Ted Neale's Signals Exercise Book

MNealeETH1395951-150731-041.pdf

Title

Ted Neale's Signals Exercise Book

Description

An exercise book that Ted Neale used to record his notes during Signals classes, No 19 AN Air Force Training School.

Training notes cover signals procedures and codes. Also instructions on operational flight procedures, reconnaissance flights and reporting results of reconnaissance.

Creator

Publisher

IBCC Digital Archive

Contributor

Frank Batten

Rights

This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.

Format

One exercise book with handwritten notes

Language

Identifier

MNealeETH1395951-150731-041

Coverage

Transcription

S.A. AIR FORCE
S.A. LUGMAg

EXERCISE BOOK
OEFENBOEK

SIGNALS

FOR USE IN
VIR GEBRUIK BY

No 1.9 A.N.
AIR FORCE TRAINING SCHOOLS
LUGMAGSKOLE

[page break]

[underlined] Procedures before an Operational Flight [/underlined]
[circled 1]. Stand-by instructions are received.
[circled 2]. Report to Ops room.
[circled 3] Obtain from Duty controller [illegible] of the task, then from Navigation officer the nav instructions.
[circled 4]. Study general situation map, own forces board & note bombing restrictions.
[circled 5]. Study Met maps & obtain all relative information
[circled 6] Obtain the following from the Intelligence staff.
a/. All information about the enemy in the area over [illegible] to fly.
b/. [illegible] signals.
c/. W/T Instructions.
d/. Pro forma
e/. [illegible] latest order [illegible]
f/ [illegible] all target [illegible] photos of relative [illegible] target]
7/ Collect all operational maps, [illegible], very pistol and cartridges & binoculars

[page break]

8/. [underlined] EMPTY POCKETS.
9/. Collect Pigeons. [/underlined]
10/. Check all personal equipment.
11/. The following Recco information must be obtained.
a/. The object of the recco
b/. The recco area.
c/. The order of priority of tasks.
d/. Photographs required.
12/. Check all A/C equipment.
13/. Have a hot meal.
14/. Report to ops room for last minute briefing.
15/ Take Off.

[page break]

[underlined] TASK FORCE. [/underlined]
1 BATTLESHIP
1 A/C CARRIER
3 CRUISERS
10 DESTROYERS

[diagram]

[underlined] CRUISING DISPOSITION [/underlined]

[diagram]

[page break]

[underlined] Battleships, [/underlined]
30 – 45 thousand tons
+30 knots
Main 8 – 10 / 14” – 16” calibre
2nd 5” – 6” Guns
Bombard Coastal targets, blockade enemy ports, destroy enemy battle fleet.

Battle CRUISER
Weight 32 000
Speed 30 knots
1st 8 15”
2nd 6”
Armoured heavily but not so heavy as a battleship. Instructions the same as for battleship, but also to support cruisers in A –K line.

AIRCRAFT CARRIER
23 – 33,000 tons
32 – 33 Knots
Armour is light, but has bilges carries up to 90 A/C. Guns between 5” – 6” inches for repelling destroyer

[page break]

& M/T boats.
Functions of carrier.
To provide fighter cover
Bombing forces, (dive, torpedo)
Gun spotting A/C
Recco A/C

CRUISERS
Upper limits of cruiser tonnage governed by Washington treaty, up to 10,000 tons.
4 – 10,000 speed 34 knots.
Heavy Cruisers 8in guns, 6in guns
light cruiser Armour light some have bilges
[underlined] Functions. [/underlined]
A/. As a tactical unit of the fleet, To form the A – K line & clear out any opposition ahead of fleet & act as contact recco units
B/. As an independent unit, policing the seas, safeguarding convoys, searching for & destroying commerce raiders etc

[page break]

[underlined] Destroyers. [/underlined]
Tonnage 6 – 1,600 speed 38 knots armour nil. Main armament is a torpedo, secondary is a gun & they are mounted one behind a shield. The Flotilla Leader (Tribal, Lightning, Javeline [sic] etc) 18 – 2,000 tons Speed 40 knots. Their main armament is the gun 4.7 mounted in twin turrets, 2nd ary armament is torpedo

[underlined] Functions [/underlined]
Provision of screens for capital ships, the torpedoing of enemy warships, destruction of subs by depthcharge etc. They are led into action by their flotilla leaders who can protect them by reason of their heavier armament.

[underlined] Submarines [/underlined]
60 – 2,000 tons top speed on surface about 17 knots, Top speed

[page break]

submerged 10 – 11 knots, Economical Speed 3 – 4 knots submerged.
Main armament is torpedo, 2nd the Gun.
The destruction of Enemy merchant and warshipping.

[underlined] Coastal Motor Boats. [/underlined]

Small high speed motor boat – petrol or diesel, armour nil, fitted with Anti A/C guns 3.7 & AA pompoms, torpedoes depth charges, & smoke laying equipment.
[underlined] Function, [/underlined]
The protection of coastal convoys against air attack. The torpedoing of enemy ships in conditions of good weather 9calm sea & poor visibility)

[page break]

[underlined] Procedure to adopt on sighting enemy ships, when engaged on a sea patrol in bad weather. [/underlined]

1/. Avoid being seen, by using cloud cover.
2/. Recco the ship
3/. TRANSMIT a first sighting report to base
4/. Continue shadowing until relieved.

Procedure in Good Weather
[diagram]

[page break]

[diagram]

[page break]

[underlined] The Scope of Strategical Recco. [/underlined]

1/. The are including the enemy railhead & in the rear of it, where strategic concentration is likely, should be examing [sic] for signs of occupation, camps, bivouacs, columns of troops on roads and / or troops transports & guns in likely billeting areas.
2/. The quantity & type of rolling stock on the railways, general direction of movement & any concentration of them in station sidings and yards.
3/. The composition & general direction of movement of all traffic on the roads.
4/. The strength posn & direction of formed bodies of mobile troops such as armoured cars, tanks, which may be acting on recco, or as protective detachments in advance of the enemies [sic] main body.
5/. Demolitions & fires

[page break]

6/. The position of the enemy main reserve bodies, & strength, composition & direction of movement.
7/. Harbour Recco.
8/. No & type of A/C in the air & on the ground.
9/. Lines of communication, equipment dumps, refuelling of water points
10/. Any new road or rail constructional work.

AIR PUBLICATION 1927 is a code book carried by all operational A/c, it is divided into 4 sections, the first is known as the Air Force Code & is used from Air to Air or Air to ground.
2nd part is known as NAVAL SECTION. PART I is a code used by the R.A.F. when acting in direct cooperation with Royal Navy & is used to contact His Majesty ships.
NAVAL Section 2/.
a code used by A/C [underlined] not [/underlined] cooperating with the royal Navy but wishing

[page break]

to contact HM ships
4/. Q code used operational A/C contacting ground station in respect of NAVIGATIONAL METHODS.

[underlined] Action [inserted] to be taken [/inserted] on sighting Submarines [/underlined]
1/. All submarines are assumed to be hostile, attack on sight.
2/. If you are not carrying bombs or Depth Charges, then carry out a dummy attack against the sub, machine gunning the base of the conning tower to make her submerge & use up electricity supplie.
3/. TRANSMIT BY W/T a report giving the following. [underlined] Posn, course of sub when sighted, [/underlined] whether surfaced or submerged, action taken &

[page break]

observed effects.
(If one of our submarines is in these waters you will have been informed of its position at your briefing & it will identify itself by firing the colours of the day on sighting.

[underlined] Action to be taken on sighting E./Aircraft. [/underlined]

1/. Avoid being seen by using some cloud
2/. If the strength of the A/C sighted & their proximity to one of our targets warrants breaking W/T silence, transmit & report to base giving the following. NUMBER, TYPE, POSN, Course, Height, Time
3/. Continue on your way.

[page break]

R/T

messages should be made as short as possible.
Speak normally & slowly, in phrases.

[underlined] Call [/underlined]
Hello [underlined] able Baker [/underlined] this is Peter 6.

The ending must be either A/ over (K) my transmittion [sic] is ended. I am expecting an answer.
OUT my transmittion [sic] is ended no response expect.
The time of Origin if used will be expressed as four digits preceded by the word [underlined] time [/underlined]

[underlined] Procedure Phrases. [/underlined]
[underlined] R [/underlined] I have received all your last transmission.
acknowledge (used by original

[page break]

[deleted] used [/deleted] let me know that you have received and understood this message
WILCO, Your last message received, understood & (where applicable) will be complied with.
“How do you hear me” request for signal strength.
If too fast say “Speak slower”
“Wait”, when used alone means I must pause for a few seconds
“wait” followed by “out” used to denote a longer pause or to prevent another station transmitting.
“Say Again” answered by “I say again” (Repeat is never used except in text of message)
“Verify” check coding, check text qith originator & send correct message.

[page break]

U W [illegible] & increases
“Message for you” offering a message & instruction to carry on is “send your message”

“Read back” (G) Repeat all this message back to me exactly as received after I have given over

“That is correct” (used for C)
“Words twice” as a request means communication is difficult please send every or code group twice or as information since communication is difficult every phrase or code group will be sent twice

[underlined] Correction [/underlined]
An error has been made in this transmission, the correct version is
[underlined] “Wrong” [/underlined]
means what you have just said is incorrect. Correct version is

[page break]

The group count is refered [sic] to as “Groups”

If it is necessary to use long break just say “break’

Hello Peter 6 this is able Baker how do you hear me. Over.
Hello AB this is P6, your signals are loud & clear over.
Hello P6 this is AB, Roger Out.

Hello P6 this is AB, message for you. Over
Hello AB this is P6, send your message over
Hello P6 this is AB read back break land at Dyce I spell D, - Y, E Correction, D, Y, C, E Dyce. 2359 hours time 2230 over.
Hello AB this is P6, Land at Dyce 2259 time 2230 over.

[page break]

Hello P6 this is AB, Wrong word after Dyce. 2359 over.
Hello AB this is P6, 2359 Over.
Hello P6 this is AB, that is correct, out.

[page break]

the standard [illegible] fitted to royal air force and [illegible] and [illegible] compass and a [illegible] which are [illegible] and two [illegible and in the [illegible]

[page break]

If followed by AR means you are to wait or I am obliged to wait. (INT.K)
B. a/ Used in final instructions, means more to follow.
b/ Used in S.M of P.S. message means I have traffic for you. precedence may follow [underlined] B [/underlined]
BT Long break, immediately precedes & follows the text of all messages.
C Correct (If alone means you are correct).
E ERASE Sign (succession of 8 or more dots). must be followed by the last word or group sent correctly & If followed by AR

[page break]

it means “this message is in error” disregard it.
F. Do not answer.
Used in preamble or final instructions.
G. repeat back the whole message, used in transmittion [sic] instructions.
GR Group Indicator. Int GR 15 means is the no of Groups 15.
II a/ it [underlined] is [/underlined] used before & after all [illegible] in the call, preamble, & address of a message (except V, AA, or NR)
b/ between the call & the beginning of a repetition of a message to be repeated back
c/. In procedure messages to separate portions of the text.
IMI. Repeat (a/ used alone means repeat all of your last transmission, followed by identification [underlined] data [/underlined] b/ Repeat the indicated portion of your transmission.
c/ In the text of a pl language message means, I am going to repeat the difficult

[page break]

portion just transmitted.
F & I method, still used before transmission of second prtion.
e/ Cannot be used to obtain a repetition of a message which R has been given. [operating signals provided).
INT Interrogatory, INT K preceding a portion of a previous transmission it means is my reception of this correct
INT R Have you received last message
IX execute to follow. Precedes instructions which must not be acted upon until receipt of executive signal
IX – (5 seconds)
S9PVVR - - - - LX BT DROP FLARES BTK
VRVS9P R AR
S9PVVR – LxiX – AR

J. Verify check and repeat
QJM Check & Repeat.

[page break]

K. GO AHEAD. This is the end of my transmission & response [underlined] is [/underlined] necessary.
N. not received, or exempted
NR. Station serial number.
R. Received (Routine)
QSZ. Difficult communication (instead of [underlined] DC [/underlined] )
T TRANSMIT [underlined] TO [/underlined]. T alone means station called transmit this message to all addresses
V [underlined] From. [/underlined] Used only in the call.
W For information to.

AAA Full stop
DJ Hyphen
KK ( )
XE /
POINT decimal point.
QUOTE & UNQUOTE “ “

[page break]

[table]

[page break]

[table]

[underlined] Requests for Repetitions. [/underlined] (code).
Messages may be identified by
1/. Date – time – group
2/. Station serial nos (either may further Identify by adding originator C/S &/or Group count
3/. Identification necessary if repetition required immediately.
[underlined] Parts of Messages Identified by. [/underlined]
4/. AA BT (All After BT) text & message end
5/. AB BT (all Before text).
6/. A to BT (from Address to BT) (including message Inst (illegible)
7/. BT Presumed to refer to first break sign.
AA - - - BT (Last word or group of text).
ABA (all before originators sign (call & preamble)).
Actual no of Group required
AA2 (no of last group received correctly)
Group No to Group No

P/L as in 1 – 8 &
12/. AA the last word received correctly.
13/. WA “ “ “ “ “
If word occurs more than once in

[page break]

text request is presumed to refer to first occurrence unless amplified by adjacent word
14 Word to word

[underlined] Verification [/underlined].
Messages first identified assume 1 & 2 portions as in 4 – 10

[page break]

[code groups]

[page break]

[code groups]

[page break]

[underlined] Counting Groups [/underlined]
1/. Count groups between BT & B only
2/. Punctuation marks not counted unless spelt out as words.
3/. Hyphenated words count as one group.
4/. Every group of letters, figures, symbols, such as abbreviations, references, code groups count as on group.
MAJOR-GENERA (one group)
MAJOR HYPHEN GENERAL (3 groups)
125-3/4 (55) X56 (one group)
LT. J. SOAP (3 Groups)
Two one and one half (5 groups)

[page break]

[underlined] Checking of Group count & Initial Check [/underlined]

The group count is included as a check – use it. If the number of groups received does not correspond with the group count then receiving station will query it by sending INT GR
If transmitting station finds in checking that he was at fault he will send C. If he finds that his original count was correct he replies stating the original Group count followed by the first letter or figure of each group.

[underlined] Executive Method. [/underlined]
The executive method is used when it is desired that the contents of a original be executed at a certain instant.
1/. Only plain dress message may be

[page break]

used for executive method.
2/. Date & group count never used.
3/. Time group optional.
4/. Prosign IX immediately precedes first break sign
5/. Only a repetition of the complete message if has been requested.
The executive symbol is IX followed by a 5 second dash (must be preceded by a call).
Instant of execution is end of dash. LX signal alone after a call means execute all unexecuted messages which I have transmitted
Messages will be identified [underlined] if [/underlined]
1/. Of several unexecuted messages 1 only is to be executed.
2/. Considerable time has elapsed since original transmission of message.

[page break]

[underlined] Annulling Messages [/underlined]
All outstanding messages, individual messages or parts of messages may be annulled by the use of NEGAT. If message partially annulled remaining portion is considered outstanding & awaiting execution.

[code groups]

[underlined] Verifications & Corrections [/underlined]
If on Verification message found to be incorrect it must be annulled to all addresses concerned & new message transmitted.

[page break]

[underlined] Approach to Enemy Harbour for Recco [/underlined]

1/. Make a landfall 4 – 10 miles from harbour.
2/. Steer inland using cloud cover.
3/. Approach harbour at 90 to Recco track & avoid being seen as far as possible.
4/. Turn on to Recco track & if possible glide out of sun, or desynchronise engines.
[underlined] Harbour Recco. [/underlined]

1/. All shipping at sea heading to or coming from the port.
2/. All shipping
a/. In dock or dry dock
b/. Loading or unloading
c/. Entering or leaving.
d/. With steam up.

[page break]

3/. New Costructional Work.
4/. Road & Rail activity.
5/. Petrol & Ammunition dumps
6/. Power stations.
7/. Defences.

[underlined] Air [/underlined]
AA & Searchlights
Fighters
Balloons
[underlined] Naval [/underlined]
Shore Batteries
Booms
Shipping lanes thru mines

[code groups]

Time bearing taken

[code groups]

[page break]

[code groups]

[page break]

[table]

In a message ending
[table]

[page break

[code groups]

[page break]

[calculations]

Collection

Citation

Ted Neale, “Ted Neale's Signals Exercise Book,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed September 24, 2020, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/16380.

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