Ted Neale's Photography Notes



Ted Neale's Photography Notes


A notebook kept by Ted Neale with his notes recorded during training in South Africa with 42 Air School, Port Elizabeth.







One notebook with handwritten notes


IBCC Digital Archive


This content is available under a CC BY-NC 4.0 International license (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0). It has been published ‘as is’ and may contain inaccuracies or culturally inappropriate references that do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the University of Lincoln or the International Bomber Command Centre. For more information, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ and https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/legal.





G.P. – S.38088 – 1942-3 – 75,000. S.

S.A.A.F. Form 619
S.A.L.M. Vorm 619

[inserted] Neale. E.T.H. [/inserted]

[inserted] [underlined] 1395951 [/underlined] [/inserted]

[inserted] No 19 A.N. [/inserted]
[inserted] 30-8-43 [/inserted]
[inserted] Photography. [/inserted]

[inserted] 42 Air School. P.E. [/inserted]
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
PIN POINT a single exposure of a point vertically below the A/C
STEREOPAIRS now replace pin points for all operational work, object is, to enable a P.P. to be viewed stereoscopically. Objective should be in the centre of the 60° overlap.
[underlined] c [/underlined] Feature line overlape [sic].
A series of overlapping photographs following a ground feature such as a railway, road, canal etc.
[underlined] D [/underlined] Cross country lying overlaps:
A series of overlapping photographs following a straight track between 2 definite points.
[underlined] e [/underlined][underlined] Mosaics [/underlined]
A series of parallel cross country line overlaps, overlapping each other laterally. May be made by a single A/C flying a number of parallel courses over the area, or by 2 or more A/C flying in line abreast over the area to be photographed.
[page break]
[underlined] Obliques [/underlined] [sic].
[underlined] a [/underlined] [underlined] HAND HELD. [/underlined]
A single exposure taken with a camera held at an oblique angle.
[underlined] B [/underlined] [underlined] fixed obliques [/underlined]
Single exposures taken with the camera with a fixed mountain at an oblique angle
[underlined] c [/underlined] [underlined] Overlapping Obliques [/underlined].
A series of oblique photographs overlapping laterally or fore & aft.

[underlined] Varying lengths of lenses & their uses. [/underlined]

Photographs are always ordered to a required scale, it will be seen that by quoting the scale required leaves the camera operator free to nominate at what height & with which lens they will fly to attain that scale. Thus if photographs are required at a scale of 1/12,000 then they can be taken at
[page break]
3,250ft 3 1/4” lens
5,000ft 5” lens
8,000ft 8” lens
14,000ft 14” lens
20,000ft 20” lens

Having this choice of lenses of varying focal lengths permits the required scale to be obtained, from a considerable height to avoid Ack-Ack interference, or to minimise the effect of exaggerated ground contours & also when forced to fly low by advese [sic] weather conditions. To simplify the demanding of photographs 3 main categories of scales are laid down as follows,

Large Scale 1-1000 to 1-10,000
Medium Scale 1-10,000 to 1-14,000
Small Scale 1-14,000 to 20,000.

These are always used when demanding photographs
[page break]
[underlined] F24 Camera. [/underlined]

A film camera using a maximum loading of 125 exposures & producing a 5” x 5” negative; it is an all purpose camera being used for vertical photography & for fixed & hand held obliques. There are 3 methods of use, one hand, 2. Semi-Automatic 3, Fully Automatic

[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. [underlined] Hand [/underlined]
By depressing release block & turning the handle
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. [underlined] Semi Automatic. [/underlined]
Operated by push button for each exposure
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. [underlined] Automatic [/underlined]
Using the type 35 control.

There a 5 main units to the camera.

[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. Camera body
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. Gearbox.
[page break]
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. shutter.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined]. Lens Cone.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined]. Magazine
[underlined] Camera Body [/underlined]
There is a metal casting and the other units are attached to it, it has a plate glass register (optical flat) used with a magazine pressure pad to keep the film flat in the focal plane; The glass has four collimating points & is provided with protective cover.
[underlined] Gearbox [/underlined]
This houses the mechanism for releasing & rewinding shutter
[underlined] Shutter [/underlined].
This is a focal plane, fixed slit, variable slit shutter has two blinds, main blind exposing, capping blind to cover slit in main blind when shutter is rewound
[page break]
[underlined] Anti Acceleration gear [/underlined] & micrometer [sic] adjustment for speed of the main blind, 3 types of shutters available, Type A has a slit of 1 inch & a speed of 1/40 to 1/120 of a sec. Type B has a slit of 3/8 of an inch & a speed of 1/100 to 1/300 of a second. Type C has a slit of 3/16 of an inch & a speed of 1/300 – 1/500 of a sec
[underlined] Magazine [/underlined].
The magazine in addition to having the spools of exposed & unexposed film contains the mechanism by which
[underlined] 1 [/underlined] The film is flattened against the glass register plate in the camera during exposure & freed during film winding
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. A definite length of film is wound from the unexposed to the exposed spool after exposure.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. An exposure counter & film wind indicator are operated care must be
[page break]
taken when carrying loaded magazines that the pressure pad is not touched & that the film is held towards the body. During operation of the camera the operator must ensure that the film wind indicator rotates. If the exposure counter rotates & the film wind indicator does not, the magazine has used up all the unexposed film. [underlined] Note [/underlined] When fitting the magazine the three red dots should be in line.
[underlined] Lens Cone & Lens [/underlined]
The Lens cone is attached to the camera body by 3 screws various lenses are available, their being 3 1/4 inch, 5 inch, 8 inch, 14 inch & 20 inch lens.
[underlined] Mountings [/underlined]
[underlined] A [/underlined]. Tube 25” Four shock absorbers to minimise vibration screw
[page break]
clamps to secure in A/C, Bolts to fix camera in mounting, levelling devices, spirit levels & drift scales, also used for fixed obliques.
[underlined] B [/underlined]. Type 24 used in Battle A/C only owing to limited space, similar in style to the 25 but not so elaborate
[underlined] c [/underlined]. Type 26. This is an underslung version of type 25, designed to meet the requirements of the 3 1/4 inch lens in Wellington & Hampden A/c.
[underlined] d [/underlined] Type 21. Hand held oblique mounting main ring same as in types 24 & 25, but fitted with 2 hand grips & trigger release.
[underlined] Set Position of F24 Gearbox [/underlined].
When the cycle of operations completed by one complete turn of the GAP Wheels, the gearbox arrives at the set position when the components are as follows [underlined] 1 [/underlined] Ebonite lug on locking
[page break]
lever holding lamp contacts apart.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. Spring pawl on locking lever holding shutter pinion in wound position
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. Toe of locking lever resting in slot between gap wheels
[underlined] 4 [/underlined]. Boss of the meshing lever resting halfway down the recess in the heart shaped cam.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined]. Gap in front gap wheel is opposite the driving pinion.
[underlined] 6 [/underlined] Gap on the rear gap wheel is opposite the two shutter pinions & the film wind pinion.
[underlined] 7 [/underlined]. Motor & set contact is resting in the recess in the brass disc.
[underlined] 8 [/underlined]. The locating lever holds the film wind coupling in the vertical position.
[page break]
[underlined] Installation of camera in A/c [/underlined].
[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. Lower the camera into the mounting & turn it until the red line on the camera body is opposite zero on the front drift scale. Secure the camera by screwing home the two thumb screws
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. Attach the motor, push switch control or electrical control to their respective wedge plates
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. Attach the camera drive to the gearbox & motor, make the electrical connections taking no [underlined] 1 [/underlined] lead from the scource [sic] of supply to the control. No [underlined] 2 [/underlined] lead from the control to the gearbox
No [underlined] 4 [/underlined] lead from the gearbox to the motor & No 3 lead from the electrical control to the pilots indicator lamp (this lead is not used when the push switch control is used.
[page break]
No [underlined] 4 [/underlined]
Loosely coil all spare lengths of lead & lash securely so that they are free from all flying control cables.
No [underlined] 5 [/underlined]
If the amount of film in the magazine allows for wastage remove the magazine & operate the shutter to ensure that it is working correctly, turn on the timing switch of the electrical control or operate push button control & ensure that the camera is operating. If the electrical control is being used, ensure that the timing mechanism is working & that the Pilots indicator lamp is lighting.
[underlined] No 6 [/underlined]
Secure the magazine on the camera & operate by hand for 3 exposures to wind unexposed portion of film into position in the
[page break]
focal plane, watching to ensure that the film wind indicator rotates
[underlined] No 7 [/underlined]
Set the shutter tension to give the required exposure & adjust the lens aperture
[underlined] No 8 [/underlined]. Finally set the counter of the control to zero & inspect all locking bolts & cables

[underlined] Possible faults which may be remedied in the air [/underlined].
[underlined] No 1 [/underlined] No exposure made & film not wound indicated by failure of green light in control. [underlined] Possible Cause [/underlined]. Ill fitting magazine fouling the meshing lever. [underlined] Remedy. [/underlined] If there is any lateral movement in the magazine, force it well away from the gearbox.
[underlined] No 2 [/underlined]
[underlined] Camera runaway [/underlined]. Indicated by
[page break]
green light burning continuosly [sic]or film wind indicator turning continuosly. [underlined] Possible Cause [/underlined]. push button in control jammed or a sticky solenoid.
[underlined] Remedy [/underlined] remove push button cover & release the button.
[underlined] Remedy [/underlined] remove gearbox cover disconnect number 2 lead then operate the solenoid armature.
[underlined] No 3. [/underlined] Motor failing to operate camera indicated by green light burning continually, but no movement of the film wind indicator. [underlined] Possible cause [/underlined] gap wheel not rotating sufficiently to engage with the driving pinion but contact plate just touching motor & set contact.
[underlined] Remedy [/underlined]. Remove gearbox cover & turn the gap wheel by hand, this will sometimes free the wheel of
[page break]
a possible obstruction.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined] A number of faults may occur merely because a lead is not properly home in its socket.
[underlined] Remedy [/underlined]. Check all leads.

[underlined] Mosaic Calculations [/underlined]

The 60% forward overlap is necessary in other than 2 views of each piece of country may be obtained, the photos may then be used in a stereoscope.
The lateral overlap should be 30% so as to ensure that all strips do all overlap over their whole length.
[sketch] W = Width of film in inches
F = Focal length of lens in inches
H = Ht in feet.
L = Ground covered in feet.
[page break]
[deleted] WL [/deleted] The letters W.L.F.H. placed in that order may be remembered by the phrase “Whilst looking for flight”. bracket the two outer letters together & the 2 inner, the letter bracketed with the unknown quantity is always used as the denominator. Thus
By the above equations any one unknown quantity may be found if the other 3 be known.
To determine the time interval in Seconds required between exposures to obtain a 60% overlap. Taking “L” as being the ground covered by each photograph less the overlap then “T.I.” equals
[calculation] W equals effective width of photo in inches (2 inches) H = HT in feet V = Ground speed in ft per sec. F = Focal length of lens in [underlined] ins [/underlined]
[page break]
The scale of a photograph is
eg. To make a mosaic of an area 4 miles x 2 miles H = 5,000 ft. W = 5 ins. V = 90 mph. to bring mph to [underlined] fps [/underlined] multiply by 22/15 or 3/2 approx. F = 6 ins.

(1). Now to find the amount of ground covered by effective width of film laterally the formulae is [calculations]
Now to find the amount of ground covered by effective width of film with fore & aft overlap the formula is [calculation]
In this case W = 40% of 5 hr
[page break]
Note in all mosaic formula the symbol W must always be assumed to be either 2 inches or 3.5
(2). To find the number of film exposures per run [deleted] d [/deleted] divide the length of the run by the amount of ground covered by one exposure less 60% fore & aft overlap.
(3) To find the number of runs divide the width of the area of the amount of ground covered by the film laterally, allowing for 30% overlap.
[page break]
(4). To find the length of film required use either 25, 50 or 125 exposure length film
125 [deleted] len [/deleted] exposure length film required.
(5). To find the required time interval
Formula is
[calculations] [underlined] 132fps. [/underlined]
[calculations] [underlined] 12.8 secs [/underlined]

(6). [underlined] Scale [/underlined]
Formula is [calculation]
Scale = 1/10,000.

(7). [underlined] Find the height when scale & focal length [/underlined] are known
[page break]
Formula is [calculations] = 5,000ft
(8). To find the focal length of lens used when scale & height are known.
Formula is
[calculations] = 6 inches.
[page break]
[underlined] Methods of flying for Photography. [/underlined]

Flying for mosaics over enemy occupied territory.
Camera level Fore & Aft & Laterally, Drift Set & T.I. calculated.
[page break]
[underlined] Cycle of Operation [/underlined]
[underlined] F504 Night Camera [/underlined].

The A/c height is ascertained & the pointer set on the type 35 control. The requisite [indecipherable word] setting is read off on the dial, the flash is then [indecipherable word] & the electromagnetic release set & the flash loaded into the chute, the flash selector switch adjacent to the bomb panel is moved into the camera control position at the same time that the bombs are selected. all this is completed some time before the bombing, thereafter all the operations are automatic, the control is started on release of the bombs & at the preset [sic] interval the flash is launched the film commences to wind over & the shutter is re-set 5 1/2 secs before the flash explosion is due. The pilots indicator flashes
[page break]
on to warn the pilot, simultaneously 5 1/2 secs after the flash the camera is again operated to wind over the exposed film, the pilots indicator again flashes to warn the pilot that the cycle is complete, the flash selector switch should be returned to the off position as soon as photography is completed.
[page break]
[page break]
[page break]
[page break]
[page break]
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
M.D. Wind Finding.
1st nav on Ops. flt. will find 3 drift Wind using 4 minute legs S/C KIRKWOOD while still in bomb hatch. Immediately take a drift & A/C to maintain [inserted] parallel [/inserted] track if necessary. Arriving at Kirk MD at 3 min legs
2nd O2 compass PPox ETA. Treg 13 Winds.
[indecipherable word] from Alicedale to Alexandria – Colchester Bridge.
[page break]
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. A vertical mosaic is to be made of an area 10 miles by 1 1/2 miles to a scale of 1/6000 the G/S 100mph. Using F24 with usual lenses state
[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. Four different combinations of lense [sic] & ht.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. Number of runs.
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. Number of exposures per run.
[underlined] 4 [/underlined]. Time interval.
[underlined] 5 [/underlined]. How many magazines required & no of exposures in each & allocation of magazines to runs.

(3) An area 72,000ft by 12,000ft is to be photographed as a mosaic from 8,000ft using an F24 camera assuming a G/S of 124mph. State
[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. Number of runs required, No of exposures per run. [underlined] 3 [/underlined]. Time to photograph each run. [underlined] 4 [/underlined]. Time for actual photography, make no allowance for turns & approaches
[underlined] 5 [/underlined]. Scale of finished mosaic.
[page break]
[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. An area which measures 9”x6” on the map.
[underlined] the R.F. [/underlined] 1/84,480 is to photographed at a scale of 1/18,000, using an F24 camera with usual lenses available state
[underlined] 1 [/underlined]. Four different combination of lense & height to produce this scale
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. Number of runs required
[underlined] 3 [/underlined]. No of exposures per run [symbol]
[underlined] 4 [/underlined]. No of magazines required
[deleted] [underlined] 5 [/underlined][/deleted] Exposures to be loaded in each & allocation of magazines to runs
[underlined] 5 [/underlined]. On the finished mosaic the distance between two towns in 14.8ins what would be the distance between these two towns on a map to a scale of 1/63,360.
[inserted] calculations [/inserted]
[page break]
[page break]
[page break]
[page break]
125 exposures in 1 magazine.
176 exposures required
[symbol] [underlined] 2 magazines [/underlined][symbol]

88 exposures in each mag + [underlined] 8 for duff [/underlined]
1 to every four runs

18,000 to 14.3
63,360 to ?
[page break]
[blank page]
[page break]
A stretch of country 43 miles long is to be photographed as a line overlap, owing to a camera fault you have only 50 good exposures to do the task, Focal length of Lens 5” Ground speed 120mph.
State [underlined] 1 [/underlined]. Height at which to fly (to the nearest 1,000 ft) to obtain the largest possible scale whilst covering the 43 miles with these 50 exposures.
[underlined] 2 [/underlined]. Time interval between exposures
[underlined] 3 [/underlined] scale of the resultant photographs
[page break]
[blank back cover]



Ted Neale, “Ted Neale's Photography Notes,” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed October 3, 2022, https://ibccdigitalarchive.lincoln.ac.uk/omeka/collections/document/16365.

Item Relations

This item has no relations.