Notes on Gunnery

MNealeETH1395951-150731-068.pdf

Title

Notes on Gunnery

Description

A note book with details on gunnery and aircraft recognition.

Creator

Publisher

IBCC Digital Archive

Contributor

Roger Dunsford

Rights

This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.

Format

A book of 24 handwritten pages

Language

Identifier

MNealeETH1395951-150731-068

Coverage

Transcription

the hole in the cursor scribe a line on the bearing plate
[circled 5]. Instruct pilot to turn 60° port or stabd [sic]
[circled 6.] Repeat 1,2,3,4.
[circled 7.] Instruct pilot to turn a furthe [sic] 60° or 120° in the opposite direction,
[circled 8] Repeat 1,2,3,4,
[circled 9.] This will result in an interception or a cocked hat. If the sides of the cocked hat extend a quarter of an inch repeat the above procedure
[circled 10.] Unclamp, place interception or centre of cocked hat over the tail of the wind arrow, reclamp
[circled 11.] Turn W/S bar at right angles to A/S Bar & adjust on W/S knob, till the hole in the cursor is over the interception or centre of cocked hat.
[circled 12.] Read off W/S from W/S Bar & wind direction from the tail of the wind arrow.

[page break]

[circled 1.] Levels.
[circled 2.] Drift.
[circled 3.] Red on Red.
[circled 4.] Draw a line.

[page break]

[inserted] TIME & [deleted] Bead [/deleted] [inserted] [underlined] Speed [/underlined] [/inserted] Method. [/inserted]
SETTING
[circled 1] TAS
[circled 2]. TRUE HT ABOVE GRD ON RED HT Scale,
[circled 3]. W/S MAXIMUMOM [sic] [deleted] [indecipherable] Terminal Velocity Infinity [/deleted]
[circled 4] Terminal Velocity. Infinity
[circled 5.] ENEMY SPEED 0(zero.).

Before Flight ensure the correct wind gauge bar is fitted & obtain a stop-watch
[underlined] Procedure [/underlined]
[circled 1] Instruct pilot to fly St & Lvl.
Level Bb.St.
[circled 2]. Adjust for drift.
[circled 3]. Looking thru back sight time an object on the ground between 2 consecutive pair of beads. Take the average of 3 readings
[circled 4] Place TAS on the cursor against appropriate time curve on Wind Gauge Bar.
[circled 5] Unclamp, place red on red, reclamp.
[circled 6.] Thru hole in cursor place a dot on bearing plate

[page break]

[circled 7]. Unclamp, place the dot over the tail of the wind arrow, reclamp.
[circled 8]. Turn the W/S Bar at right angles to the air speed bar & adjust on wind speed knob, till the hole in the cursor is over the dot on the bearing plate.
[circled 9]. Read off wind speed from W/S bar & W direction from tail of Wind Arrow.

[page break]

[underlined] VGO [/underlined]
[underlined] Barrel Group. [/underlined] Flash Eliminator.
Foresight Bracket
Gas Block
Gas Plug
Gas Cylinder
Gas Spigot
Rear Lt Bracket
Front Magazine Catch & spring.
Barrel Locking bands
[underlined] Body Group. [/underlined]
[underlined] Barrel Strap. [/underlined] Barrel [underlined] Locking [/underlined] Grooves
[underlined] Barrel Locking Strap Piston Stops[/underlined]
Cocking handle, [underlined] Feed opening [/underlined]
Cocking handle catch Ejection opening.
Cocking handle slide Rear Magazine catch lever
Cocking lug Rear Magazine catch & springs
reflector sight housing Locking shoulder
reflector sight ejector housing
Body extension securing pins ejector cover spring
Piston Way ejector
Feed Way

[page break]

V.G.O. SAFETY DEVICE.
[circled 1]. SAFETY CATCH
as the safety catch is rotated to S (safe) a lever engages a step on the trigger preventing it from being rotated
[circled 2]. Firing Pin spring.
Prevents premature firing & damage to firing pin by keeping it in its housing until the breech is fully locked.
[circled 3]. GAS ESCAPE HOLE IN BB.
Aids the escape of gases in the event of a blowback.
[circled 4]. 3/10" HORIZONTAL SURFACE.
(a) Backward action.
Ensures the bullet & bulk of gases have left gun before BB is unloaded.
(b). Ensures the BB is fully locked before the round is fired.
[circled 5]. Locking & Unlocking of BB.

[page break]

Theory of AIR Sighting.
Definitions
[underlined] 1. Muzzle Velocity [/underlined] is the velocity imparted to projectile by charge usually measured in ft per sec.
[underlined] 2. Line of sight [/underlined] is a straight line from the firers eye thru sights to target.
[underlined] 3 Fixed guns [/underlined] are those which are mounted rigidly on an A/C. The gun is fixed so that it fires straight forward along or to the line of flight of the A/C. In order to lay the gun it is necessary to manouver [sic] the A/C until it is flying in the direction the gunner wishes to fire
[underlined] 4. Free guns [/underlined] are those which are so mounted on the A/C that the line of fire relative to the gunners A/C may be varied at the will of the gunner
[underlined] 5. Own speed. [/underlined] Is the speed of A/C carrying the gun.
[underlined] 6. Target speed [/underlined] Is the speed of the A/C to be fired at.

[page break]

[underlined] 7. Line of Alignment [/underlined]
Is a straight line from the firers eye, thru centre of ring sight to a point of harmonization
[underlined] 8. Angle of deflection. [/underlined]
Is the angle between the line of sight & the line of alignment.
[underlined] 9. Deflection [/underlined]
Is the distance moved by the target during the time of flight of the bullet
[underlined] 10. Point of Intersection. [/underlined]
Is a place where the bullet & the target meet.
[underlined] 11. Trajectory [/underlined]
Is the actual path of the bullet thru the air.
[underlined] 12. Cone of Fire [/underlined]
Is that portion of space which contains trajectory of all bullets fired. (In one burst).
[underlined] 13. Points of Harmonization. [/underlined]
Is that point at which the line

[page break]

of sight intercepts the trajectory [deleted] of [/deleted] under certain specified conditions
[underlined] 14. Sight base [/underlined] is the distance from the firers eye to the centre of the ring sight
[underlined] 15. Gravity Drop. [/underlined] Is the distance dropped by the bullet below the axis of the barrel, during the time of flight over the required range.

[underlined] Factors [/underlined] affecting the path of a bullet fired from An A/C
[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. Muzzle Velocity
[underlined] 2. [/underlined] Velocity of A/C from which it was fired.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. Action of Gravity.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined]. Air Resistance
[underlined] Aspect of the Target. [/underlined]
The target presents itself to the firer in one of the following aspects.
[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. It may be flying towards or away from him.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. It may be moving at an angle to the firers line of flight.
In number [circled 1]. The gunner takes direct aim at the A/C.

[page break]

[inserted] In [/inserted] [circled 2]. the sighting conditions are different, the angles the target may make with the firers line of flight are many, & with each a different aim is required. The principal of each aim however is the same. The firer must move his gun so that the bullet and target meet.
[underlined] Principles of Deflection. [/underlined]
[circled 1]. The A/C must be flying towards the path of flight of the bullet.
[circled 2]. The gunner must lay his gun so that the bullet & E/A meet, to achieve this a special sight is necessary. The sight must be so constructed so as to give the correct deflection for every possible angle of attack.
The only sight fulfilling these requirements would be a sphere. It must be transparent & therefore would fail in the service owing to fragility.
The only possible form of sight is a ring sight, which only alows [sic] for attack

[page break]

at 90° to the pilots line of flight.
With this as a guide & with [underlined] constant practice [/underlined] gunners can determine the correct position of the target A/C in relation to this ring for other angles of Attack.
[underlined] Method of Using Ring Bead Sight [/underlined]
[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. Firers eye, the bead, & centre of the ring, must be in the same straight line.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. The firers eye must be a definite distance from the ring sight. (sight base).
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. The target A/C must be flying towards the centre of the ring.
Date of construction of Enemy Speed Sight.

[page break]

[underlined] Reasons for Keeping Red on Red [/underlined]
[circled 1]. Correctly positions fore-sights.
[circled 2]. Sets the correct bombing angle.
[circled 3]. Sets correct G/S. & correct Drift angle.
[circled 4]. Orientates bearing plate in relation to M North.

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[deleted] ME 110. [/deleted]
Engines DB 601 N
Ceiling 36,000ft
MPH 350
4 cannon or 4 mg + 2 cannon.
Engines 3/4 undersling [sic] in line engines.
Big air intakes outboard of motors.
Medium high tail [deleted] 2 [/deleted]
BV 141

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

[underlined] JU 86. [/underlined] Obsolete [inserted] SPAN 74 IN. [/inserted]
SPEED 220 150-160 Cruise
[deleted] [sketch]
[sketch]
IN LINE OR RADIAL ENGINES. [/deleted]
[sketch]
Shaded part is only part that is real other is a balls up.

[page break]

HE 111. TORPEDO DROPPERS. 74

[sketch]

[sketch]
[sketch]

[page break]

VENTURA Medium Bomber [inserted] Top speed 300mph. [/inserted] SPAN 66 ft.
[inserted] new Coastal Command [/inserted]
2 front, 2 mid upper, 1 under tail.

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

[annotated sketch]
BEAUFORT II SPAN 58ft.
270 Top Speed SL 230
BRISTOL TAURUS Obs. Pilot W/O AG.
P&W WASP MID WING

[sketch]

MED, LENGTH NOSE
MEDIUM
DIHED
MID WING
STRT CENTRE SECTION

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

[inserted] SPEED 217. [/inserted]
HE 115. [deleted] 7 [/deleted] [inserted] 7 [/inserted]6ft

[sketch]
MID WING
Radials
Recco
Torp
Mines

[annotated sketch]

[annotated sketch]

[page break]

CANT Z 1007 Bis. [underlined] 81 ft. [/underlined] ITALY
8000lbs load HEAVY BOMBER
Speed 280 3 ENGINE.
Range 3,100 miles
at 240
Ceiling 31,000ft

[sketch]

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

FIAT G50 35ft
144 2lb bombs. Speed 250
2 1/2" guns.

[sketch]

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

[inserted] 51 [/inserted]
BREDA 88
SHLDR WING
[sketch]
FTR BOMBER
334 M.P.H.
Range 1000mls
BL 2.000lbs
Cruis Sp 322.
2 cannon 2 m/c
in nose

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

BREDA 65 39FT
GRD ATTACK T.S. 267 mph.
FIGHTER.
CARRIES 1,000lbs bombs.
2 1/2 & 2 .303 m/g

[sketch]

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

WALRUS 46ft
RECCO
A/S/R.
SPOTTING
150 MPH
90 CRUISE
50 CRUISE

[sketch]

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

Harvard [inserted] II [/inserted] 43. Speed 200mph
2 .303 m/c.

[sketch]

[annotated sketch]

[sketch]

[underlined] PLAN [/underlined]
Nose Wings (LE WING TR/EDGE WING)
FUSE AFT T/P.

[underlined] SIDE [/underlined] NOSE TOP FUSE BOT FUSE FINE RUDDER

[page break]

SPAN 96 BOMBAY SPEED 113

[annotated sketch]

[sketch]

[annotated sketch]

[page break]

B.V 142 [underlined] 96 [/underlined] ft.
TRANSPORT.

[sketch]

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

[underlined] ME 210. [/underlined] 53
FTR BOMBER.
LW MONOPLAN
DH FROM ROOTS

[sketch]

[sketch]

[annotated sketch]

[page break]

HENSCHEL 129 50ft.

[annotated sketch]

[sketch]

[sketch]

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[symbol]
INT GR proced.
Distress procedure.
Codanste
Repetition
Learn how to use letters, particularly address.

[page break]

[blank page]

[page break]

[symbol VE] M8P VP6HY R+

[underlined] W/T SILENCE. [/underlined]
Silence [symbol VE] M8P M8P V Q9X [under/overlined] HM HM HM HM HM + [/under/overlined]
Raise Silence BAN [symbol VE] M8PM8P VQ9X UOUOUOUOUO +
Silence is only used for getting hold of frequency.
This silence can be broken when the main station calls one of the stations in the group, it answers then goes on silence again. silence can also be [deleted] sent [/deleted] broken for SOS & distress signals.
[underlined] PAN. URGENCY Signal. [/underlined]
W/T
PAN, PAN, PAN, GLD,GLD,GLD, DE. GEZAA. – message K.
R/T.
PAN.PAN.PAN. HOLLOW LANDS END HOLLOW LANDS END.
ROYAL AIR FORCE GEZAA calling Royal Air Force Gezaa calling, Message Spoken twice
OVer.

[page break]

Message by D/C

When you ask the station to use D/c he sends call twice but leaves out VE second time, he repeats everything twice. The groups are repeated independently they are said twice.
L2W operate on 5,341 Kcs have a message for S6K who operates on 7,642 Hs control station operates on both these frequencies call sign IDF write message to S6K.

[symbol VE] . [deleted] L2W [/deleted] V [deleted] IDF. [/deleted]
[symbol VE] ID FV L2W NR2. - P-T- [deleted] GR10 - [/deleted] [inserted] GR9= Z- = 272359 B.K [/inserted] S6KVL2W
me [symbol] P6HY send to base [deleted] telling him I wish [/deleted] [inserted] ask permission [/inserted] to land on satellite, want base to inform drome, drome has no [deleted] [indecipherable word] [/deleted] W/T but its call is N9K, base Y3P is responsible for all traffic for N9K.
E Y3PVP6HY NR2-P-T- [deleted] GR10 [/deleted] [inserted] Z [/inserted] N9K-P6HY.
GR9= [symbol] = 272359B.K
Ask D/c station for Bearing he answers 2IMI explain fully what this means & how would you answer it.

[page break]

[underlined] Classes of Bearing. [/underlined]
1st Class Bearing = -+ 2° error. Sharp minimum.
2nd Class Bearing -+ 5° error less well defined minimum
3rd Class Bearing over -+ 5° error ill defined minimum
[underlined] Class of Positions. [/underlined]
1st Class Position 2 or more first class bearings.
2nd Class Position 1 first class bearing & one or more 2nd class bearings
3rd Class Position Bearings other than 1st Class.

[symbol VE] c/s v c/s K
[symbol VE] cs v c/s K3 - X3 - DC.
D/C Difficult Communications
[symbol VE] c/s c/s NR2 - c/s c/s NR2 - P.P.
[underlined] GR25 [/underlined] GR25 - Z - c/s v c/s Z - c/s v c/s
ABCD ABCD, EFGH EFGH, IJKL IJKL
081224 - 081224 R
[symbol VE] c/s V c/s BNR2.

[page break]

[symbol VE] c/s v c/s NR3 - P - GR22 - Z - c/s v c/s =
=091236-DC-K
[underlined] Visual Procedure. [/underlined]

Good for security.
It is being received word for word as it is T.
It is light & not bulky.

[underlined] D/F Procedure. [/underlined] Ideal [underlined] 100 - 1000 KCS. [/underlined]
Position transmitted by Letter Coordinates [inserted] M8P [/inserted] 400M
Tune in to 400m (Stations given by your group).
[symbol VE] M8PM8P V P6HY X7 [deleted] 0 [/deleted] 2 [underlined] 15secs [/underlined] [/inserted] K. [symbol] satellite
[inserted] [symbol] what is my position. [symbol] satellite
[underlined] Challenge [/underlined] [symbol VE] P6HY V M8P 3 IMI K.
[symbol VE] M8T V P6HY 874 - [inserted] 15 secs [/inserted] K.
[symbol VE] P6HY V M8P x 714 - ACEB-1343-P6HY-FIRST-220131B K.

[page break]

X2Q SEND [inserted] [symbol] until he gets an answer. [/inserted] A2B SENDS
A2BP, A2BPA2BP etc A2B
A2B V X2Q K
[inserted] [symbol] This does for calling up [/inserted]
Priority P T
No. [deleted] of Groups [/deleted] G [inserted] repeat back. [/inserted] G (T)
No. of Grps. GR GR (T)
[double underlined] C [/double underlined] [double underlined] [/double underlined]
c
A17 A17
c
22 22
c
JUNE JUNE
xTLBP xTLBP
c
LTBMP LTBNP (INCORRECT)
LTBMP LTBMP
c
= 220925 =220925
c
+ R.

If you find an unknown station you send AA until he answers with his call sign.

[page break]

VERIFICATION TABLE [underlined] No 24 [/underlined] IMI. [inserted] [indecipherable words] [/inserted]
[inserted] [indecipherable word] [/inserted] CODES. Layout of D/F [indecipherable word]
[symbol] N3C

[table]

[symbol VE]. P6HY VM8P 3IMI K.

The G/S challenges you after you have asked for bearing or position by X signal you look up time on side & the number he asks on the top & answer figure found on table, then give
[symbol VE] M8PV P6HY 874 - [inserted] 15 secs [/inserted] K.

[page break]

J [symbol] CHECK [underlined] Origin. [/underlined] Check & [underlined] repeat. [/underlined]
[symbol VE] A2LV c3D NR6 - J1205 = 08 1308 K.
Q.J.M.
Check from Decode & Repeat
[symbol VE] A2A V C3D NR5 - QJM 1205 081407 K.

[symbol VE] A2A V B3B NR2 - GR14 aaa
1/632179 2/LAC 3/Jones 4/R 5/to 6/report 7/to 8/” “/AOC 9
25/GRP/10 on/11 the/12 12/7/43/13 = 081225/14 K.
“ “ / [circled 8] / [circled 9] / ( ) /
AOC 1
LAC 1
12/6 1
12 JUNE 2
16/6/5/42/67 1
0932 [symbol VE] H8Y H8Y V N3C [overlined] HM HM HM HM HM [/overlined] +
This W/T silence must not be broken except for O-A, [underlined] O-U, priority or [/underlined] distress.
[symbol VE] H8Y H8Y V N3C UO UO UO UO UO breaks the W/T silence.

[page break]

[symbol VE] A2A B3B C4D V N3C NR2-NR4-NR7
-P-4 GR26-Z- C/S C/S C/S V C/S K.

[underlined] Visual Procedure. [/underlined]
T used to acknowledge each word or group.
W I cannot read owing to bad light, bad alignment or bad background.
AA Unknown station call.
LL, your light is too powerful, dim it.
MR Move to your right
ML Move to your left,
MO Move lower down, or nearer in.
MH Move higher up, or further away.
[symbol VE] made continuously constitutes the visual signal general call. (you call up more than one station).
OL Open light
x 2Q [deleted] MAKES [/deleted] [inserted] SENDS [/inserted] A2B [deleted] MAKES [/deleted] [inserted] SENDS [/inserted]
A2B, A2B, A2B. - A2B
A2B v X2Q K
GR6 T
aaa= T
A16 T
22 T
JUNE T
WEATHER T
UNFIT T
= 2209207 T
+ R.

[page break]

W/T [underlined] Distress. [/underlined]
[underlined] SAFETY SIGNAL. [/underlined]
TTT. sent 3 times.
International Distress Frequency 500 Kcs.
TTT, TTT, TTT. [deleted] [indecipherable letters] [/deleted] [inserted] [deleted] [indecipherable letters] [/deleted] /[inserted] DECIVVY C/S/C/S C/S.=
use “GEZAA” ANY BRITISH KITE
[underlined] URGENCY SIGNAL. [/underlined]
[underlined] PAN [/underlined] when an A/C is not requiring immediate assistance
PAN, PAN, PAN C/S C/S C/S DE C/S C/S C/S
sent on any frequency. own [inserted] commercial [/inserted] call sign
if not GEZAA again.
[underlined] Distress Procedure. [/underlined]
SOS, SOS. SOS. v [inserted] DE [/inserted] C/S C/S C/S aaa
Posn 030˚ N'CASTLE 12 (If time [inserted] give [/inserted] deatails [sic]). [symbol] if possible.
[inserted] Send 3 times.
Base Freq [inserted] send [/inserted] until answered.
When answered [symbol]
International Distress Freq 600M [inserted] or [/inserted] 500 Kcs then repeat above.
If no answer, and have to bale out, clamp down key on this frequency
Give no time.

[page break]

[underlined] R/T Distress. [/underlined] [annotated diagram]
On Base Freq.
MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY. SWALLOW Red FOUR CALLING. [underlined] POS'N. [/underlined] ([underlined] News [/underlined]) Engine on fire. OVER.
SWITCH TO RECEIVE AT “OVER”. if no answer try again until its necessary to bail out.
[underlined] The Executive Sign [/underlined]
The 5 minute dash.
[symbol VE] A2A v C3C x443K.
ANSWER.
[symbol VE] C3C v A2A x445-1502.--- - --
[inserted] SENDS SHORT BREAK/- - - - - [symbol] 5 sec dash [underlined] 1502 K.
[symbol VE] A2A v L2P x443. 1215K [inserted] [symbol] [symbol VE] L2P v A2A [underlined] R. [/underlined] [symbol VE] A2A v L2P [underlined] K4. [/underlined]
[symbol VE]. L2R v A2A R+
[symbol VE] L2P v A2A x445 1215 [symbol] 1215 K
If you think you hear your call sign don't answer, wait till it is repeated & then make sure.

[page break]

5,000kcs 5,600
[symbol] [symbol] [symbol]
[symbol] B4P
A3L 6,000Ks D6P
[symbol] N3C [symbol] R4K
C O
[symbol] [symbol]
[symbol VE] A3L v B4D NR1 – P – M - D6P – T - N3C
- GR26 - Z - R4K v B4D =
S T [underlined] E [/underlined]
[symbol] = 082009 K.

/N --.--
[symbol VE] c/s V c/s B NR1 K CALLING
[symbol VE] c/s V c/s /N NR1 K PLEASE ANSWER

[symbol VE] c/s c/s V c/s /N K
FOR CHRIST'S SAKE REPLY (IM CHEESED)

[page break]

[circled O]. [symbol VE] c/s V c/s NR2 - O -

[symbol VE] OOO V c/s K. CLEAR THE AIR. [inserted] EMERGENCY [/inserted]

[symbol VE] PPP. V c/s K. CLEAR THE AIR. IMPORT

Use of [symbol AS]

[symbol VE] H8D, H8D V C3B [symbol AS]

[circled R] Received.
[symbol VE] c/s v c/s BNR2 K K = carry on
[symbol VE] c/s v c/s RNR2 + + = folding up [inserted] end of mess [/inserted]
[circled H] Im counting the no of groups
[circled X], For exercise or denote Strength of Interf.

[page break]

2). O-U most immediate enemy ground forces. NO DELAY.
3). O Emergency Operations.
4). O-P Emergency Operations 30 minutes to send out
5). P. Important 45 minutes to send out
6). D. Deferred, up to 48 hours.
7). X Exercise

[symbol VE] A2A V B3D NR2 - P - 6 - GR? - Z - L42VB3D.
S
[symbol] = 120945 [inserted] T = [/inserted] + [inserted] E [/inserted]

[symbol VE] A2A V B3B +
[symbol VE] B3B V A2A K4+
[symbol VE] A2A V B3B NR3 - GR26 = T/071227 E+.
S

Collection

Citation

Ted Neale, “Notes on Gunnery,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed October 20, 2020, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/16408.

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