relieving Flying personnel of [underlined] all [/underlined] responsibility for a/c & servicing personnel.

FORM 700 Servicing Wing

Daily Service

Daily inspection

2. Pre - flight & between flight

3. Petty u/s.

4. Refuelling. - re-arming etc TURN ROUND

5. All (S.) a/c.

FORM 701

Repair & Inspection

1/ Minor Inspections.

2/ Major Inspections.

3/ Modifications.

4/ Engine change.

5/ Repairs

[page break]

[underlined] Sequence of Inspections [/underlined] -

1/ Daily - Between flights - Pre-flights

2/ Minor - Minor*

Seven minors alternate M - M*

Followed by major I.e. on 50 hr. cycle 8 x 50 = 400 allowed latitude of + or - 10% on all inspections.

[underlined] Planning [/underlined] -

C.T.O. plans on.

1/ Unit Servicing Task

2/ Unit Servicing Statistics

Stage or Gang System of Inspections

[underlined] FLYING ACCIDENTS [/underlined]

Accident Rate :- no of accidents for 10000 hrs.

Accident Trend :- Rise & fall in the rate

MAF Metropolitan Air Force.

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[underlined] ADMINISTRATION [/underlined]

Judge Advocate General:-

In charge of legal proceedings dealing with land etc. Sueing [sic] etc.

Also cheque summaries of evidence. Find out prosecutors & advisor to courts in difficult cases, e.g. against officers.

Defendant can hire [underlined] anyone, [/underlined] civilian, to defend him.

The Accused (no [sic] what is alleged against them before trial)

The Prosecutor (Does not know what accused will say until trial)


All three have summary of evidence

Court Martial cannot try for very serious offences unless there is no civil court for 100 miles E.g. Treason,

If chief witness [underlined] against [/underlined] defence is missing, accused cannot be tried.

1/ Either C.O. or accused can say whether summary is on oath. It is normally on oath.

2/ Officer taking summary must not be implicated

[underlined] Proceedure [sic] against Officers [/underlined]

Any officer must be dealt with by court martial or by A.O.C for minor charges NOT BY C.O.

[underlined] Must [/underlined] be in arrest to go before C.O for charge

[underlined] Must [/underlined] be in arrest for summary of evidence.

[underlined] Must [/underlined] be in arrest for court martial.

[page break]

Punishments:- Reprimand & Severe Reprimand & 12 months loss of seniority

Only Air Council or Court Martial can stop pay or make officer pay.

[underlined] Powers of A.O.C. in Relation to Junior Officers & W/O’s [/underlined]

Severe Reprimand

2. Reprimand

3. Loss of seniority up to 12 months. *

4. Deduction of Pay (W/O’s only) *

Carry the right for C. Martial.

[underlined] Court Marshall [/underlined]

Field Court Marshall :- Very uncommon

General Court Martial :- Deals with officers & very serious offences against airmen

District Court Marshall :- Max punishment 2 years for dealing with smaller charges against airmen. Cannot deal with officers & W/O’s

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[underlined] Y Syndicate. [/underlined]

[underlined] INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD [/underlined]

[underlined] Basic Principles of Instruction. [/underlined]

Ends & Means :- Good instruction requires a thorough knowledge & the subject, ability to impart that knowledge & an understanding of the pupils.

Keep in touch with changing conditions & requirements. Invite suggestions e.g. Instructor Discussion Groups.

Help other instructors, treat them as friends. Commend swell as criticise them.

[underlined] Preparation of Instruction [/underlined]

Syllabus:- Assimilation - material collected, analysed, reflected upon systematised & then applied.

Time factor, the intellectual capacity of pupils, which regulates the rate at which they can assimilate the work. Provision of time for recapitulation, revision exercises & note-taking.

[underlined] Preparing & Lecture [/underlined]

Thorough & detailed preparation of every phase. A clear statement of aim - calls up revelant [sic] ideas, excludes irrevelant [sic] ideas & specifies a definite objective.

The instructor must in his own mind at least, if not on paper:-

Analyse the subject, break it up & rearrange it in proper sequence

(b) How to teach each step:- question & answer, model or apparatus diagrams, analogies, exercises, balance & timing.

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[page on Instructional Method repeated]

[page break]

[underlined] 1st. 20 min Lecture [/underlined]

Pneumatics :- [underlined] The braking system of Halifax III [/underlined]

Draw each component on the board in correct order, explaining the function & purpose of the component, this will lead up to the next component required in the system, thus by drawing & explaining each component in turn & leading up to the next eventually the complete diagram will be on the board & the pupils will then understand the purpose & necessity of each component & will be able to follow the complete system through.

Components in the system,


Oil & Water trap,

External charging valve & regulator,

Dunlop air filter,

Relay Unit, governed by hand operated brake levers & rudder bar.

Brake units in u/c wheels.

[underlined] Diagram [/underlined]

[hand drawn sketch]

[page break]

[underlined] Use of Blackboard for Instruction [/underlined]

Try & use 3 boards.

1 for summary, one for diagrams & one for rough work.

For plotting & accurate work use chisel pointed chalk.

For uniform drawings use a thick blunt end.

For parallel lines us two pieces of chalk together.

For dotted lines use chalk flat, vertically, and for colouring use flat and horizontal

[underlined] Colour Strength [/underlined]

1. White 2. Yellow 3. Pink 4. Red 5. Green 6. Blue 7. TerraCott 8. Purple 9. Brown. (white & yellow most suitable)

[underlined] Writing [/underlined] :- no characteristics, copperplate, etc. Keep the same pressure all the time, make the letters [deleted] letter [/deleted] legible, simple, with no flourishes.

BLOCK for title.

Medium block sub-title.

Script for rest, except for emphasis when BLOCK can be used. Stand directly in front of word which you are writing to prevent writing curving downwards.

If board is greasy, repaint. If blackboard paint is unobtainable use vegetable black with a little carborundum or crocus powed [sic] mixed with it, to give chalk a grip enabling it to powder.

[underlined] Diagrams [/underlined]

Plot it first with faint lines middle of board. Thicken lines later. Prevent reference lines crossing each other as far as possible. Always move from top to bottom & left to right.

Colouring :- [one indecipherable word] large surfaces & block in small ones.

[page break]

[underlined] How to Learn [/underlined] :-

Wanting to learn - Motive & its value

How - imitation - impulsive or unconscious

Imitation - conscious & deliberate.

Conscious learning - contagious

Conscious learning - memorising facts

Conscious learning - reasoning.

For learning time is required.

Association of Ideas.

(Schgod, Gamed, Gantos, Sekmb,)

(River, Piano, Walk, Late, Eats, basket, flower, paper, house, (3 missed))

(Christmas mistletoes parties dancing games skating Hole danger ducking pneumonia, death, doctor)

[underlined] Lecture Criticisms. [/underlined]

[underlined] Introduction [/underlined]

Purpose apparent: interest value: linkage with previous knowledge

[underlined] Development [/underlined]

Sequence of ideas: explanations: illustrations

[underlined] Conclusion [/underlined]

Knowledge of subject.

2. [deleted] Subject [/deleted] questioning

3. Apparatus, models, diagrams

4. B.B. writing, drawing, arrangement.

[page break]

5. Simplicity of language, verbal mannerisms

6. Speech - clarity, loudness, variation.

7. Attitude to class.

8. Responsive class.

[underlined] Assessment of Instructional Ability [/underlined]

Through the medium of the class.

(II) By observations on the instructor.

[underlined] Attributes of instructor [/underlined] :-



Ability to explain

Knowledge of Subject

[underlined] The Astro Compass [/underlined] (Example Lecture)

[underlined] Aim [/underlined] :- [deleted] The [/deleted] To show the class that the direction of the north can be obtained on a heavenly body.

[underlined] Previous Relevant Knowledge of Pupils [/underlined]

Meaning of (1) altitude (2) azimuth (3) declination (4) local hour angle. Use of Air Almanac & A.N.T’s.

[underlined] Method [/underlined]

I Introduction - Atain [sic] from class definitions of azimuth & altitude. Show that the direction of true north can be obtained from an observation on a star by the application of az & alt at the time of the observation.

Emphasise that to obtain true north from Az & Alt both A.N.T’s & Air Almanac have to be used & a calculation used.

[page break]

[underlined] Development [/underlined]

Show that at the north Pole azimuth & alt. are equal to Dec. & L.H.A.*

(2) Show that Dec. & L.H.A.* are sufficient to find direction of true north, provided one can obtain [deleted] ed [/deleted] at the observers position a plane [symbol] to the horizontal at the N. Pole.

(3) Shows how to obtain a plane [symbol] to horizontal at N. Pole.

(4) Emphasise that Dec & L.H.A.* can be obtained from A.A. alone.

(5) Demonstrate the Astro-Compass.

[underlined] Revision [/underlined]

Stress main points by 2 & A.

Summarise on B.B.

[underlined] Exercise [/underlined]

(1) Find true north using the Astro Compass by the observation on the sun.

(2) Find the Dec. & L.H.A. from log observation on the sun & compare your results with those tabulated in the A.A.

[page break]

[two hand drawn sketches]

[page break]

[underlined] THE PRACTISE OF INSTRUCTION [/underlined]

[underlined] Learning by understanding, [/underlined] - never tell the pupil what he should understand.

Grasping an idea - Why & How.

[underlined Questioning Technique [/underlined] - Sequence, progress in little steps, clearcut unambiguous questions direct the questions to individuals not merely asked for the sake of asking.

Do not echo answers and generally deal with wrong answers.

[underlined] Giving Information [/underlined] e.g. certain formulae

Law & administration, the Signals area, Meteorology etc. The main concern is the atmosphere which is created around the subject matter.

[underlined] Conditions for clear & adequate reception. [/underlined]

1/ Sense organs in good working order

2/ Interest produces alertness

3/ Direct attention to essential details, otherwise they will be missed

4/ Create a correct & adequate “mental set.”

5/ Organise the necessary mental background.

6/ Appeal to the full complement of the senses e.g. by aids.

ie Blackboard

Printed & Wall diagrams.

Models. (Do not pass models round class)




Synthetic Devices

[page break]

[underlined] Rates of Forgetting [/underlined]

[underlined] Nonsense Material [/underlined]

More than 1/3 in 20 mins.

More than 1/2 in 1 hr.

Nearly 2/3 in 9 hrs.

More than 2/3 in 24 hrs.

[underlined] Meaningful [/underlined]

1/3 in two days

1/2 in 7 days

3/4 in 30 days

The normal rate of forgetting is extremely rapid in the period immediately after learning.

[underlined] Development of a Skill or a Habit [/underlined]

e.g. Service drill, cockpit drill, Stripping & assembling a gun Morse transmission etc.

Facts to be considered :-

Take care the learner has no reason for wishing to forget.

2. Drill is essential, but not drudgery.

3. There is no drudgery when the drill enables the learner to achieve some end he desires.

4. Expect no improvment [sic] without knowledge of results.

5. Periods of no improvement occur though practice is maintained.

[page break]

[underlined] EFFECTIVE SPEAKING [/underlined]

[underlined] CHOICE OF WORDS. [/underlined] Three essentials for success




2. [underlined] USE OF VOICE [/underlined] Three hints :-




[underlined] THE INSTRUCTOR [/underlined]

[underlined] Exercises two influences on his class [/underlined]

Witting - his attitude of authority which he consciously exerts

2. Unwitting - the force of his personality essentials include confidence, vitality, cheerfulness, sense of purpose, adaptability, patience

B [underlined] Manner & Attitude [/underlined]

Not supercilious, superior or condescending

2. Pleasant, friendly, dignified, tolerant, capable, calm

3. Judicious use of such qualities as sense of humour vitality a interest in subject

4. Proper sense of discipline (effective co-operation)

C [underlined] Choice of Language [/underlined]

Simple yet varied

2. Speech clear : attention to ends of words & to speed of delivery

3. Vary the tone, pace, pitch & intensity.

[page break]

4. Look at & speak to the class.

D [underlined] Characteristics of Pupils [/underlined]

Lack of self - assurance.

2. Hunger for self enhancement or self - asertion [sic]

3. Self respect

[underlined] 2nd 20 min Lecture [/underlined]

Messier Pump Circuit Hal II

[underlined] Introduction. [/underlined]

Need of a pump circuit - to have a continual supply of pressure ready at any moment to operate u/c, bomb - doors or flaps. Draw the main components, pressure line & return line.

[underlined] Development:- [/underlined] Explain other requirements needed & then draw in to complete the whole system.

[underlined] Conclusion :- [/underlined] Run through the system briefly again, revision of main points by questions, colour diagram & put in annotations.

[underlined] Diagram [/underlined]

[hand drawn sketch]

[page break]

[underlined] HINTS ON LECTURING [/underlined]

Use your common sense.

Moderation is power.

Voice cultivation.

Avoid coarse flattery.

Be earnest, humourous [sic] not flippant.

No fine talking & no affection.

No redundancy of expression.

Cultured language.

No grimaces.

Initial quiet confidence.

Order & arrangement.

Separate your points.

Use illustrations & stimulate.

End on a good note.

[underlined] EXAMINATIONS AND TESTING. [/underlined]

An examination is an attempt to pass [deleted] upon [/deleted] judgement upon a persons knowledge off, ability at, or aptitude for a particular subject.

[underlined] Subjective [/underlined] - personal whims of examiner come into play in marking.

[underlined] Objective [/underlined] - examiner does not count.

[underlined] OLD TYPE QUESTION [/underlined]

Give an account of A.S.I. & discuss how its readings are corrected for the height at which the a/c flies.

[page break]

[underlined] NEW TYPE TEST [/underlined]

What does the pitot head do?

2) What does the static head do?

3) What is R.A.S?

4) How is R.A.S. obtained from I.A.S?

5) How is T.A.S. obtained from R.A.S?

[page break]

[underlined] FLYING AT H.G.C.U. NORTH LUFFENHAM [/underlined]





TOTAL 1.30

[page break]

[rear cover]



H E Wakefield, “Harold Wakefield's instructor training notebook,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed March 5, 2024, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/33713.

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