Forced labour [concept]


Forced labour [concept]
Slave labour


Forced labour was widespread in Nazi Germany and throughout occupied Europe. The term comprehends a wide range of situations ranging from less-privileged workers with no minimum standards of their treatment mandated, to enslaved labourers exploited with utter brutality. Working conditions also varied widely according to their country of origin, period, and specific workplace but were generally harsh. The concept of forced labour partially overlaps with the Holocaust (some concentration camps provided workforce for civilian businesses) and with the category of Italian military internees, the latter being subjected to hard labour. Since most forced labourers were denied the use of public shelters, they were frequently exposed to bombing and strafing. The Organisation Todt, a civil and military engineering group, also used extensively forced labour in a wide array of projects including underground shelters and constructing emplacements for anti-aircraft guns.


IBCC Digital Archive


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“Forced labour [concept],” IBCC Digital Archive, accessed March 20, 2019,

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