Ted Neale's Navigation Notes

MNealeETH1395951-150731-044.pdf

Title

Ted Neale's Navigation Notes

Description

A note book kept by Ted Neale covering chart projection, navigation calculations and also notes about firing range procedures and behaviour expectations for non-commissioned officers and officers.

Creator

Publisher

IBCC Digital Archive

Contributor

Frank Batten

Rights

This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.

Format

One RAF notebook with handwritten notes.

Language

Identifier

MNealeETH1395951-150731-044

Coverage

Transcription

Navigation Notes
1395951
Neale. E

[page break]

[calculation]

[underlined] Theory of Flight
Wings
The angle of attack. [/underlined]

[diagrams]
Angle of attack is the angle between the chord line & the relative wind. It is usually between 2 to 4 in straight and level flight.
[diagram]
[underlined] Air Flow over the wings. [/underlined]

[page break]

Projection is any orderly construction to represent Meridians & Parallels on a plane surface, it is impossible to represent the surface of the earth on a plane surface without distortion, a perfect projection would show (1). The scale the same all over (2). all areas on the earth would be represented by corresponding areas on the map. (3). all shapes would be correct (4). Bearings, that is, angles on the map would be the same as corresponding varies on the earth. To achieve all this in one projection is impossible so that maps are constructed to (a) preserve one of the above by sacrificing all the others. For example Mercator (b) to compromise by making a minimum amount of error, this is possible by taking an average amount of error over a small area. Special Features of Mercators Projection
Angles on the map are accurate representation of the angles of the world.
The Rhumb line that is the [underlined] path of the aircraft [/underlined] is represented by a straight line
3/. Meridians are represented as parallel straight lines
4/. Parallels of latitude appear as parallel straight lines at right angles to the Meridians
5/. The scale of the map increases as the latitude increases.
6/. The chart length of a minute of longitude is constant all over the map.

[page break]

[underlined] Courses & Tracks
Course. [/underlined] (T).
Is the angle measured clockwise from the true meridian to the fore & aft line of the aircraft. [diagram] it is always written in 3 figure notations 000(T) to 360(T)
[underlined] Track. [/underlined] is the angle measured from the meridian to the path of the aircraft relative to the ground it is measured in 3 figure notations 000(T) to 360(T) [diagram]
[underlined] Angle of Drift. [/underlined] the angle of drift is the angle measured from the longitudinal axis of the aircraft to its path on the ground, the angle between course & track
It is measured port or starboard from the aircraft nose [diagram]
example (1) an aircraft is on a course 153(T) the track is 141(T) what is the drift answer 12 port.
example (two) the course of an aircraft is 257(T) the drift is 9 degrees starboard what is the track
266(T) Course – port drift = track
‘’ ‘’ + star ‘’ = track
[calculation]

[page break]

[underlined] Wind effect [/underlined]
In conditions of no wind the path of an aircraft over the ground is coincident with the course & the ground speed of the plane is the same as the T.A.S.

[calculations]

[page break]

[calculations]


TO BE RECOPIED
(1) [underlined] Isogonals. [/underlined] which are lines joining places of equal magnetic variation (used on Mercator plotting sheet at 1 intervals, and on the half million Topographical Map at 30 minute intervals
2) Compass Rose, used on the 1/4" to 1 mile topographical map.
3/. Marginal Diagram. 1/2 million topographical 1/4” to 1 mile
Agonic Line, a line of zero magnetic variation.

You are over Scarborough & wish to make good a course of 144(T) what magnetic course will you steer.
[diagram]

[page break]

from Eastbourne to Ronaldsway
TO BE COPIED
Applying variation to (A) courses & (B) Bearings.
(A)[underlined] Courses. [/underlined] apply mean variation along the track do this by find the mid point on the track & use the nearest isogonal.
(B)[underlined] Bearings. [/underlined] min this case apply local variation, ie the variation from the place you are situated.

Deviation (The Compass Course).
The compass in an aircraft is surrounded by magnetic disturbances which tend to deflect the needle from the magnetic Meridian
The angle between the Magnetic Meridian & the Direction taken up by a magnetic needle lying in a field not coincident with the Earths Magnetic field. The disturbances may be resolved into N & S poles inside the aircraft as the heading of the aircraft changes the position of these poles also changes a relation to the Magnetic Meridian, consequently Deviation

[page break]

will be different for different headings of the aircraft
[diagram]
Deviation therefore is always relative to the aircrafts magnetic course. Certain of the disturbances are removed by, Those which remain are tabulated for each heading of the craft & from the results obtained R.A.F. 316 & 316A are constructed (Deviation Cards)
Note that there must be a separate 316 for each individual aircraft, and a separate 316A for each position in the aircraft in which the “O” (observer type) type compass may be mounted

In the vicinity of Holyhead

You are flying vicinity of Celcy [sic] Bill
Course 315(M) observe Nap [sic] tower on a bearing of 259(C)
what is the Deviation on the compass and to what heading does it apply
[diagram]

[page break]

[diagram]

GT. ORMES HEAD
TAKE BEARING OF BAR LIGHT
BEARING COMPASS [underlined] 070 [/underlined]
[diagram]
[calculation]
Near Swanse [sic]
over Mumbles see Scarweather
Bearing 181(C)
[calculation]
[diagram]

HUMBER SPERN [sic] LIGHT TRANSIT HUMBER
[calculation]
[diagram]

[page break]

[calculation]
[diagram]

Vicinity of Portland
[calculation]
[diagram]
Anvil Point transit St Catherines on a bearing of 107
what is the deviation and to what does it apply
[calculation]
[diagram]

[page break]

[calculation]
[diagram]
[diagram]

[page break]

[calculation]
[diagram]
[calculation]
[diagram]

[page break]

[calculation]
[diagram]

The Bearing of an Object was 040(C)
when course of Aircraft by O type was 170 the true B 060(T) variation 10 east deviation of Pilot by which course was 185(C)

From Cambridge to Hartland Pt
Start 09:00 hrs Rhumb line Track 248(T)
Distance = 189 nm
51 37 1/2 N
02 07 E
W.V 150 / 20 K TAS 180 K

[page break]

The Lat & Long VIESBARN is 53 08” N 06 09’ E
The Lat & Long of OLDENBURG 51 11” N 06 09 E
1 57
Leave A 090(T) travel 50 nm, travel on bear 180 (T) 50 nm 270 (T) 50 nm 000(T) 50 nm
A navigate Track Lat 50 N Lat 54
ETA would be early
[diagram]
[calculation]

[page break]

[underlined] PROPERTIES OF MAP PROJECTION. [/underlined]

[table]
[calculation]
[diagram]

[page break]

Aircraft Recognition
[table – Allied aircraft]
[table – German aircraft]

[page break]

[underlined] Range Orders [/underlined]
1). Pointing of rifles or pistols. Rifles & Pistols are on no account to be pointed or aimed in any direction except when on firing point and in firing position and then only towards the butts
[underlined] Waiting Details [/underlined] must stand clear of firing point and are under the direct supervision of the flight N.C.O
[underlined] Inspection of Arms [/underlined]
the Officer or N.C.O in charge of firing will inspect all arms prior to detailing firers to their firing points
[underlined] Issue of Ammunition. [/underlined]
The N.C.O or airman will issue ammunition to firers only when details are ready to take up their position on the firing point and after the red flag has been withdrawn
[underlined] Conduct of Practices [/underlined]
Peoples detailed will fall in opposite their alloted target when the nature of the practice will be explained,
b). On the order five rounds load, pupils will assume the prone position & load 5 rounds & place the safety catch in safe position
c). on the order “Fire” pupils will put the safety catch off & unless

[page break]

otherwise ordered will continue firing in their own time until either all the rounds have been fired or the order “cease Fire’ is given
d). Until the order “Stand Clear” is given pupils will remain in the prone position. When the order has been given pupils will leave the butts of their rifles to the rear and rest the rifle with the breech clear of the ground and stand to attention.
e). On receiving the order inspect targets pupils will be marched to the butts this procedure being carried out for each practice.
6). [underlined] Jamming of Weapons. [/underlined] Should a jam occur that the firer cannot remedy by recognised immediate action he will leave the [deleted] rifle [/deleted] weapon with the muzzle pointing towards the butts, & raise his arm when the stoppage will be cleared by a qualified armament personnel. On no account should a weapon which may contain a live round be brought behind the firing point.
7). Smoking on the range is strictly prohibited

[page break]


8). [underlined] Carrying of live rounds [/underlined]
In no circumstances may live rounds or mis-fires be carried on the person.
[underlined] Law
The Young N.C.O. [/underlined]
Efficiency
1/ (A) Demeanour & Self Discipline.
(1) On & Off Duty.
(b) [underlined] Discipline. [/underlined]
(2) [underlined] Power to Command. [/underlined]
Character Commands Respect
3/. Popularity
a good N.C.O is one whom men will respect & of whom men are sure of impartial treatment he must get to know and appreciate the capabilities and the characteristics of his men (& feelings). A good man he will help and push forward and help the backward he will cultivate a spirit of loyalty to his officers.
[underlined] Behaviour off Parade. [/underlined]
Any behaviour unbefitting a junior N.C.O. should be dealt with immediately by any senior N.C.O. An N.C.O. should be conversant with K.R. A.C.I.

[page break]

[underlined] The Young Officer.
Discipline [/underlined] He will also conform to the establishment customs & practices of the services
2/. An officer will at all times be responsible for the maintenance of good order & discipline he will refrain at all times from making remarks or passing criticisms of his superior officers
[underlined] Redress of Grievances [/underlined]
It must be done properly if your immediate superior cannot satisfy you, inform that you will go above him & if he will not agree it can be put forward in writing but you must inform the officer himself & give him a copy, you must not bye-pass any link.
Communication & interviewing of Air Ministry officials an officer is forbidden to write private letters to the Air Ministry on official or personal matters such as promotions, postings, transfers etc. All such matters should be dealt with by own C.O.

[page break]

The mean variation equals 11N
[calculation]
a 09.37 hrs he found himself over Bristol = 111 nm
T.M.G. = 246(T)
DRIFT EXPERIENCED AT BRISTOL
[calculation]
[diagram]
[calculation]

[page break]

[calculation]
[diagram]
[calculation]
Because on Mercators chart the scale is not fixed, it increases as the scale gets nearer the Pole. Because the Longitude scale on a Top map is not correct

[page break]

[calculation]

[page break]

[calculation]

[page break]

[calculation]

[page break]

[calculation]

In order to check deviation on both Bearing & compass the Navigator made the following observation. Bearing of 2 objects in line 040 Bear Compass [underlined] True 027 [/underlined] Var 10W the course by Bearing Comp was 321 & by P 315 find deviation on both compasses.
[calculation]
Find the length of line on a time scale which will represent the dist run in 7 1/2 mins at 100 mph.
D/. AT & 150K Scale for 1/4 million.

[page break]

[calculation]

[page break]

[calculation]

0600 Hrs BRISTOL S/C CALAIS T.A.S. 180K W/V 000/25K
Find C(T) Distance G/S E.T.A.
What drift would you expect 8 to port
0710 CALAIS S/C ST BRIEVE (48 31’N 02 46W)
What is CO (T)
G.S
0750 you find yourself over ILES ST MARCOUF LT
What is T.M.G Drift & G.S.

Collection

Citation

Ted Neale, “Ted Neale's Navigation Notes,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed October 22, 2020, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/16383.

Item Relations

This item has no relations.

Can you help improve this description?